Anglų gramatika

TENSES

INDEFINITE

Present Indefinite – veiksmas, priskiriamas esamajam laikui, bet paprastai
nevykstantis kalbos momentu.

|Teigiamoji forma|Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |Pabrėžtinė |
| | | |teigiamoji forma |
|I ask |We ask |I do not |We do not |Do I |Do we |I do ask |We do |
|You ask|You ask|(don’t) ask |(don’t) ask |ask? |ask? |You do ask|ask |
|He |They |You do not |You do not |Do you |Do you |He (she) |You do |
|(she, |ask |(don’t) ask |(don’t) ask |ask? |ask? |does ask |ask |
|it) | |He (she, it) |They do no ot |Does he |Do they | |They do |
|asks | |does not |(don’t) ask |(she, |ask? | |ask |
| | |(doesn’t) ask | |it) ask?| | | |

Vartojamas:
Reikšti įprastiems, pasikartojantiems ar nuolat vykstantiems veiksmams
dabartyje (always, often, usually, regularly, daily, every day, never,
seldom, rarely, sometimes):

Nick always helps his comrades in their studies.

What time do you get up?

We seldom meet.

We have our dinner at 5 o’clock
reikšti bendriems teiginiams, nesiejant jų su laiku:

Rockets fly faster thab airplanes.

The earth goes round the sun in 24 hours.
Reikšti veiksmams arba savybėms, būdingiems veiksniui nuolat arba
dabartiniu laikotarpiu:

Tom sp peaks English well.

His sister Mary plays the piano and sings.

I’m a schoolgirl.

Where do you live?

Jane’s mother works on a dairy farm.

My little brother already goes to school.
Reikšti veiksmams (arba būsenoms), vykstantiems kalbos momentu, jeigu jie
reiškiami veiksmažodžiais, kurie nevartojami eigos laikais (w

want, like,
belong, know, suppose, need, love, see, realise, mean, prefer, hate, hear,
believe, understand, remember, forget, seem, sound, appear, smell, taste,
wish, own, think (when the meaning is “believe”), have (when it is used for
actions or the meaning is “possess”):

What do you want?

I don’t quite understand you.
Reikšti būsimiems (numatomiems) veiksmams arba būsenoms šalutiniuose laiko
ir sąlygos aplinkybių sakiniuose po jungtukų if, unless, till, until, when,
as soon as, before (atitinkamuose lietuviškuose sakiniuose vartojamas
būsimasis laikas):

I’ll wait till you finish your breakfast.

What shall we do if it rains tomorrow?

Come and see me when you are passing my way.

Come next week unless you are very busy.

Let’s wait until the rain stops.

I’ll join you as soon as I can.
Pastaba.Šalutiniuose papildinio sakiniuose po jungtukų if, when vartojamas
Future Indefinite Tense:

Ask hi im ih he will go with us.

I don’t know when he will return.
Reikšti iš anksto numatytiems veiksmams, kurie įvyks artimiausioje ateityje
(daugiausia su veiksmažodžiais to leave, to start, to come, to return, to
come back, to go, to arrive):

We leave next Saturday.

The train starts at 3.45 a. m

Past Indefinite – veiksmas (būsena), vykęs kuriuo nors laikotarpiu
praeityje ir nesusijęs su kalbos momentu.
|Teigiamoji forma|Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |Pabrėžtinė |
| | | |teigiamoji forma |
|I asked|We |I did not |We didn’t ask |Did I |Did we |I did |We did |

|
|You |asked |(didn’t) ask |You didn’t ask|ask? |ask? |ask |ask |
|asked |You |You did not |They did not |Did you |Did you |You did |You did |
|He |asked |(didn’t) ask |(didn’t) ask |ask? |ask? |ask |ask |
|(she, |They |He (she, it) did| |Did he |Did they|He (she)|They did|
|it) |asked |not (didn’t) ask| |(she, |ask? |did ask |ask |
|asked | | | |it) ask?| | | |

Vartojamas:
Reikšti atskiriems faktams (veiksmams, būsenoms), įvykusiems praeityje ir
nesusijusiems su dabartimi (kartais patikslinama aplinkybiniais žodžiais
yesterday, last night, last week, last month, last year, last summer, the
other day, in 1945, five minutes ago, būtojo laiko rodikliu gali būti
klausiamieji įvardžiai how ir when):

I bought this book in London.

I knocked at the door, but no one answered.

How did you sleep? – I slept like a baby.

I’m sorry I was out when you called.

Where were you yesterday?

The great Russian poet Pushkin was bors in 1799.

When did you begin to study English?

How did it happen?
Reikšti kartotiniams arba įprastiems veiksmams, vykusiems praeityje ir
nesusijusiems su dabartimi:

Last summer I often played chess.

When he was ill we went to see him every other day.
Pastaba. Reikšti kartotiniams veiksmams, vykusiems praeityje, vartojama
taip pat konstrukcija used + infinityvas:

We used to see each other very often when I lived in Kaunas.

Taip pat reikšti įprastiniam arba tęstiniam veiksmui ar
r būsenai
praeityje (paprastai tolimoje):

I used to know her very well when she was still in her teens.
Reikšti veiksmams ar savybėms, kurios buvo būdingos veiksniui praeityje:

Jack played chess very well when he was a small boy.
Netiesioginės kalbos šalutiniuose papildinio sakiniuose, kai pagrindinio
sakinio veiksmažodis vartojamas Past Indefinite laiku:

He said he lived in Parko street.

Future Indefinite – vienkartiniai, kartotini ar pastovūs veiksmai
(būsenos), vyksiantys ateityje.
|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I shall/will |We will |I shall/will not |We shall/will |Shall I |Shall we |
|(I’ll) ask |(we’ll) ask |(shan’t/won’t) ask |not |ask? |ask? |
|You will |You will |You will not (won’t) |(shan’t/won’t) |Will you |Will you |
|(you’ll) ask |(you’ll) ask |ask |ask |ask? |ask? |
|He (she, it) |They’ll ask |He (she, it) will not|You will not |Will he |Will they |
|will ask | |(won’t) ask |(won’t) ask |(she, it) |ask? |
| | | |They will not |ask? | |
| | | |(won’t) ask | | |

Vartojamas:
Vienkartiniai veiksmai, būsenos:

What will you do after the lessons?

Will you wait for me? I sahn’t be long.

I’ll do my best to help you.

So, you’ll ring me up at five, will you?

Pastovūs ir kartotiniai veiksmai (būsenos):

I’ll write to you every week.
Pastabos. 1. Klausiamojoje vienaskaitos 1-ojo asmens formoje veiksmažodis
shall paprastai turi modalinę reikšmę; klausiantysi teiraujasis, ko
pašnekovas nori:

Shall I go on reading?

Shall I translate the se

entences into Lithuania?

2. Veiksmažodis will dažnai turi modalinį pažado,
ketinimo, mandagaus prašymo atspalvį:

If you’ll wait a moment, I’ll be back in a minute.

I won’t forget what you’ve done for me.
Šnekamojoje kalboje numatomiems būsimiems veiksmams reikšti vartojamos šios
konstrukcijos:

To be going + infinityvas reikšti ketinimui (kalbant apie asmenis)

arba galimybei (kalbant apie įvykius):

I’m going to write a letter to my mother.

The task is going to be more difficult than I expected.

To be sure (certain) + infinityvas reikšti įsitikinimui, kad būsimasis

veiksmas įvyks:

Ann is sure to be there.

It’s certain to rain.

Future Indefinite in the Past – veiksmas ar būsena, vykstantis,
tebesitęsiantis kalbos momentu arba esamuoju laikotarpiu.
|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I should/would |We would |I shouldn’t ask |We shouldn’t |Should/would I |Should we |
|ask |ask |You wouldn’t ask |ask |ask? |ask? |
|You would ask |You would |He (she, it) |You wouldn’t |Would you ask? |Would you |
|He (she, it) |ask |wouldn’t ask |ask |Would he (she, |ask? |
|would ask |They would | |They wouldn’t|it) ask? |Would they |
| |ask | |ask | |ask? |

Vartojamas:
Pasakojimuose apie praeities įvykius, kai netiesiogine kalba esti
atpasakojami kokio nors asmens žodžiai arba mintys, susiję su ateitimi:

He told me he would never repeat the same mistake.

I was sure she’d be late as usual.

Continuous

Present continuous – veiksmas (būsena), vykstantis, tebesitęsiantis kalbos
momentu arba esamuoju laikotarpiu.
|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I am (I’m) |We are (we’re) |I am not asking |We are not |Am I |Are we |
|asking |asking |You are not |asking |asking? |asking? |
|You are (you’re)|You are asking |(aren’t) asking |You aren’t |Are you |Are you |
|asking |They are |He (she, it) is |asking |asking? |asking? |
|He (she, it) is |(they’re) |not (isn’t) |They are not|Is he (she,|Are they |
|(he’s) asking |asking |asking |asking |it) asking?|asking? |

Vartojamas:
Reikšti veiksmui, vykstančiam kalbos momentu:

What are you doing now?

Don’t you see I’m writing a lettrer?
Reikšti veiksmui (būsenai), vykstančiam esamuoju laikotarpiu, bet nebūtinai
kalbos momentu:

Where are you staying now?

I hope you are enjoying your vacation?

I’m reading an intresting book.

They are building a lot of new buildings in our district.
Šnekamojoje kalboje atskiriems artimiausiai ateičiai numatytiems veiksmams
reikšti (ypač su veiksmažodžiais to come, to leave, to stay, to call ir
išsireiškimais to have guests, to give a party ir pan.):

When are you coming to see us?

She is giving a birthday party tomorrow.

We are going to the cinema this afternoon.

He’s calling on me tonight.
Nuolatiniam įpročiui arba polinkiui reikšti (su prieveiksmiais always,
constantly, all the time) ir reiškia nepritarimą, nekantrumą:

You’re always coming late!

He’s constantly getting into trouble.

Veiksmažodžio to go Present Continuous junginys su kito veiksmažodžio
infinityvu vartojamas reikšti ketinimui atlikti veiksmą artimiausioje
ateityje:

I’m going to present my old toys to my little brother.
Past Continuous
|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I was asking|We were |I was not (wasn’t) |We were not |Was I asking?|Were we |
|You were |asking |asking |asking |Were you |asking? |
|asking |You were |You were not |You were not |asking? |Were you |
|He (she, it)|asking |(weren’t) asking |asking |Was he (she, |asking? |
|was asking |They were |He (she, it) was not|They were not |it) asking? |Were they |
| |asking |(wasn’t) asking |(weren’t) | |asking? |
| | | |asking | | |

Vartojamas:

veiksmui, vykusiam kuriuo nors praeities momentu arba laikotarpiu
reikšti. Veiksmo laikas paprastai nurodomas aplinkybiniais žodžiais arba
šalutiniais sakiniais:

It was snowing all day yesterday.

What were you doing when I rang you up yesterday?
I wasn’t expecting you quite so early.
The light went out while we were having supper.

Future Continuous

|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I |We |I shall/will not |We shall/will |Shall/will I |Shall/will |
|shall/will|shall/will |(shan’t/won’t) (I’ll|not |be asking? |we be |
|be asking |be asking |not) be asking |(shan’t/won’t) |Will you be |asking? |
|You will |You will be|You will not (won’t)|be asking |asking? |Will you be |
|be asking |asking |be asking |You will not |Will he (she,|asking? |
|He (she, |They will |He (she, it) will |(won’t) be |it) be |Will they |
|it) will |be asking |not (won’t) be |asking |asking? |be asking? |
|be asking | |asking |They will not | | |
| | | |(won’t) be | | |
| | | |asking | | |

Vartojamas:

Veiksmui, vyksiančiam kuriuo nors ateities momentu arba laikotarpiu
išreikšti. Veiksmo laiką gali nurodyti aplinkybiniai žodžiai arba
kontekstas. Iškyrus kai kuriuos nusitovėjusius išsireiškimus su
veiksmažodžiais to expect, to stay, to see ir kt., šis laikas vartojamas
labai retai:

I’ll be expecting you at 4 o’clock sharp.

When my train arrives, my parents will be waiting on the platform.

It’s no use trying to see our teacher at 10. He will be giving a
lesson at that time.

Šnekamojoje kalboje Future Continuous kartais vartojamas Future
Indefinite reikšme:

Will you be staying for dinner?

I’ll be seeing him this afternoon.

Future Continuous in the Past

|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I |We |I should/would |We should/would |Should/would |Should/would|
|should/would |should/would|not be asking |not be asking |I be asking? |we be |
|be asking |be asking |You would not be |You would not be|Would you be |asking? |
|You would be |You would be|asking |asking |asking? |Would you be|
|asking |asking |He (she, it) |They would not |Would he |asking? |
|He (she, it) |They would |would not be |be asking |(she, it) be |Would they |
|would be |be asking |asking | |asking? |be asking? |
|asking | | | | | |

Vartojimas:

I didn’t call on you yesterday evening because I thought you’d be
working at your composition.

Don’t trouble him now! He said he’d be writing an article all day
long.

PERFECT

Present perfect – parodo veiksmo, kuris įvyko praeityje ryšį su dabartimi,
t. y. kalbos momentu. Šis ryšys paprastai pasireiškia tuo, kad būtasis
veiksmas turi kokį nors reziltatą dabartyje.

|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I have (I’ve)|We have (we’ve)|I have not |We have not |Have I |Have we |
|asked |asked |(haven’t/I’ve not) |asked |asked |asked? |
|You have |You have |asked |You have not |Have you|Have you |
|(you’ve) |(you’ve) asked |You have not |sked |asked? |asked? |
|asked |They have |(haven’t/you’ve not) |They have not|Has he |Have they |
|He (she, it) |(they’ve) asked|asked |asked |(she, |asked? |
|has (he’s) | |He (she, it) has not | |it) | |
|asked. | |(hasn’t/he’s not) asked| |asked? | |

Vartojamas:
Sakinuose, kuriuose nėra laiko aplinkybių:

Has the bell gone?

What mark have you got for dictation?

I’m glad you’ve dropped in.

I’ve heard so much about it.

You haven’t changed at all.

Look, what nice flowers Kate has brought.
Sakiniuose su neapibrėžto laiko ar kartotinumo prieveiksmiais ar
aplinkybinėmis frazėmis already, ever, never, yet, often, always, seldom,
rarely, several times ir pan.:

Have you ever been to London?

We’ll have to wait for Tom, he hasn’t yet finished his task.

You’ve always been lazy, Nick. Now it’s time for you to get down to

work in earnest.

I’ve never seen such a wonderful film.
Sakiniuose su apibrėžto laiko aplinkibiniais žodžiais ir prieveiksmiais
tais atvejais, kai nurodytasis laikotarpis dar nėra pasibaigęs kalbos
momentu: today, this morning, this week, all day, just:

I’ve worked hard all day today.

I haven’t seen her today.
Sakiniuose su laiko aplinkybėmis, nurodančiomis laikotarpį, kuriuo vyko ar
galėjo vykti veiksmas, pradedant kokiu nors praeities momentu ir iki pat
esamojo momento: lately, for a long time, how long, so far, up to now, up
to the present, for the past two hours (days, months, years), for three
hours (days, months, years) ir kt., arba su aplinkybėmis, nurodančiomis
tiktai tokio laikotarpio pradžią (paprastai su jungtuku since):

Have you been to the theatre lately?

I haven’t seen you for ages.

We haven’t met since January, have we?

So much has happened since I saw you last.

Where have you been all this time?

Ypatingą funkciją Present Perfect atlieka šalutiniuose laiko ir

sąlygos aplinkybių sakiniuose po jungtukų if, when, till, untill,

unless, as soon as, after, before. Čia Present Perfect reiškia

veiksmą, kuris baigsis tam tikru ateities momentu (turi Future Perfect

reikšmę):

You’ll think otherwise after (when) you’ve seen the film yourself.

You mustn’t leave before you’ve put everything in order.

Past Perfect

|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I had asked |We had |I had not asked |We had not |Had I asked |Had we |
|You had asked |asked |You had not |asked |Had you asked? |asked? |
|He (she, it) |You had |asked |You had not |Had he (she, |Had you |
|had asked |asked |He (she, it) had|asked |it) asked? |asked? |
| |They had |not asked |They had not | |Had they |
| |asked | |asked | |asked? |

Vartojimas:

Veiksmas, kuris įvyko ir baigėsi prieš kitą būtąjį veiksmą arba prieš
kurį nors praeities momentą ar laikotarpį:

Yesterday he told me that he had seen Mike a week before.

He thanked me for what I have done for him.

He did as you had told him.

Jane told her friends that she had decided to become an actress.

Jane had scarcely put her head on the pillow when she fell asleep.

By noon the young tourists had climbed the mountain.

By twelve o’clock yesterday I had finished all my work.

Future Perfect

|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I shall/will |We shall/will|I shall not |We shall/will |Shall I have|Shall we have |
|have asked |have asked |have asked |not have asked |asked |asked? |
|You will have |You will have|You will not |You will not |Will you |Will you have |
|asked |asked |have asked |have asked |have asked? |asked? |
|He (she, it) |They’ll have |He (she, it) |They will not |Will he |Will they have|
|will have |asked |will not have |have asked |(she, it) |asked? |
|asked. | |asked | |have asked? | |

Vartojamas:
Reikšti veiksmui, kuris iki tam tikro momento arba veiksmo ateityje jau bus
atliktas, pasibaigęs:

By the end of the term we shall have read two English books.

Come tomorrow evening; by that time I’ll have finished my work.

Future Perfect in the Past
|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I should/would|We |I should/would|We should/would |Should/would|Should/would |
|have asked |should/would |not have asked|not have asked |I have asked|we have asked?|
|You would have|have asked |You would not |You would not |Would you |Would you have|
|asked |You would |have asked |have asked |have asked? |asked? |
|He (she, it) |have asked |He (she, it) |They would not |Would he |Would they |
|would have |They would |would not have|have asked |(she, it) |have asked? |
|asked. |have asked |asked | |have asked? | |

Vartojamas:
Tais pačiais atvejais kaip ir Future Perfect, bet tik netiesioginėje
kalboje, po veiksmažodžių say, think, tell, write, pavartotų būtuoju laiku:

He said he would have done his task by two o’clock.

PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Present Perfect Continuous

|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I have been |We have been|I have not been|We have not been|Have I been |Have we been |
|asking |asking |asking |asking |asking? |asking? |
|You have been |You have |You have not |You have not |Have you |Have you been |
|asking |been asking |been asking |been asking |been asking?|asking? |
|He (she, it) |They have |He (she, it) |They have not |Have he |Have they been|
|has been |been asking |has not been |been asking |(she, it) |asking? |
|asking | |asking | |been asking?| |

Vartojamas:
Veiksmui, būsenai, kuri rasidėjo praeityje ir tęsėsi tam tikrą laikotarpį
iki kalbos momento ir (arba) vis dar tebesitęsia kalbos momentu, arba
pasibaigė prieš pat jį:

I’ve been waiting for him (for) two hours.
Sakiniuose su Present Perfect Continuous paprastai vartojamos laiko
palinkybės, nurodančios veiksmažodžio reiškiamo laiko ar būsenos trukmę
arba pradžios momentą (for two hours (aweek, three months, ten years), for
a long time, all day, all day long, how long; since
1950, since 8 o’clock, since I came here):

How long have you been studying English?

I’m tired, I’ve been working in the garden all day long.

I’ve been living in London since 1985.

It’s been raining since early morning.

What have you been doing since I saw you last?
Present Perfect Continuous gali būti vartojamas ir nenurodant veiksmo
trukmės, jeigu iš konteksto aišku, kad veiksmas prasidėjo praeityje ir
tęsėsi (tęsiasi) iki dabar:

Please, excuse my dirty clothes, I’ve been tidying the room.
Veiksmažodžių, kurie neturi Continuous formų, Present Perfect Continuous
reikšme vartojamos Present Perfect formos:

How long have you been here?

I’ve known Jack for five years.

Past Perfect Continuous

|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I had been |We had been |I had not been|We had not been |Had I been |Had we been |
|asking |asking |asking |asking |asking? |asking? |
|You had been |You had been |You had not |You had not been|Had you been |Had you been |
|asking |asking |been asking |asking |asking? |asking? |
|He (she, it) |They had been|He (she, it) |They had not |Had he (she, |Had they been |
|had been |asking |had not been |been asking |it) been |asking? |
|asking | |asking | |asking? | |

Vartojamas:
Eigos veiksmui, kuris prasidėjo prieš kurį nors praeities momentą ir tęsėsi
ligi pat to momento, reikšti:

I was very tired when I went to bed for I had been working hard all
day.

The news didn’t surprise me for I’d been expecting it for some time
past.

Future Perfect Continuous

|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I shall/will |We shall/will|I shall/will |We shall/will |Shall/will I |Shall/will we |
|have been |have been |have not been |have not been |have been |have been |
|asking |asking |asking |asking |asking? |asking? |
|You will have|You will have|You will |You will not |Will you have|Will you have |
|been asking |been asking |nothave been |have been asking|been asking? |been asking? |
|He (she, it) |They will |asking |They will not |Will he (she,|Will they have|
|will have |have been |He (she, it) |have been asking|it) have been|been asking? |
|been asking |asking |will not have | |asking? | |
| | |been asking | | | |

Vartojamas:
Reikšti besitęsiančiam būsimajam veiksmui, kuris prasidės prieš kurį nors
ateities momentą arba laikotarpį ir tęsis ligi pat to momento
(laikotarpio):

By next year we shall have been living in this town for five years.

When Ann gets her diploma she will have been studying at the
University for five years.

Future in the Past Perfect Continuous

|Teigiamoji forma |Neigiamoji forma |Klausiamoji forma |
|I |We |I should/would|We should/would |Should/would |Should/would |
|should/would |should/would |have not been |have not been |I have been |we have been |
|have been |have been |asking |asking |asking? |asking? |
|asking |asking |You would |You would not |Would you |Would you have|
|You would |You would |nothave been |have been asking|have been |been asking? |
|have been |have been |asking |They would not |asking? |Would they |
|asking |asking |He (she, it) |have been asking|Would he |have been |
|He (she, it) |They would |would not have| |(she, it) |asking? |
|would have |have been |been asking | |have been | |
|been asking |asking | | |asking? | |

Vartojamas:
Netiesioginėje kalboje vietoj future Perfect Continuous, kai pagrindinio
sakinio veiksmažodis-tarinys esti išreikštas būtuoju laiku:

He said that by next April his father would have been working at the
factory for ten years.

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