Lithuanian and Portuguese Teaching Systems and Basic teaching Methods

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Lithuanian and Portuguese Teaching Systems and Basic teaching Methods

Introduction

Historically, education has been both parent and child. Children are very special people. They are different from the adults who control and describe the world, as we know it. Perhaps it is because children are necessary for the survival of our species. Children have the fundamental right to life, the same as to the education.

The national education system as a universal and public institution first emerged in post – revolutionary Europe ass and instrument of state formation. It provided a powerful vehicle for the construction and integration of the new nation state and became one of its chief institutional supports. Since then few nations have embarked on independent statehood without recourse to its ideological potential; even the older states at least in periods of war and crisis, have continued to view education as a valuable source of national cohesion and a key tool for economic development. However, the role of the naational education system has changed, particularly in the older advanced nation states, and governments can not manage education in the old ways. The original function of education systems was to cultivate social integration and cohesion, forging new notions of national ci

itizenship and identity.

Our work is to compare the education system in Portugal and Lithuania and discus about the main teaching methods at school witch are similar in all the Europe, but used in different ways.

Firstly we presented the countries we are analysing: Lithuania and Portugal; because it is important to know the economy level, the demographic position and the local aria. After words we are presenting the system of education of both countries: primary school, basic school, secondary school, higher education and university. And the biggest part of our work takes the presentation of teaching methods in Lithuania witch are similar to European teaching methods.

Before presentation of teaching methods we are introducing the main teaching principles and the most famous peedagogues who were interested in process of teaching, problems of teaching methods; education reform in Lithuania, democratic and humanistic principles; effective aiming of teaching methods and etc.

Lithuania

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania

conventional short form: Lithuania

local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

local short form: Lietuva

Government type : parliamentary democracy

Capital: Vilnius

Country location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Area: total area: 65,300 km2

land area: 65,300 km2

comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Population : 3,601,138 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure : 0-14 years: 18

8.2% (male 333,966; female 319,992)

15-64 years: 68% (male 1,184,969; female 1,265,711)

65 years and over: 13.8% (male 167,789; female 328,711) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.25% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 10.22 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 12.87 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Portugal

Country name:

conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Lisbon

Country location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Area:

total: 92,391 sq km

land: 91,951 sq km

water: 440 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Coastline : 1,793 km

Population : 10,084,245 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure : 0-14 years: 16.9% (male 875,485; female 827,670)

15-64 years: 67.3% (male 3,324,215; female 3,463,301)

65 years and over: 15.8% (male 644,761; female 948,813) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.18% (2010.21 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Birth rate : 10.29 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 10.21 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Education system in Lithuania

Education population and language of instruction

In the beginning of 2000, the number of people aged 29 or under was 1 542 284 (41.7 % of the population). The number of children of compulsory school age was 511 984. The official language of instruction is Lithuanian.

Pre-primary education

Pre-school education is considered to be the first level of the school system. It caters for children from 18 months to 6 or 7 years of age. These schools (lopselis, lopselis-darzelis, darzelis-mokykla) fall under the authority of local governments. The fees parents have to pay are established by the founder.

Compulsory full-time education:

Phases:

Pradine mokyla (primary)- 6/7-9/10 years of age;

Pagrindine mokyla (general lower secondary)-9/10-16/17 years of age;

Gimnazija (general lo

ower secondary)- 14/15-16/17 years of age;

Profesine mokykla (vocational lower secondary)- 14-16/17 years of age;

Jaunimo mokykla (general lower secondary)- 11/12-22 years of age;

Internatine mokykla (general lower secondary)- 9/10-16/17 years of age

According to law, children can start compulsory education at the age of 6. It ends when they reach the

age of 16.

Admissions criteria

Public-sector primary and lower secondary schools are free. Parents can enrol their children in the school of their choice.

Length of the school day/week/year

The school year of forms 1 to 5 (primary education and the start of lower secondary education) comprises a minimum of 170 days of teaching, whereas the school year in the remainder of lower secondary education comprises a minimum of 195 days of teaching. The subjects (22 lessons lasting 35 minutes at the start of primary school, and 27 lessons lasting 45 minutes at the start of lower secondary school) are spread over five days a week in primary education and the start of lower secondary education, and over five, six or five-and-six days (mixed version) a week (subject to the school council’s decision) in the remainder of lower secondary education. The minimum annual number of hours of teaching is 436.3 for primary education and 688.5 for lower secondary education.

Class size/student grouping

The law defines the maximum number of pupils per class as 24 in pr

rimary education and 30 in lower secondary education. Classes are mixed and made up of pupils of the same age. In primary schools, classes are taught by one single teacher (if available, a specialist teacher may teach any one of the subjects, most often religion, foreign languages, physical education, art or music). At lower secondary level, each subject is taught by a specialist teacher.

Curricular control and content

In primary schools, all subjects are compulsory (as defined in the Minister’s Order) and are the same for all pupils (except for morals education – parents may choose whether their children receive religious instruction relevant to a given denomination, or lessons in ethics). From 2000/2001, with the implementation of strengthened subject provision, offered are: early foreign language teaching, purposive artistic education, and depended/extended teaching of some other subjects. Provision of

other subjects is offered at the general level. Teachers are free to use the teaching methods and textbooks of their choice from a list approved by the Ministry of Education and Science. In lower secondary schools, compulsory subjects (17) are studied by all pupils, but may be allocated a variable number of lessons. Instruction is normally offered at one, general level. At the decision of each school, students can be offered a more intensive programme on foreign languages, fine arts,

music and physical education.

Assessment, progression and qualifications

Pupils are continuously assessed by their teachers, and the results of the assessment are always communicated to the parents. Pupils in difficulty can be made to repeat a year. At the end of primary school, pupils automatically move on to the next level without a final examination. After transition to the six-year basic school, a final examination is being organized in each establishment at the end of the 10th year (the final year of compulsory education from 1999/2000). The examinations set by the Ministry of Education and Science are compulsory for all pupils. The leaving certificate awarded at the end of compulsory education grants pupils access to upper secondary education.

Upper secondary and post-secondary education

Types of education:

Gimnazija (general upper secondary)- 16/17-18/19 years;

Vidurine mokyla (general upper secondary)- 16/17-18/19 years;

Profesine mokyla (vocational upper secondary)- 16/17-19/20 years;

Profesine mokyla (vocational post-secondary) – 18/19-20/21 years;

Aukstesnioji mokykla (vocational post-secondary)- 18/19-21,5/22,5 years;

Admissions criteria

The leaving certificate awarded at the end of compulsory education is required by general and vocational upper secondary schools. Pupils can apply for admission to the school of their choice. Admission to post-secondary vocational schools (Profesine mokykla) and colleges (Aukstesnioji mokykla) is based on the upper secondary leaving certificate.

Curricular control and content

The curricula of the gimnazija and vidurine mokykla are defined at national level. In general education schools, the compulsory subjects are the same for all pupils. With the introduction in 2000/2001 disciplinary streams at upper secondary level, the number of hours of teaching per subject depends on the stream and level of instruction (which is chosen by the pupil and may be basic

B- bendrasis (general),

I- isplestinis (extended),

T- tikslinis (target)).

The vocational schools and colleges set their own curricula based on directives drawn up by the Ministry of Education and Science. The number of hours per compulsory general subject in a four-year vocational school course depends on the number of hours laid down in the curriculum for general education schools. Teachers are free to choose their teaching methods and textbooks (from a list approved by the Ministry in the case of general education subjects).

Assessment, progression and qualifications

The arrangements for the assessment of pupils are similar to those in compulsory education. At the end of upper secondary general education, the final examination set by the Ministry of Education and Science is compulsory for all pupils. The certificate awarded for passing this examination (maturity certificate- Brandos atestatas) grants the pupil access to post-secondary vocational and higher education. Vocational school courses end in a final examination (theoretical and practical) which varies in content according to the curriculum. Students can be awarded the vocational qualifying

Certificate (Kvalifikacijos pazymejimas ) or the skilled worker’s diploma ( Kvalifikuoto darbuotojo diplomas). At the end of vocational college, students are awarded the

State Diploma of College Graduation (Valstybinis aukstesniojo mokslo baigimo diplomas ). The vocational qualifying certificate, the skilled worker’s diploma and the diploma of college graduation each grant the student access to an occupation.

Higher Education

Types of institutions

Higher education comprises university-level courses offered by universities, and academies. They are provided at three academic levels (basic, specialized and doctoral).

The sector of non-university higher education was established in 2000 following the passing of the Law on Higher Education. The first non-university higher education institutions with the name of Kolegija (4 public and 3 non-state) were established on the basis of the former Aukstesniosios mokyklos (vocational colleges).

Access

The upper secondary leaving certificate (bendrojo lavinimo mokyklos brandos atestatas) is required by all higher education establishments. At non-university level education admission is based on selection on the basis of the results of upper secondary school leaving examinations. Kolegijos may lay down specific institutional admission requirements. With a view to ascertaining a student’s special abilities, higher education establishments may organise not more than two entrance examinations or tests.

Qualifications

Non-university level courses of each subject are completed by an examination or a student’s individual work (project) or a credit test with the assessment pass/fail. Each course programme is concluded by leaving examinations and/or defending of a final work (project). During the final assessment, a student is to demonstrate that he/she has acquired the knowledge, skills and abilities defined/set by the course programme. At the end of university courses, students are awarded the bachelor (Bakalauro laipsnis) or the professional qualifying diploma (as a teacher, engineer, artist, etc.). Graduates can go on to follow specialized higher education courses, or courses leading to a Master’s degree (Magistro laipsnis) lasting one and a half to two years. Students who have a Master’s degree can do a doctorate.

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN PORTUGAL

Education population and language of instruction

In 1998, the number of young people until 30 years of age accounted for 37,4 % of the population (3 729 770) and 1 140 394 pupils were of compulsory school age. The language of instruction is Portuguese.

.

Pre-primary education

Pre-primary education is optional from the ages of 3 to 5, and is provided in both state-run and private nursery schools. State-run nursery provision is free of charge; fees are payable for private nursery schools.

Compulsory full-time education

Phases:

Ensino básico (basic education):

Escolas básicas

First stage: 6- 9 years of age

Second stage:10-11 years of age

Third stage: 12-15 years of age

Education is compulsory from 6-15 years of age.

Admissions criteria

Children aged six by 15 September must be enrolled in their first school year in that calendar year. In addition, children who reach the age of 6 between 16 September and 31 December may be authorized to attend the first stage of education, provided a request is submitted by their parents or guardians to the school nearest to their residence (or place of work) during the annual enrolment period. State-run schools are free of charge.

Length of the school day/week/year

The school year comprises 180 days, usually between mid-September and the end of June. Schools open five days a week and there are 25 hours in the first stage and between 30 and 32 in the 3.º ciclo do ensino básico. In accordance with the curricular revision of 2001, for the second stage of ciclo do ensino básico the weekly number of taught hours will be 17 lasting approximately 90 minutes. Some schools operate a two-shift system. A lesson lasts approximately 50 minutes in the 3.º ciclo do ensino básico. The annual number of taught hours per year is 788 for children aged 6 and between 875 and 904 for those aged 10 or over.

Class size/student grouping

The class size set at primary level is 25. The class size for the second and third stages varies between 25 and a maximum of 28. Students are generally grouped by age. Students in the first stage are taught by the same teacher for all subjects. Thereafter, they are taught by separate teachers for each subject/area curricular.

Curricular control and content

The Ministry of Education determines the curriculum; schools can adapt its organization to local circumstances. Teaching methods are outlined in the Ministry of Education guidelines and defined at school level by a subject delegate, of whom there is one for each curricular area. The Ministry of Education is involved in the publication of compulsory course materials; other textbooks are produced commercially. Core subjects in the first stage include studies relating to the environment, Portuguese,

mathematics, and personal and social development or religious education. In the second stage, there are multidisciplinary areas which include languages and social studies, science, mathematics, artistic and technological education, physical education, personal and social development, an open curricular area determined by the school and extra-curricular activities. Core subjects in the third stage include Portuguese, a foreign language, religious education, language and social studies, personal and social development, science, history, geography, mathematics and physical education, as well as one of the following options, namely a second foreign language, musical education or technological education.

Assessment, progression and qualifications

Assessment is regulated nationally and uses formative and summative methods. Formative assessment is based on data collected by the teacher and is used to assess student needs and inform parents. In the first stage, summative assessment should not be carried out before the second year of schooling. Thereafter testing is carried out at the end of each term and stage. At the end of the third stage (last year of compulsory schooling), students must pass a test whose subjects comprise all third-stage curricular subjects (provas escritas globais). These tests are the responsibility of each school. Progression during the first stage and from the first to second stages is determined by teachers. In accordance with the curricular revision of 2001, the assessment of the 2° stage of ciclo do ensino básicois not determined by the minimum and specific number of disciplines, but by the exclusive competition of the class council. The class council determines whether the student obtains the essential competencies. During and between the second and third stages, progression is determined by student performance and decided by the class council they seat exams if they wish; poor performance in more than three subjects (particularly if two of these are Portuguese and mathematics) may result in pupils repeating the year. At the end of the third stage, all those who have demonstrated satisfactory attendance and passed the examinations are awarded a basic education certificate (Diploma de Ensino Básico); those who have attended but failed the final assessment receive a certificate confirming that they have completed compulsory education.

Upper secondary and post-secondary education

Types of education

Ensino secundário (general upper secondary education)

Escolas profissionais (vocational schools)- 15-17 years of age

Education at this level can take the form of general education (ensino secundário/cursos gerais), technological courses (cursos tecnológicos) and vocational studies in vocational schools (escolas profissionais),or art courses.

Admissions criteria

To enter ensino secundário, students must have successfully completed the nine years of

compulsory education. Students wishing to enter vocational schools (escolas profissionais)should have completed compulsory education or obtained an equivalent qualification. The number of pupils per class depends on the size of the classroom and varies between 20 and 26. All students must be 15 years of age or over. State-run secondary schools are free.

Curricular control and content

The national curriculum core subjects in general and technological education are Portuguese, a foreign language, introduction to philosophy, physical education, personal and social education or religious education. Courses are organized into four branches of study, namely scientific and natural, arts, economic and social, and humanities. Within each of these groups, separate courses are designed for both general and technological students. The modular curricula for vocational school courses that last three years, correspond to a minimum of 2900 to a maximum of 3600 hours of teaching. The main subject are socio-cultural, scientific, technical, practical training, arts, and technology.

Assessment, progression and qualifications

Formative assessment is carried out by teachers and is essentially descriptive and qualitative. Summative assessment is the responsibility of both teachers and the Ministry of Education to ensure national homogeneity at the end of school testing procedures. General written tests are taken at the end of each year of secondary education (10th, 11th and 12th). Results from these tests are used by the class council to determine progress. National final examinations are taken at the end of the three years of general education and successful students receive a diploma de estudos secundários; students completing the technological courses also receive a vocational

certificate. In vocational schools, successful students receive a diploma de estudos secundários and a vocational certificate.

Higher education

Types of institution

Higher education in Portugal includes university and polytechnic education and is provided by public, private or cooperative higher education institutions. Higher education takes place in state universities and polytechnics institution. Private and co-operative higher education is held in universities, nom integrated university colleges, polytechnic institutions and higher educations schools. Communication between university and polytechnic subsystems as well as between public and private or co- operative higher education institutions is legally guaranteed.

Access

The state defines annually the conditions for access and entry to higher education. For the year 2001/2002 the conditions for access to higher education (national competition) were as follow:

have successfully completed the 12 TH year of schooling or equivalent (national examination) ;

have sat for the national specific examinations in accordance with the higher education course the student wishes to attend;

have fulfilled the prerequisites for the higher education course the student wishes to attend, if required. Besides the national competition there are special conditions for applicants in specific situations fixed by law. Qualifications The two higher education systems, universities and polytechnics, award the degrees of bacharelato and licenciatura. Most of the licenciaturas awarded by polytechnics are organised into two cycles, the first of which corresponding to a bacharelato degree. This two-stage licenciatura is an attractive factor in polytechnic education as the attainment of a more vocational education is associated to the continuation of studies. These licenciaturas are awarded after 4 to 5 years of studies, whilst at universities they are awarded after 4 to 6 years of studies. The degree of Bacharelato is awarded, in both cases, after 3 years of studies. Postgraduate degrees (mestrado and doutoramento) are awarded exclusively by universities.

Education and Teaching methods

In almost all the countries education methods are the same, but it depends on the education system of the every country although how and where (in primary school, in basic school, in university) these methods are used.

The last ten years have certainly seen important changes in education of the independent Lithuania. However our seeking to enter the European Community made to use and adapt more democratic and flexible teaching methods witch leads to the better communication between the teacher and his students.

Social economic changes in Lithuania and global economy tendencies

(the technological progress, firstly) have produced new requirements for Lithuanian people’s professional activity. The knowledge acquired some time ago is insufficient nowadays, therefore it should be updated. The knowledge of foreign languages and computer skills, for example, are necessary today for the one seeking to get better job. Continuing education is becoming one of major factors in professional activity optimisation. Continuing education herein after understood as any form of organised learning having started to work.

Lithuania’s educational system is based upon the heritage and fortune of European culture: individual values, humanism, equality of the people, freedom of conscience, tolerance, and endowment of norms and principles pertaining to every democratic society. Educational standards laws and legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania regulate correspond to democratic standards established in international legal documents. They emphasize the due that education has to cherish interdependent understanding and tolerance of every nation and every racial or religious group without exception. Education must do everything so that persons who belong to national minorities understand culture and language of their country, and take constructive participation in the activities and daily life of the society.

Education of Lithuania is based on following principles:

1) Civic harmony, integration and solidarity;

2) Open society and sociocultural integration;

3) Priority to a person and family in their educational needs;

4) Maintenance of ethnocultural identity of the peoples of Lithuania; cultural cooperation for the sake of the cultural progress of Lithuania;

5) Adaptation to international legal principles and standards of the Council of Europe and other organizations;

6) Universal application of education;

7) Further expansion of policy on national minorities.

Nowadays it’s very important to develop self-depending, free, self-confident, active, creative person. There are lots of things, what depends on education and using teaching methods. There are a great variety of teaching methods and a lot of pedagogues in Lithuania, who wrote about it. Well- known pedagogues is: A. Juodaityte, A. Pauriene, T. Stulpinas, J. Vaitkevicius, R. Vasiliauskas, they are interested in process of teaching, problem of teaching methods, education reform in Lithuania, democratic and humanistic principles, effective aiming of teaching methods and etc. They except three groups of main teaching methods, by news source. Such sources are: zodis( word), vaizdas (view), praktine veikla (practical activity). So teaching methods are: zodiniai (verbal), vaizdiniai (visual), praktines veiklos (practical).

Main teaching methods

Saltinis (Source) Methods

Zodis (Word) Zodiniai metodai (Verbal methods):

Pamoka (lecturing);

Pokalbio (talk);

Spauzdintiniu saltiniu naudojimas; (teaching with the case);

Diskusija (discussion);

Vaizdas (View) Vaizdiniai metodai (Visual methods):

Demonstravimas (demonstrating);

Stebejimas (observation);

Ekskursija (excursion);

Praktine veikla

( Practical activity) Praktiniai metodai (Practical methods):

Pratimai rastu ir rastu (exercises in written form

and in a word form);

mokymas, naudojant technines priemones

(teaching with technical measures);

laboratoriniai (science labs).

Lecturing; Talk

Lecturing is often equated with college teaching. This is rapidly changing, however, as university instructors have begun to recognize that not all students benefit from lecture, nor is lecture the most efficient way to disseminate information. Originally the “lecturer” read to an audience because access to written material was limited, and many of the learners were illiterate. The printing process, digitalized information, and general literacy have dramatically changed the lecturer’s function.

Lecturing still has its rightful place among dozens of other teaching techniques, but the question one has to ask is, “Which technique will do most to help students learn?” Some topics lend themselves much more naturally to lecturing than others. The lecture is valid for these reasons: to provide structure and organization to scattered material; to help pace student learning; to reinforce assigned reading by providing an alternative perspective or source of information; and to use the public speaking opportunity to motivate students.

Preparing Lectures

Being in the same room with someone saying something is not equivalent to learning it. Students must engage the material to retain it. Also, given that students’ attention span is around 15 to 20 minutes long and university classes last 50 to 75 minutes, the teacher need to do something to control their attention. Lectures should be punctuated with periodic activities. Teacher can make a short brakes from two to five minutes, after students will become reenergized for the next 15 – 20 minutes of mini – lecture.

Planning a Lecture

When the teacher starts to plan a lecture, first consider is his audience. Undergraduate students represent a broad cross-section of backgrounds and skills, and as a result may arrive at college with varying levels of competence. The teacher has to remember neither want to talk over their heads nor to patronize them. It has to be more effective if he try as much as possible to draw on knowledge they already have or appeal to experiences that, by analogy, suit the topic.

Before preparing the lecture, teacher has to ask himself: how does the lecture fit into the course as a whole? What are the main objectives? Do he wants to provide the students with an overview of the subject, give them some background information, or provoke them into further contemplation?

Once decided that the nature of the topic is indeed suitable for a lecture and have considered both objectives and the knowledge level of the audience, he still has to make sure that what he needs to cover will fit within the time allotted. A typical instructor lament is that there is so much material and so little time.

Analyzing the Audience

A lecture should be designed with the student’s perspective in mind. What are students’ current knowledge, assumptions, biases, and, perhaps, misconceptions about the topic? In planning the lecture, the teacher will need to find a way to build on the knowledge students bring, and also provide a means for students to reflect upon their biases and misconceptions. The lecture overall should be planned to answer the question, “How will students’ understanding be different at the end of the presentation?”

Choosing Examples:

Choosing Learning Activities ( examples together with some rules just to understand good)

Reviewing the Material (the way the teacher will relate the material to students will determine his effect)

Delivering the Lecture

The lecture will be more effective if the teacher remembers a number of points about the style and clarity of presentation. The following suggestions can help ensure the lecture to be clear and well received.

• Speak clearly and loudly enough to be heard.

• Speak slowly.

• Avoid distracting mannerisms (verbal tics like “ah” or “ you know”)

• Provide an introduction (begin with a concise statement).

• Present an outline (write it on the chalkboard).

• Emphasize principles and generalizations.

• Repeat your points in two or three different ways (use short sentences).

• Stress important points (by tone of voice.).

• Pause (give time for the students to think and to write)

• Change activities frequently (change them several times in your class).

Questioning in the Classroom

How to Ask Questions

By learning how to use questions effectively in the classroom, instructors can accomplish a number of interrelated goals. First, by engaging students in a question and-answer dialogue, the usual “one-way” flow of information from instructor to students is transformed into a more interactive process. Students become more active participants in their own learning. In addition, skilful questioning can encourage students to engage in higher-level cognitive processes (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation), thus helping to develop their capacity for critical thinking. The current literature suggests several tactics that may assist teachers in improving the use of questioning in their teaching.

• After asking a question, wait for a response.

• Ask only one question at a time.

• Collect several answers to your question, even if the first student to answer gives a perfect response.

• When student questions are desired, request them explicitly, wait, and then acknowledge student contributions.

• Indicate to students that questions are not a sign of stupidity.

• Let students try out their answers by quickly discussing them in pairs.

• Use a variety of probing and explaining questions.

Answering Students’ Questions

When answering a student’s question teacher has to keep in mind his goals for that day’s class. If the question moves the class toward that goal, the teacher will want to give a complete answer or to redirect it to the class for discussion. If the question is not pertinent, you can tell the student where he or she can find an answer or offer to discuss it after class.

New instructors are often at a loss when they do not know the answer to a question. But it is not necessary to be able to field every question, and students can sense when an instructor “fakes” an answer. Instead, the instructor can offer to find the answer (and then should be sure and follow up) or suggest to the student where he or she can find the answer to the question.

Rewarding Student Participation and Providing Feedback

In responding to student questions, a number of guidelines can positively reinforce good student responses and facilitate further discussion.

• Praise the student in a strong, positive way.

• Comment specifically about that student’s response.

• Build on the student’s response.

• Avoid the “Yes, but . . .” reaction. Teachers use “Yes, but . . .” or its equivalent when a response is wrong or at least partly wrong. The overall impact of these phrases is negative and deceptive even though the teacher’s intent is probably positive. The “Yes, but . . .” fielding move says that the response is correct or appropriate with one breath and then takes away the praise with the next. Some straightforward for the teacher are:

1. Wait to at least a count of five with the expectation that another student will volunteer a correct or better response.

2. Ask, “How did you arrive at that response?” (Be careful, though, not to ask this question only when you receive inadequate responses, ask it also at times when you receive a perfectly good response).

3. Say, “You’re right regarding X and that’s great; wrong regarding Y. Now we need to correct Y so we can get everything correct.”

4. Say, “Thanks. Is there someone who wants to respond to the question or comment on the response we’ve already heard?”

5. These four alternatives are obviously not adequate to fit all cases. Indeed, it is generally difficult to field wrong or partially wrong responses because students are sensitive to teacher criticism. However, with these alternatives as examples, you will probably be able to generate others as needed.

Teaching with the Case Method

Cases are narratives, situations, select data samplings, or statements that present unresolved and provocative issues, situations, or questions. As a teaching/learning tool, cases challenge participants to analyse, critique, make judgments, speculate and express reasoned opinions. Above all, although information can be real or invented, a case must be realistic and believable. The information included must be rich enough to make the situation credible, but not so complete as to close off discussion or exploration. Cases can be short for brief classroom discussions, or long and elaborate for semester-long projects. Cases are important for bringing real world problems into a classroom or a workshop—they ensure active participation and may lead to innovative solutions to problems.

Formats for Cases:

• “Finished” cases based on facts—for analysis only, since the solution is indicated or alternate solutions are suggested.

• “Unfinished” open-ended cases, where the results are not yet clear (either because the case has not come to a factual conclusion in real life, or because the instructor has eliminated the final facts.) Students must predict, make choices and offer suggestions that will affect the outcome.

• Fictional cases entirely written by the instructor—can be open-ended or finished. Cautionary note: the case must be both complex enough to mimic reality, yet not have so many “red herrings” as to obscure the goal of the exercise.

• Original documents—news articles, reports with data and statistics, summaries, excerpts from historical writings, pressfacts, literary passages, ethnographies, etc. With the right questions, these can become problem-solving opportunities. Comparison between two original documents related to the same topic or theme is a strong strategy for encouraging both analysis and synthesis. This gives the opportunity for presenting more than one side of an argument, making the conflicts more complex.

How the teacher has to manage a case of assignment

• Design discussions for small groups: 3-6 students is an ideal group size for setting up a discussion on a case.

• Design the narrative or situation such that it requires participants to reach a judgment, decision, recommendation, prediction or other concrete outcome. If possible, require each group to reach a consensus on the decision requested.

• Structure the discussion. The instructor should provide a series of written questions to guide small group discussion. Pay careful attention to the sequencing of the questions. Early questions might ask participants to make observations about the facts of the case. Later questions could ask for comparisons, contrasts, and analyses of competing observations or hypotheses. Final questions might ask students to take a position on the matter. The purpose of these questions is to stimulate, guide or prod (but not dictate) participants’ observations and analyses. The questions should be impossible to answer with a simple yes or no.

• Debrief the discussion to compare group responses. Help the whole class interpret and understand the implications of their solutions.

• Allow groups to work without instructor interference. The instructor must be comfortable with ambiguity and with adopting the non-traditional roles of witness and resource, rather than authority.

How the teacher has to manage discussion and debate to be effective

• Delay the problem-solving part until the rest of the discussion has had time to develop. Start with expository questions to clarify the facts, then move to analysis, and finally to evaluation, judgment, and recommendations.

• Shift points of view: “Now that we’ve seen it from [W’s] standpoint, what’s happening here from [Y’s] standpoint?” What evidence would support Y’s position? What are the dynamics between the two positions?

• Shift levels of abstraction: if the answer to the question above is “It’s just a bad situation for her,” quotations help: When [Y] says “_____,” what are her assumptions? Or seek more concrete explanations: Why does she hold this point of view?”

• Asking for benefits/disadvantages of a position; for all sides.

• Shift time frame—not just to “What’s next?” but also to “How could this situation have been different?” What could have been done earlier to head off this conflict and turn it into a productive conversation? Is it too late to fix this? What are possible leverage points for a more productive discussion? What good can come of the existing situation?

• Shift to another context: We see how a person who thinks X would see the situation. How would a person who thinks Y see it?

• Follow-up questions: “What do you mean by ___?” Or, “Could you clarify what you said about ___?” (even if it was a pretty clear statement—this gives students time for thinking, developing different views, and exploration in more depth). Or “How would you square that observation with what [name of person] pointed out?”

• Point out and acknowledge differences in discussion—“that’s an interesting difference from what Sam just said, Sarah. Let’s look at where the differences lie.” (let sides clarify their points before moving on).

Discussion

Discussion is important to learning in all disciplines because it helps students to process information rather than simply receive it. Discussion sections differ from lectures in many ways. Two major differences are that the students can be more active and that there can be more personal contact. But discussion is an instructional activity that has uses in classes of all sizes and disciplines. Students can and should talk to each other and the instructor even in a large class, as well as in small to medium-sized classes. Good discussions give students an opportunity to formulate principles in their own words and to suggest applications of these principles; they help students become aware of and define problems implied in readings or lectures; they can also increase students’ sensitivity to other points of view and alternative explanations.

Leading a discussion requires skills different from lecturing. The goal of a discussion is to get students to talk purposefully about the course material. The role of the teacher becomes that of facilitator. You moderate the discussion rather than convey information. If the teacher want’s to hold a discussion, he/she don’t do all the talking by himself; the teacher can’t lecture to the group or talk to one student at a time. It is important to remember that the discussion isn’t just a matter of teacher communication with his students; it’s a chance for the students to share ideas and pool resources. Many instructors overlook this potential and up trying to carry the whole conversation themselves. The teacher has to remember that as long as he is speaking, the students can’t.

Decide How Much Time You Want to Spend

The run of the discussion depends just from the goal of the teacher. Any of his choices might be appropriate, depending on what he is going to do for the discussion.

Develop a Clear Goal for the Discussion

Knowing the content to be covered is not enough. Naming the chapter that students will read is not enough. If the teacher only thought’s as far as, “I want students to know,” he haven’t thought through enough about what needs to be taught. Teacher should be able to articulate what the students will be able to do with the information or ideas. For example, in a philosophy class for which students have read a chapter on epistemologies or theories of knowledge, teacher might want students to be able to construct legitimate arguments for and against any epistemology about which they have read.

Problem of the Topic

Having a clear goal in mind makes it much easier to plan a discussion. The instructor knows what he wants students to get out of it. But it is not enough: teacher can have some problems: if he tries to start discussion merely by saying “Discuss prejudice.” No one will speak or asking if anyone had seen prejudice.

So, teacher has to give the students an open-ended problem to solve, a task to complete, a judgment to reach, a decision to make, or a list to create—something that begs for closure.

Select an Activity to Frame the Problem

Many discussion activities can be used in the classroom. The teacher can choose one that will help his students meet his goals for the discussion. The more specific the teacher can be in assigning the task, the more likely the students will be to succeed at it. Some possible tasks are as follows: Think-Pair-Share, brainstorm, buzz groups, case analysis, role-playing, and press conferences.

Choose a Grouping Method

Vary groups by size, method of selection, and duration.

• By size: Two to six is ideal. Smaller groups (two-three) are better for simple tasks and reaching consensus. Also, students are more likely to speak in smaller groups. Larger groups of four-five are better for more complex tasks and generating lots of ideas.

• By selection: Randomly assigning students to groups avoids the problem of friends wanting to get off track. For long-term groups, the instructor may want to select for certain attributes or skills (e.g. a statistician, a geology major, and a writer) or by interest in the topic, if different groups have different tasks.

• By duration: Just for this activity or for all semester. Stop the discussion groups while they are still hard at work; next time, they will work doubly hard. Long-term groups allow students to practice collaborative skills and make s

. . .

Supervising the Experiment

At the beginning of the lab, review the purposes and procedures of the experiment. The teacher might deliver a brief introduction explaining how the experiment relates to current developments in the discipline, or he might discuss the students’ statements of objectives. Ask for questions, clarify any ambiguities in the lab manual, and demonstrate special procedures now rather than interrupting the experiment later.

If both teacher and the students are well prepared, the teacher will be free to perform his most important role, that of guiding the students’ development. Teacher has to try to talk with each student at least once during the experiment. Technical and procedural matters can be handled quickly in a few words of advice or a very brief demonstration. However, teacher primary role is to help students master the steps of scientific inquiry—recognizing and stating a problem so that it can be explored, collecting data, forming and testing an hypothesis, and drawing a conclusion.

Helping students master each step is not an easy task. The “11 steps of guided design” provide a good approach to problem solving:

• Identify the problem,

• State the problem objective,

• List constraints, assumptions, and facts,

• Generate possible solutions,

• Determine the most likely solution,

• Analyse the solution,

• Synthesize the solution,

• Evaluate the solution,

• Prepare a report,

• Implement the plan,

• Check results.

Refrain from Giving Outright Answers or Advice

If lab partners ask, “Why can’t we get this to come out right?” teacher has to try to ask them a series of questions which leads them to discover the reasons for themselves rather than simply explaining why the experiment failed. Of course sometimes the reason will be relatively simple (“You used hydrochloric instead of nitric acid.”), but just as often the reason will be more substantial—a matter of timing, sequence, proportion, or interpretation. Perhaps the student had the necessary data but has overlooked an important step in analysing the results or is unable to synthesize a solution.

It’s very tempting to help students by saying, “Aha! I see where you went wrong,” but unless the teacher resist the temptation, they are likely to falter at the same stage in the next experiment. Students may become frustrated if they can’t get a straight answer out of teacher, but they will also learn more.

Group Work

Having the students work in a group encourages discussion among the students. Speaking in front of the whole class can be scary and combined with the tension of speaking to the teacher, the situation can be downright terrifying to students. Breaking them up into groups not only builds develops social skills useful in the professional environment for which they are training, but it is also one of the three most important ways to make a positive difference in learning at the college level.

Organizing the Groups

The teacher has to keep in mind the following elements of group work when selecting the appropriate type of group work for his class.

• Size: Two to six people in a group is ideal. The smaller the group, the more likely each student will be to contribute to the discussion. Groups of two or three students are sufficient for simple tasks where consensus will be reached quickly. Groups of four to six are better for more complex tasks in which the greater number of ideas may improve the final results.

• Selection: Teacher should either assign students randomly to groups (which limits cliques) or select students so that each group has an equal distribution of talents.

• Duration: teacher has to use the groups for a brief discussion in class or for all semester. Long-term groups work more substantively and less superficially.

To prevent problems with group interaction, teacher should spend a few minutes discussing the students’ roles and expectations for the work.

Designating Roles in Groups

Groups that are created for in-class discussion can be easily organized around the following four-person model. Each member of the group plays a specific role that supports the team’s collaborative effort. These roles include:

• Leader: Responsible keeping the group on task, maintaining the schedule (meetings, deadlines), and maintaining contact information (phone numbers, emails).

• Encourager: Encourages conversation and inclusion of all opinions, and guides the discussion towards consensus.

• Prober: Ensures that the assumptions are correct and that there is sufficient evidence for the solution.

• Recorder: Writes down the group’s solution that will be submitted for the group grade.

While some people will tend to lead and some will tend to follow, everyone should be willing to compromise and modify their ideas in the interest of group unity.

If the groups are going to be working together on a long-term project or multiple tasks, the teacher may wish to modify these roles to emulate roles that one might encounter in teachers discipline. Ensure that the students rotate through these positions. Teacher has to try to break a long project into at least as many tasks as there are people in each group and have the students rotate through the roles each time they start a new task.

Reporting Group Results

Students should share the results of their group with the class at large. They can do so verbally, on newsprint flipchart, blackboard or overhead, through photocopies, or web pages. Even if they are reporting in printed or electronic format, teacher has to be sure to have some presentations in class. The teacher does not have to hear from everyone; calling on a few groups at random makes everyone prepare in case they are picked to discuss their project. Teacher has to use this time to give feedback and debrief the students as to the lessons they might have learned from the group work.

Conclusions

We want to conclude by the words of Fuller and Robinson:

“practically all modern nations are now awake to the fact that education the most potent means of development of the essentials of nationality. Education is the means by witch people of retarded cultures may be brought rapidly to the common level. Education is the means by witch small and weak nations may become strong through their cultural strengths and achievements. Education is the only means by witch the world can be “made safe” for the national type of organization.”

Comparing the systems of education in Lithuania and Portugal we realized, that the main deference is:

• There are no stages in Lithuania

• Primary school is separated from basic school in Lithuania.

• The school year starts in the different time in Portugal and in Lithuania; the school year is strict by the low in Lithuania

• The length of the lesson is different: in Portugal 50 – 90 min. and in Lithuania 45min. The number of week ours is different too: in Portugal 788 h. since 6 years, 875 – 904 h. over 10 years; in Lithuania 436.3 in primary school and 688.5 in secondary school.

• There are few deferent types of upper education in Lithuania:

Gimnazija (general upper secondary)- 16/17-18/19 years;

Vidurine mokyla (general upper secondary)- 16/17-18/19 years;

Profesine mokyla (vocational upper secondary)- 16/17-19/20 years;

Profesine mokyla (vocational post-secondary) – 18/19-20/21 years;

Aukstesnioji mokykla (vocational post-secondary)- 18/19-21,5/22,5 years.

Higher education institutions with the name of Kolegija (4 public and 3 non-state) Aukstesniosios mokyklos (vocational colleges).

Higher education comprises university-level courses offered by universities, and academies.

And in Portugal:

Ensino secundário (general upper secondary education)

Escolas profissionais (vocational schools)- 15-17 years

Higher education in Portugal includes university and polytechnic education and is provided by public, private or cooperative higher education institutions.

As we can see the systems of both countries have differences. However all the countries have differences in education systems because they have main differences in the history, culture, economy and etc., but the main ace is the same in all over the world.

The same is in the main structure of the teaching methods: we can see that there is not full list of them, because we even can not count them: the pedagogues are hardly working on it. So, the teaching methods in Lithuanian school depends on a teachers imagination and work specific, that means that the base methods are the same, but used in a different ways, in the different situations.

We are happy to have possibility to see and discover main differences

between the teaching, school structure and used material in lessons in Portugal and Lithuania. To discover it by being together with the school children in the class and watching lesson is different than you can read in the books.

Used Literature:

V. Rajeckas “Mokymo metodai” 1996;

A. Green “ Education, globalization and the nation stage” 1997;

J. Brumfit, J.T. Roberts “ An introduction to language and language teaching” 1983;

Ministry of education; department of Secondary education “studing and living in Portugal”;

R. Motuzas “Education of national minorities in Lithuania”

www.lfpr.lt/017/10.doc;

“Law on education- Lithuania”

www.bibl.u.szeged.hu/oses.lithlaw.html;

IV. Teaching Handbook Part 2;

www.indiana.edu/~teaching/handbook-2html;

The World Factbook 2002;

Lithuania (Ramunas personal pages)

www.omnitel.net/ramunas/Lietuva;

Eurydice summary sheets on education systems in Europe (Portugal)

www.eurydice.org/Documents/Fiches_nationales/ files/PORTUGAL_EN.pdf;

Structure of education system in Portugal

www.euroeducation.net/prof/porco.htm;

ESTIA in Portugal – Education

www.des.min-edu.pt/estia/edu/eduindex.html;

Structure of education system in Lithuania

www.euroeducation.net/prof/lithuaco.htm;

Lithuania

www.skvc.lt/wwwenicnaric/es.htm;

Common country assessment for Lithuania; Education

www.smm.lt/smm_english/statistics/education.htm;

ESTIA in Lithuania – Education

www.nrcg.lt/estia/edu/eduindex.html;

Contents

1. Introduction.............................. 2

2. Lithuania.............................. 3

3. Portugal.............................. 4

4. Education system in Lithuania................... 5

5. Education system in Portugal.................... 8

6. Education and teaching methods: ................ 13

Lecturing; Talk........................... 15

Teaching with the case..................... 18

Discussion.............................. 20

Teaching with technical measures .............. 22

Science labs............................ 26

Group work............................. 28

7. Conclusions.............................. 30

8. Used literature............................. 32

9. Contents...................

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