Tick-borne encephalitis

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What is it?

Tick-borne encephalitis – is a viral infectious disease involving the central nervous system and occurring mostly in April – October, the seasonality associated with the incidence of ticks. This inflammation of the brain caused by a virus which can also damage the brain membranes and spinal cord. Although TBE is most commonly recognized as a neurological disorder, mild fever can also occur. Often for patients who have recovered stays residual effects which may interfere with fulfiling life or mental activity.

Tick-borne encephalitis each year get siick from 10k to 13k people, of which 1k to 2k in the Baltic countries.

Symptoms and signs

The incubation period is from 8 to 30 days after the tick bite. Tick-borne encephalitis symptoms come within 1-2 weeks after infection. First symptom – fever from 39 to 40ºC lasting 2-5 days , and then the man does not feel anything about a week, but a week later appear different symptoms lasting about 10-21 day.

Tick-borne encephalitis may damage:

a) the meninges – meningitis. Headache, nausea and vomiting, fever.

b) the brain – encephalitis. Usually it afffects language, thinking, attention, balance disorder, tremor, rarely – hearing, vision, movement, breathing problems may occur mental / consciousness disorders.

c) the spinal cord – myelitis. There are arms, legs weakness, sensory disturbance, urinary / bowel disorders.

Cause

TBE is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus, a member of th

he genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It was first isolated in 1937. It is transmitted by the bite of several species of infected ticks, including Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus or (rarely) through the non-pasteurized milk of infected cows.

Increased risk of infection the forest and field workers, farmers, travelers, tourists, athletes (runners, orienteers etc.), mushroom pickers, berry pickers.

Diagnostics

The general blood tests may show decreased number of w. . .

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