The Tasmanian Devil is the largest carnivorous (eats meat) marsupial (a
mammal that has its babies in a pouch) in Australia. Tasmanian Devils are a
nocturnal (active at night) animal. lives alone and prefers its own company
hence it is a relatively shy animal
The Tasmanian Devil is usually black with a white “collar” or patch around
its neck. It is the size of a small terrier dog very solid and “stout” and
weighs in between 6 and 8 kgs It has a tail of between 9 to 12″ long.
Tasmanian Devils have an extremely
large powerful head with a wide jaw with sharp teeth pointy pink ears (that
turn red when angry due to increased blood flow) and piercing dark eyes
Its dark colouring helps it to move around unseen at night time (feeding
LOCATION & HABITAT
The Tasmanian Devil is now only found on the island state of Tasmania and
lives in coastal scrub and eucalypt forests. It is a scavenger so Tasmanian
Devils are also found near human settlements
They spend the daytime out off sight sleeping in dens lined with grass and
leaves made in hollow logs, or old wombat burrows or small natural caves
They can conserve energy by going into a state of “Tupor” where its body
heat drops to match its surroundings
See my Py
Tasmanian Devils by nature are not aggressive until it comes to food. Then
they are protective of its find and / or kill even to the extent of killing
another Devil that wanted its catch. These fights result in many a
Tasmanian Devil having bald patches of missing fur and appearing battle-
Tasmanian Devils prefer to eat carrion, that is dead animals. They will eat
anything lying around no matter how old and rotten, and their powerful jaws
will help them crush bones so they can devour the whole carcass, meat, fur
and bone, leaving nothing to pollute the environment. They can though kill
their own prey such as snakes, birds, rodents,lizards, and small wallabies
and lamb. it prefers to prey on animals smaller thhan itself It kills by
inflicting a powerful bight onto the back of the neck or back of its victim
It also needs to drinks water.
Tasmanian Devils are very loud especially when there are a number of them
at the one carcass, trying to scare each other off. They have a range of
sound, from barks to snorts to growling to screaming !. This screaming and
their fierce looks gave birth to their “Devil” name
Breeding occurs at the males den which the female visits for a pe
weeks or so. Tasmanian Devil babies (Joeys) are born blind and deaf and
little more than a grain of rice in size.
Up to 50 are born, who then race (distance of 3 inches) from the birth
canal to the mothers backward facing pouch (So dirt doesn’t enter when she
is digging) to attach themselves to only one of four teats available !
Once sucking commences the nipple swells to form an air tight connection to
the joey. They remain attached to the nipple for around 3 months Once they
leave the pouch they are firstly left in the nest whilst their mother goes
for food, and then progress to going out closely accompanied by their
mother After 6 months from birth the joey becomes independent of the mother
A lot of joeys and juveniles do not make it to adulthood, due mainly to
being attacked by adult Tasmanian Devils If hey do survive their growing
year Tasmanian Devils have a lifespan of around 8 years
PAST PRESENT FUTURE
The Tasmanian Devil used to be found all over Australia. It is believed the
Dingo (Australian Wild Dog) was a major reason for the decline of the
Tasmanian Devil on the mainland by competing for the same food source.
But because the Dingo did not make it over Bass strait to th
Tasmania (a State of Australia) the Devil survived. The Tasmanian Devils
numbers were very low due to them being killed by both settlers (who
thought the Devil was responsible for major stock losses) and bounty
hunters (who were paid by the government by the number of Devils they
killed). The Tasmanian Tiger was also a predator of the Tasmanian devil.
Now with the Tiger extinct, and protection from the government, as well as
being appreciated by farmers (due to the Devil eating crop eating rodents &
cleaning up carrion) their numbers have stablised, and are now on the
Tasmanian Devils are often hit by cars as they feed on road killed animals,
and they are losing parts of their habitat due to mans increasing use of
their environment Accidents and disease also account for some losses, and
as already mentioned many juvenile devils are attacked by adult Devils
The Platypus is an extremely different Mammal found in Eastern Australia
HABITAT and BEHAVIOUR
The shy Platypus is found only in eastern Australia, where they live on the
edges of rivers and freshwater lakes where burrows can be dug.
The best streams are ones where the banks are strong enough for building
their deep burrows, and often these banks overhang the river. During the
day, a Platypus often re
near the entrance to the burrow, basking in the sun and grooming its dense
fur. But Platypuses (or platypi) are most active for several hours after
dusk and before dawn.
Platypuses are renound for their excellence in the water as both a diver
Whilst underwater the Platypus has its eyes and ears shut and, being
buoyant, it must continuously swim downwards with its webbed forefeet to
remain submerged. Webbing on the front feet extends well beyond the claws,
forming large paddles for swimming. The hindfeet of the Platypus are also
webbed but are employed in steering or braking – not in propulsion.,
platypuses can swim underwater for two minutes, but may ‘rest’ underneath a
submerged object for up to 10 minutes. Dense fur fibres trap a layer of air
next to the skin, giving excellent insulation for an animal that spends up
to 12 hours each day in water as cold as 0 degrees Celsius.
The Platypus has a bill that resembles a duck’s bill but is actually an
elongated snout covered with soft, moist, leathery skin and sensitive nerve
endings. The body of the platypus is 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 in) long; the
flattened tail measures 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) in length. The feet are
webbed. The body and tail are covered with a thick, soft, woolly layer of
fur, from which long, flat hairs protrude. The platypus has three layers of
fur: 1. an inside layer to trap air and keep the animal warm 2. a middle
layer which works like a wet suit 3. an outer layer to feel if it is close
to objects A Platypus grows to a maximum weight of 1 to 2.4 kg (2.2 to 5.3
lb). The Platypus is known to live for at least 12 years in the wild
The male Platypus has a sharp, hollow, horny spur about 15 millimetres long
on the inside of both hind leg ankles. This is connected to a venom gland
which produces a very strong toxin. The spur can be used in defence against
predators (the venom can cause excruciating pain in humans and is strong
enough to kill a dog.) but the fact that it is restricted to the male – and
that the gland reaches its greatest development in the mating season –
suggests that it is normally employed in aggressive encounters between
The Platypus usally feeds at night on aquatic insect larvae, shrimps and
worms by dabbling in mud or silt on the bottom of rivers and freshwater
lakes with its sensitive, flexible, duck-like snout, aided by .
electroreceptors (electronic sense) on its bill These are stored in the
cheek pouches and will be chewed after returning to the surface. The
Platypus can eat their own body weight in food in one night.
Monotremes are a sub family of Mammals and there are only 2 animals that
belong to this sub family Platypus and Echidnas. monotremes lay eggs rather
than giving birth to their young.
Platypus males are larger than females. Mating occurs once a year,
beginning in late June in the warmer northern parts and in October in the
southern part. The female usually lays two eggs ( the soft leathery egg
resembles a reptiles egg) but may lay up to four and incubates these
against her abdomen
(by clasping them with its tail)for about two weeks in a blocked-off nest
at the end of a long breeding burrow. The young “puggle” have no fur when
they hatch. The female has no teats. Milk is produced in large glands under
her skin which oozes out onto a patch of fur and the young Platypus
(puggle) sucks it up.
THREATS and PRESERVATION
The biggest threat to the Platypus is the loss of Habitat, as man clears
land and pollutes the waterways.
Natural enemies of the platypus includes, snakes, water rats, goannas, and
foxes (that were introduced).
Taronga Zoo in Sydney and the Healesville Sancturary in Victoria have
succesfully bred platypuses in captivity.
Koalas are found in South Eastern Australia and has been described as an
“ash coloured pouched bear”. But they are not a bear they are a mammal (
meaning they feed their young on Milk) and are a Marsupial (meaning they
carry their developing young mostly in a pouch) The name koala, comes from
the Aboriginal saying that means “no drink”. The Koala obtains enough
moisture from the eucalypt leaves that it lives on
Because of the reliance on its one food source Koalas are found where there
are suitable Eucalypt forests (Gum trees) and woodlands which is along
Australia’s East coast and inland of the mountain range known as the “Great
Dividing Range” (see map)
The Koala prefers to move around neither in daylight or night, but rather
just after sunset.
Usually daytimes are spent asleep in the fork of a tree, as 80% of its time
is spent sleeping For a couple of hours after sunset it will move around
quiet a bit feeding and can often be heard “barking” aggressively at other
It does though at times feed at night and during the day. Koalas are
solitary animals having its own specific home range.
“A picture paints a thousand words” Koalas are usually ash grey with a
white chest and the males are larger than females Thick fur, fluffy ears
and a broad flat nose give them their “cuddly” appearance They have strong
limbs and large hands to help with climbing trees. Surprisingly they have a
short stumpy tail which is of no assistance to them in climbing at all.
There are 2 sub Species (South & North)with the Southern Koalas up to 1/3
larger than the northern variety
As already mentioned the koala survives almost exclusively on Eucalypt
leaves Not just any type of Eucalypt as their choice changes with seasons,
local conditions and personal preferences. It is thought there is about 12
species of Eucalypt leaves that a koala can feed on Eucalypt foliage though
high in fiber is very “bitter” and contains many toxins harmful to most
lifeforms Koalas have a longer caecum (part of the intestine) which allows
more time for bacteria to break down the otherwise indigestible eucalypti
Mating occurs normally between October and February (Summer) The baby Joey
is born five weeks after conception, blind, hairless and less than an inch
long. It then crawls into its mothers pouch and drinks from one of the 2
teats there The next 6 months the baby stays in the pouch drinking milk The
next period before being weaned at around the age of 1 their dietary needs
are supplemented by eating some of the mother’s faeces (droppings) that
supplements the bacteria in its own caecum (part of the intestine) (see
paragraph on FEEDING)to aid the baby’s own digestion of Eucalypt leaves
Like most wild animals destruction of habitat is a major threat Predators
such as feral dogs and dingoes are also a problem, as is traffic on our
nations highways Some “mainland” koala colonies have declined due to a
disease called chlamydiosis
The Australian Pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) is found all around
Australia and is the biggest of the 8 species of Pelicans found worldwide.
Pelicans as a whole are big birds with a very large wingspan, large beaks
and are very well known One of the reason such a big bird can fly is that
its skeleton is very light (10% of their weight).
Australian Pelicans are white in colour with black wingtips and black
markings on their tail. Behind their head and part way down their neck
there is a “streak” of grey Their bill and very large bill pouch are pink
and is the longest beak/bill of any, of all the types of Pelicans in the
world , whilst their legs and feet are blue-grey in colour.
They are so buoyant they cannot sink under water, though unlike most water
birds they do not have a lot of water proof oil on their feathers etc so
they can get wet and cold
Wingspan 2.5 meters to 3.4 meters.
Length 1.6 to 1.9meters.
Weight 4 to 6.8 kg up to 8.2 kg.
Australian Pelicans eyes are brown and white.
The female is slightly smaller than the male.
Pouched bill 40 to 47cm and can hold 9 to 13 litres of water.
They have 4 webbed toes.
There vocalisation is a chesty rumbling or deep growling.
In the wild they can live between 10 and 25 years.
LOCATION & HABITAT
On a world scale The Australian Pelican is found throughout Australia,
except in the very dry middle (desert region), Papua New Guinea and parts
of Indonesia (eg Sulawesi) and sometimes in New Zealand and some Pacific
Islands close to Australia
In Australia itself, wherever there is water you can possibly find
Pelicans, ranging from wetlands to swamps, rivers, estuaries, lakes (fresh
and salt), coastlines, mudflats, lagoons etc. They live in large flocks or
colonies and will travel large distances to find suitable water, breeding
Pelicans favourite food is fish.
They normally fish together “herding” the fish into a central position, and
then plunge their bills into the water and capture a fish with a mouthful
of water then “squeeze” the water out by pushing their bill against their
chest region so they are left with just the fish in their bill pouch.
They will then turn the fish around in their bill pouch so it goes
“longways” down their throat and then they swallow the fish whole with a
“jerk” of their head.
There bills have a slight hook on the end and are serrated to help hold
onto slippery fish.
They will feed from Humans, either stealing from fisherman or accepting
handouts, and have been know to also eat small turtles, tadpoles, shrimp
and other crustaceans
It is fantastic to see a Pelican take off, running across the water to
build up speed and flapping its huge wings. Once in the air this big bird
relies on thermals and soars to great heights and for long distances. When
it lands it is like an amphibious aeroplane landing on a watery runway,
finally gilding to a stop with the help of its wings spread out acting like
brakes It has been reported that Australian pelicans have soared to a
height of 3,000 meters (3 Kms) and when flying in a flock often form a
rough V formation
MATING, BREEDING & NESTS
Pelicans breed together in large colonies, at any time of the year
depending on conditions like rainfall A complex courting dance by males
competing for females occur, with the winning male and his female going off
to their nest site. The nest usually a grass, twig and feather lined scrape
in the ground is prepared by the female 1 to 3 eggs are then laid in the
next week. Both parents help out sitting on the nest, with the eggs
hatching after 32 to 37 days. The young are born naked and blind At first
they are feed regurgitated food obtained by thrusting their bills down the
parent’s gullet. After a month or so the young chick can leave the nest and
join a “creche” of other young pelicans where they are cared for the next
couple of months, until they learn to fly and become independent
The biggest problems for Pelicans is man and his fishing hooks, and lines,
as their pouches can be easily torn by sharp fishing hooks