1. MANAGING THEORY 4
2. MANAGING STYLES 6
3. MANAGING ROLES 10
Nowadays managing is very important in our life. Everyone wants to manage, but not everybody can be good managers. John Peet, British Management Consultant said that management problems always turn out to be people problems. In our life are three main styles of managing: it is authoritarian, democratic and liberal.
Good managers must have a cross-cultural awareness. It is very important to realize other country’s mores and understand differences between countries. Managers need to be good att observing, listening, asking questions and speaking. If you want good relations between you work team (staff) you have to learn observing, listening other people and let them to talk also you have to know how to ask some questions, how to find out some information and finally you have to learn speaking for audience, for other people.
Work goal is to explain managing concept.
1. To give theory of managing people.
2. To describe managing styles.
3. To identify new managing roles.
Method: literature analysis1. MANAGING THHEORY
Writing on organization and managing, in some form or another, can be traced back thousands of years. However, the systematic development of managing thinking is viewed, generally, as dating from the end of the nineteenth century with the emergence of la
arge industrial organizations, and the ensuing problems associated with their structure and managing.
A central part of the study of organization and managing is the development of managing thinking and what might be termed managing theory. The application of theory brings about change in actual behaviour. Managers reading the work of leading writer of the subject might see in their ideas and conclusions a message of how they should behave. This will influence their attitudes towards managing practice. McGregor said that every managerial act rest on assumptions, and hypotheses. Our assumptions are frequently implicit, sometimes quite unconscious, often conflicting; nevertheless, they determine our predictions that if we do a, b will occur. Theory and practice are inseparable.
Managing is especially important and diifficult function of management. Managing it is a person or group of person, which govern other people actions and efforts to realize put forward general aim, that more efficient will be used all available resources. Today vary not just culture of organization, but and managing theory, that’s mean that vary manager role in organization. It is not enough to be manager, which can analyze and solve problems, because in these days a lot of exercises can be done by computer. Fr
rom modern manager more and more often enjoin humanity and leader skills.
Manager is a link which not only creates vision or mission, care about harmony and development of organization, but they also help to employees to realize their individual, organizational and social roles.
If modern manager want to achieve effective managing he have to realize organization or his subdivision aims, to be able to see most important problems, be minded to innovation and alteration, to forecast activity results. He has to know how to have a logical mind, creatively to solve problems, to run the venture in minimum outlay, to take solutions and not to avoid responsibility for it. Manager have to be energetic, determined, high – minded, tolerant, he have to know how to communicate with employees, continually to improve his knowledge and skills. In sorter we can say that managers need to be good at observing, listening, asking questions and speaking.
In addition to serving at different levels of authority, managers work in different capacities within organizations. Line managers directly contribute to the production of the organization’s basic goods or services. Staff managers use special technical expertise to advise and support line workers. Functional managers are responsible for one ar
rea of activity, such as finance, marketing, production, personnel, accounting, or sales. General Managers are responsible for complex multi – functional units. An administrator is a manager in a public or nonprofit organization.
The study of managing theory is important, therefore, because:
• What leading writers say is an important part of the study of managing;
• It is necessary to view the interrelationships between the development of theory, behaviour in organizations and managing practice;
• An understanding of the development of managing thinking helps in understanding principles underlying the process of managing;
• Knowledge of the history helps in understanding the nature of managing and organizational behaviour, and reasons for attention given to main topic areas;
• Many of the earlier ideas of continuing importance to the manager and later ideas on managing tend to incorporate earlier ideas and conclusions.2. MANAGING STYLES
Now days in literature are a lot of attitudes to managing styles. Such variety depends on manager and employee’s relations variety and difficulty. But we can mark the similar attributes which are natural for the same managing style. By this attributes we can arrange and define different styles of managing.
Maybe first time was tried to describe managing styles in Plato’s work ‘Valstybė’. He defined such styles of managing:
br />• Timocracy – it means that managing style depends on manager’s ambitions and the lust for power.
• Oligarchy – it is a system based on property qualification, and the main motivation of manager activity is greediness.
• Democracy – it means that national responsibility is given out by lot or by election, and all citizens are equal.
• Tyranny – it means that managing style is conditioning by cruel human tendency.
But in our life are just three main styles of managing: it is authoritarian, democratic and liberal.
Managing style Advantages Disadvantages
Authoritarian 1. Vouchsafe operative problems solution, managing unity and actions coordination.
2. For authoritarian manager is par for the course energy, good reaction, cleverness, diligence, capability to organize his and subordinates work. 1. Such managing can be the course of collective disunity, distrust each other, it can determine arduous work.
2. Subordinate’s passivity and coming formal attitude to work
Democratic 1. Conceding the right to solve them, the manager give the opportunity for employees to realize the point of work or issue, to bring into play themselves intellectual and professional potential and an opportunity to improve.
2. Good and employable atmosphere dominated in collective, come comradeship between employees.
3. Not grudge appreciations and compliments for employee’s initiative, positive work’s results. 1. Can suffer solutions efficiency because more problems are solving collegially.
2. Manager can escape responsibility and load it to collective because the solution was taken up collegially.
Liberal 1. To give the right and full freedom for themselves employees to take the solutions, employees can use their professional and creative capability.
2. With employees manager behave politely and with tact. 1. Can’t something to change radically, manager isn’t strict and can’t to protect his opinion.
2. Hasn’t vocation for organizational work, weakly manage and administrate.
Authoritarian managing style
Good management technique used to be simple. The boss told employees what to do, and they complied. No one worried if somebody’s feelings were hurt along the way. Employees who failed to toe the line were either whipped into shape or fired. These authoritarian managers believed that authority should (in a moral sense) be obeyed. Therefore, they expected unquestioning obedience from their subordinates and they, in turn, submissively obeyed their own superiors. Fear ran the work setting. The system was efficient.
Health care delivery, in particular, followed this autocratic model. The physician’s order ruled, without question or negotiation. Physicians, in turn, had their own hierarchy. Authority was understood, respected, and obeyed.
The example set by past generations has led to huge numbers of autocratic managers today. Some lead this way because they honestly, and consciously, believe it is the best management style. For most, however, it is how they were treated throughout their careers (particularly at a first job). The cycle works very much like child abuse, where the abused child grows up to be an abusive adult. If you were managed by an autocrat, it is very likely that your most natural, comfortable method of management reflects that of a previous supervisor, especially your first.
The premise of the autocratic management style is the belief that in most cases the worker cannot make a contribution to their own work, and that even if they could, they wouldn’t.
Autocratic managers atte.mpt to control work to the maximum extent possible. A major threat to control is complexity; complex jobs are more difficult to learn and workers who master such jobs are scarce and possess a certain amount of control over how the job is done. Thus, autocratic managers attempt to simplify work to gain maximum control. Planning of work, including quality planning, is centralized. A strict top-down, chain-of-command approach to management is practiced. Procedures are maintained in exquisite detail and enforced by frequent audits. Product and process requirements are recorded in equally fine detail and in-process and final inspection are used to control quality.
Democratic managing style
A democratic manager delegates authority to his/her staff, giving them responsibility to complete the task given to them (also known as empowerment). Staff will complete the tasks using their own work methods. However, the task must be completed on time. Employees are involved in decision making giving them a sense of belonging and motivating individuals. Because staff feels a sense of belonging and are motivated the quality of decision making and work also improves. Although popular in business today, a democratic management style can slow decision making down because staff needs to be consulted. Also some employees may take advantage of the fact that their manager is democratic by not working to their full potential and allowing other group members to ‘carry’.
The democratic leader makes decisions by consulting his team, whilst still maintaining control of the group. The democratic leader allows his team to decide how the task will be tackled and who will perform which task.
The democratic leader can be seen in two lights:
A good democratic leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but never loses sight of the fact that he bears the crucial responsibility of leadership. He values group discussion and input from his team and can be seen as drawing from a pool of his team members’ strong points in order to obtain the best performance from his team. He motivates his team by empowering them to direct themselves, and guides them with a loose reign.
However, the democrat can also be seen as being so unsure of himself and his relationship with his subordinates that everything is a matter for group discussion and decision. Clearly, this type of “leader” is not really leading at all.
Liberal managing style
Liberal managing style characterize by minimum manager’s intrusion to his subordinates activity. Liberal manager does not show his managing position, because he is not convinced on his available position and expertise. Such manager is easy influence from outside, because he is not to be in a fit state to persuade his subordinates, he has not a tendency to organizational work, he try to be good for other people, so often he can not to protect his opinion. Liberal manager avoid requiring and controlling employees. His prescription looks like application.
Managers which use this managing style are inactive, inconsequent in his activity. Often liberal manager do not take some solutions according as his right and power is limited. Subordinates have full freedom so they can put forward tasks and to realize it. It is right to say that liberal manager is controlling by subordinates and circumstance.
Communicating with subordinates liberal is very polite, benevolent and well – bred. He always hears criticism and other opinion, but he is not to be in a fit state to change something. Such manager does not climb to power. He thinks that he takes not his position and he is ready to give it for somebody, who is better.
It will be observed, that in difficult situations liberal often go to pieces. He has not enough will to take or to solve responsible solution. Therefore such manager is not suitable for difficult and dynamic production condition.
The liberal manager exercises little control over his group, leaving them to. sort out their roles and tackle their work, without participating in this process himself. In general, this approach leaves the team floundering with little direction or motivation.
Again, there are situations where the liberal approach can be effective. The liberal technique is usually only appropriate when leading a team of highly motivated and skilled people, who have produced excellent work in the past. Once a leader has established that his team is confident, capable and motivated, it is often best to step back and let them get on with the task, since interfering can generate resentment and detract from their effectiveness. By handing over ownership, a leader can empower his group to achieve their goals.3. MANAGING ROLES
Although the managing process may seem straightforward, things are more complicated than they appear at first glance.
In trying to systematically describe the nature of managerial work and the demands placed on those who do it, Mitzberg identified the set of 10 roles depicted in Figure 3.1. The roles involve managing information, people, and action. The roles are interconnected, and all managers must be prepared to perform all of them. In Mintzberg’s framework, a manager’s informational roles involve the giving, receiving, and analyzing of information. The interpersonal roles involve interactions with people inside and outside the work unity. The decisional roles involve using information to make decisions to solve problems or address opportunities.
Interpersonal roles Informational roles Decisional roles
How manager interact with How manager exchanges How a manager uses
other people and processes information information in decision
• Figurehead • Monitor making
• Leader • Disseminator • Entrepreneur
• Liaison • Spokesperson • Disturbance handler
• Resource allocator
Figure 3.1 Mintzberg’s 10 managerial roles.CONCLUSION
1. Managing is especially important and difficult function of management. Managing it is a person or group of person, which govern other people actions and efforts to realize put forward general aim, that more efficient will be used all available resources. Manager have to be energetic, determined, high – minded, tolerant, he have to know how to communicate with employees, continually to improve his knowledge and skills.
2. Now days in literature are a lot of attitudes to managing styles. Such variety depends on manager and employee’s relations variety and difficulty. But there are three main styles of managing: it is authoritarian, democratic and liberal. The autocratic manager told employees what to do, and they complied. No one worried if somebody’s feelings were hurt along the way. Autocratic managers attempt to control work to the maximum extent possible. A major threat to control is complexity; complex jobs are more difficult to learn and workers who master such jobs are scarce and possess a certain amount of control over how the job is done. A democratic manager delegates authority to his/her staff, giving them responsibility to complete the task given to them. The democratic leader makes decisions by consulting his team, whilst still maintaining control of the group. Often liberal manager do not take some solutions according as his right and power is limited. It is right to say that liberal manager is controlling by subordinates and circumstance. Liberal managing style characterize by minimum manager’s intrusion to his subordinates activity.
3. In trying to systematically describe the nature of managerial work and the demands placed on those who do it, Mitzberg identified the set of 10 roles. Interpersonal roles show how manager interact with other people. Informational roles show how manager exchanges and processes information. Decisional roles show how a manager uses information in decision making.RESOURSES
1. John R, Schermerhorn, Jr. ‘Management’, 2005.
2. G. A. Cole ‘Management theory and practice’, 1993.