Lithuania politic

Since Lithuania declared independence on March 11, 1990, it has kept strong democratic traditions. In the first general elections after the independence on October 25, 1992, 56.75% of the total number of voters supported the new constitution.[12] There were heavy debates concerning the constitution, especially on the role of the president. Drawing from the interwar experiences, politicians made many different proposals ranging from strong parliamentarism to the presidential system similar to one in the United States. A separate referendum was held on May 23, 1992 to gauge pu ublic opinion on the matter and 41% of all the eligible voters supported the restoration of the institution of the President of Lithuania.[12] Eventually a compromise semi-presidential system was agreed upon.[13]

The Lithuanian head of state is the President, elected directly for a five-year term, serving a maximum of two consecutive terms. The post of president is largely ceremonial with the main functions being the overseeing of foreign affairs and national security policy. The president is also the commander-in-chief. The President, with th he approval of the parliamentary body, the Seimas, also appoints the prime minister and on the latter’s nomination, appoints the rest of the cabinet, as well as a number of other top civil servants and the judges for all courts. Th

he judges of the Constitutional Court (Konstitucinis Teismas), who serve nine-year terms, are appointed by the President (three judges), the Chairman of the Seimas (three judges) and the Chairman of the Supreme Court (three judges). The unicameral Lithuanian parliament, the Seimas, has 141 members who are elected to four-year terms. 71 of the members of this legislative body are elected in single constituencies, and the other 70 are elected in a nationwide vote by proportional representation. A party must receive at least 5% of the national vote to be represented in the Seimas.

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