Druskininkai

Contents:

1. Introduction.......................3
2. The aim of Project Work..................4
3. The Project Work “Druskininkai”.............5
a) Geography, Climate................5
b) Time......................5
c) Currency, Language, Religion............5
d) History.....................6
e) City Today....................7
f) Nature.......................7
g) Environs; Raigardas Valley.............8

h) Liskiava.....................9

I) Forest Company..................9

j) Aims And Objectives...............10

k) Health Resort in Lithuania..............10
4. Conclusions.....................10

Introduction:

Druskininkai is a Lithuanian health resort, one of the largest in Lithuania, which was created primarily because of the gushing mineral springs in the area. King Stanislav Augustus issued a decree in 1794 declaring Druskininkai a curing centre. The town however became a true resort in 1837 and is well known for itts spas. No matter which road you take, the town unexpectedly emerges from the woods. Its mineral springs, mud baths, modern medical facilities, beaches along Nemunas River attract thousands of people every year. The architecture of the town is shaped by nature itself surrounded by pine forests and picturesque valleys of the Nemunas River, its tributary the Ratnyčia River and the Lake Druskonis right in the centre of town.The area is drowned in an aromatic sea of fir trees. The piine forests, sand and various bodies of water create a unique microclimate in which the air is fragrant and refreshing. The town has many walks, gardens and sculptures. Druskininkai is the birthplace of the outstanding artist and composer M.K.Ciurlionis. There is

s a museum dedicated to his work and also a memorial in the town park. The town is situated in southern Lithuania, on the right bank of the Nemunas River, 135 km from Vilnius.

The Aim of the Project Work

In Lithuania there are a lot of towns and places where I would like to live. The best town I think it is Kaunas or Vilnius. But also I wanted to live in Druskininkai. Situated in southern Lithuania on the right bank of the Nemunas river, the resort of Druskininkai has been shaped by nature itself. The surrounding pine forests, the picturesque valleys of the Nemunas and its tributary the Ratnyčia river, lake Druskonis located right in the centre of town, and a smmall lake called Mergelės Akys (or maiden’s eyes) in a nearby forest, all contribute to what makes the town special. Druskininkai houses a memorial museum to painter and composer M. K. Čiurlionis (1875-1911), who once lived there.

I think it is very nice, good and comfortable place to live for everybody.

The Place I Would Like To Live

GEOGRAPHY

Lithuania is situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic sea and borders with Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. The bigger part of Lithuania is plane, bu

ut the east side of the country is quite hilly. The highest point is Juozapinė hill (294 m). Druskininkai is located in south Lithuania, 130 km away from Vilnius.

CLIMATE

Lithuanian climate is maritime/continental. The highest temperature in July is +30.1°C and the lowest temperature in January is -22.7°C. The mean monthly precipitation is 53.8 mm.

TIME

Lithuanian time is a standard European one (+1 GTM) (the same as in Poland, 1 hour behind Latvian time and 2 hours behind Russian time). CURRENCY

Lithuanian national currency is litas (Lt). A smaller currency unit is cent (cnt.). 100 cnt. = 1 Lt. 1 EUR = 3,4528 Lt.

LANGUAGE

Lithuanian language is an official State language. It belongs to the Indo-European family of languages and is akin to Latvian language. There four different dialects used in Lithuania, that is dialects of Aukštaičiai, Žemaičiai, Dzūkai and Suvalkiečiai. Residents of Druskininkai speak in the dialect of Dzūkai. A lot of people here know English, German or Russian languages besides their native Lithuanian one.

RELIGION

The majority of population are Roman Catholics, but there are also representatives of other religious denominations: Protestants, Evangelic Lutherans, Baptists, Russian Orthodox, etc. There are the following churches in Druskininkai: Šv. Mergelės Marijos škaplierinės Catholic church and Orthodox church.

HISTORY

The first records of Druskininkai were made in 17
765 when it was described as a village with 6 families. Druskininkai name means that it’s residents are living at salty mineral springs and salt production is their main occupation. Those mineral springs are treating people from time immemorial. Druskininkai city was announced a treatment locality by a special decree of the king already in 1794. Since that day the history of Druskininkai health resort has begun. It was actually started by the local dweller Pranas Sūrutis who lived in 18th century and transformed mineral water into the constant treatment business. All the patients who arrived to Druskininkai addressed to this man “the physician”. He treated them by soaking in the barrels full of mineral water. When the father had died, his son Benediktas continued a similar “treatment”. Such a business went on for about 50 years.

According to research data, czar Nikolaj I approved the project of health resort founding on 31 December, 1837 at proposal of the governor of Gardin Dopolmejer. In 1838 there was a spa with 14 bathes opened and run by the doctor L.?emb?ickij. During the first existence year of the health resort 329 patients received treatment there.

In 1850 Druskininkai were expanded by summer theatre, banquet and meeting hall with walking gallery, 30 place seasonal ho
ospital. In 1851 the post office was opened, in 1868 the telegraph and the ferry over Nemunas river began to operate. In 1862 the Petersburg-Warsaw railway was finished and opened.

In the beginning of XX century Druskininkai health resort already had the most necessary treatment establishments and service system. Scientists made a full analysis of mineral water springs and proved their extraordinary value. The number of holidaymakers started to grow rapidly. In 1913 even 9.3 % of all Russian holidaymakers thronged to Druskininkai. This health resort started to attract famous people, such as composer St. Moniu?ka, writer T.Zanas and others. M.K.Čiurlionis was a frequent guest here as his parents lived in this city.

In 1914 when World War I had begun, intense battles were going on in Druskininkai. Half of the city was turned into ashes and mineral water springs were exhausted. On 9 October, 1920 the health resort passed into disposal of the Poles after they had occupied the Vilnius land. The health resort season was opened again only in 1923. In September, 1939 Russian military forces entered Druskininkai and Soviet power was established. Private boarding houses were reorganised to sanatoriums. Spa centres were left as they were. On 23 June, 1941 the Germans invaded Druskininkai. All treatment establishments were assigned only for the service of German army soldiers. On 14 July, 1944 Druskininkai were occupied by the Russian army again. The first holidaymakers came here in 1945.

CITY TODAY

Today Druskininkai is the most beautiful and well-known Lithuanian health resort located in the south of the country. It occupies 22 square kilometres and has about 22,000 inhabitants. City is surrounded by 50 000 ha of pine forests that are dry, sandy and rich of mushrooms. The main activity cultivated in Druskininkai is health centre and spa treatment: mineral water and mud treatments; physical and breathing exercises; bathing and tourism; cultural events.

NATURE

Though Druskininkai city is far away from the sea, but it also has it’s own dunes. They are mainland ones and not similar to the sea-coast dunes. They are overgrown by pine forests. Juniper prevail in those dunes and the ground is covered by lichen. There are a lot of different herbs growing there: thyme, Saint John’s wort, etc. Also the dunes are rich of mushrooms. The forest has an important role in the life of local dwellers. It forms their philosophy and character. The pineries prevail among the forests. They are rich of various fauna and especially liked by the birds: larks, great snipes, woodpeckers, sea eagles, owls and eagle-owls. Also you can find a lot of rare insects in Druskininkai pine forests. In the sun warmed up places of the pine forests you can often see agile lizards, common grass snakes and blind-worms. The most noticeable small beast is a common squirrel. In the outskirts of the forest or fields you can also meet a grey hare. The most wide spread beast of prey is the red fox. Wolves, lynxes and wild boars are also found in the forests of Dzūkija.The biggest animal found in the pine forests is an elk. It likes the large pine forests. Roe-deers can be seen at streamlets or outlying fields. Druskininkai forests attract not only the mushroom but also the berry gatherers as there are a lot of bilberries, red bilberries, raspberries and sea buckthorn berries there.

ENVIRONS;RAIGARDAS VALLEY

Raigardas valley is the biggest in the country landscape reserve (it’s area is 14 km from the west to the east and 4 km from the north to the south). It was founded about 5000 years ago due to the increase of Nemunas river bend and it’s advance to the right. Nemunas has left several old riverbeds in the valley and two of them has turned into small lakes. Raigardas is a source of a lot of legends and stories. Also it is a favourite place of the painter M.K.Čiurlionis who perpetuated it in his triptych “Raigardas”.

LIŠKIAVA

Church and abbey – in 1694 Liškiava was governed by Vladislovas Jurgis Kosyla. He gave to Dominican monks Liškiava manor as thanks for saving his life. Then the monks build a church and an abbey on that land. It is a beautiful rococo style complex. Later on this abbey was used as a prison for the servants of God from 1836 till 1852. Then this prison was transferred to Poland.

Mound – In XIII century the building of a castle with 4 towers was begun. The area of inner yard of the castle was about 2500 m2 . This was rather a small castle. But it was never finished because the war between Lithuanians and Crusaders came to an end in 1410. Till our days there has remained only the foundations (3 m high) of one main tower.

FOREST COMPANY

Druskininkai Forest Company was founded in 1951. It is a small piece of land on Lithuania’s map. However life here goes on. Forestry operates 15,3 thousand ha of state forest, supervises 6 thousand ha of privatized but not restored to private owners forest. Middle-aged stands dominate in our forests (55%), young plantations comprise 20%, ripe wood – 11%. Major wood species is Pine (88%). We restore 80 ha of forest annually, raise same amount of young plantations. One of the most actual tasks for today is forests prevention from fire. Forestry observes the territory from fire-towers, 2 brigades of firemen supplied with special equipment and the means of communication are on duty during the most favorable period for fire. A big problem of last decade is forest insects-pests invasions. During the 1990-1996 years 22 thousand ha of forests were affected by insects-pests, 7000 of them were processed by biological preparation. In 2001 intense danger was infused with mass spread of Pine beauty (Panolis flammea Schif.). With help of aviation 11 thousand ha of forest were sprayed with biological and chemical preparations. Private and state forests were rescued.

Forest company supplies about 33000 m3 of round wood annually. Production is exported to Germany, Sweden, Poland, Russia and other countries. The strategic objective of Druskininkai Forest Company is to secure sustainable and multipurpose management of the forests, to ensure protection and harmonious interaction of environment, biodiversity, landscape, natural and cultural values.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1. Establish an up-to-date coaching, recreation and treatment center for national and international sports teams.
2. Save present and established new working places in sphere of sport services.
3. Renovate unique physical training and climate therapy park in Lithuania.

HEALTH RESORT IN LITHUANIA

Druskininkai is a health resort town with facilities for balneological, mud and climate therapy.It is situated in southern Lithuania, on the right bank of the river Nemunas. The architecture of the town is shaped by the nature itself – by the surrounding pine forests, the picturesque valleys of the Nemunas and its tributary Ratnycia, lake Druskonis right in the middle of the town and a small lake Mergeles akys (Maiden’s eyes) in a nearby forest. The following disorders are treated here: gastrointestinal, cardiac and blood vessel, motor and support systems and nervous system. There are seven sanatoria and balneophysiological therapy centre. The inhabitants of Druskininkai used the mineral water as a curative back in the XVII century, and in 1794, Druskininkai was officially declared as a health resort town.

Conclusions

Druskininkai is very nice, wonderful place to live or to spend your leisure time.

I wrote project work about this resort town and now I know a lot of new things about Druskininkai. There is huge public concern about the destruction of the world’s forests. More and more people demand products that come from well-managed forests.

I think that if you read this project work, you will scent a lot about this place. And you will want to come there very much, because it is incredible and very good place for having better health.

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