Sćo Paulo : Big City, Big Problems
SUMMER RAINSSince the foundation of Sćo Paulo, flood caused by summer rains has always been a serious problem, almost paralyzing the whole city. Year after year, many people die during these tropical rains, which devastate large areas of the city. 2000 was no exception. In March, inside the Anhangabaś Tunnel, in the downtown area, more than 160 vehicles got blocked by the rising water and were submerged as the tunnel flooded and the pumps didn’t work fast enough. All over the city 14 people died and lots of houses and shops were invaded by mud and water. A member of our group had to wait for about three hours until he could get home after school because his car was blocked by the water. This problem is caused not only by the torrential rains, but also by the fact that the city doesn’t have an efficient and modern sewage system. Nutekamuju vandenuVIOLENCE: WHERE AND HOW MANY VICTIMS ? Violence is another serious problem in Sćo Paulo. On an average day, about 20 people die violently in the city. Among these 20 people, all social classes are present. What strikes us is the fact that sometimes these murders zmogzudyste are committed for stupid reasons such as fights between rival football club supporters or even between students. Although the most violent smurtines areas are located downtown centras and in the eastern part of the city, no neighborhood can be considered completely safe. A friend of ours was mugged uzpultas on a street near the Morumbi Football Stadium, located in an upper-middle class district of the city. POVERTYAlthough Sćo Paulo is the wealthiest turtingiausias city in Brazil, poverty neturtas is still one of the major problems the city has to face. Its signs can be seen everywhere, for 39% of the “Paulistanos” live below the poverty line. One of the reasons for this paradox can be found in the unequal distribution of wealth. For example, a director of a big company can earn about 45,000 “reais” a month (about $26,000) while a salesperson can get a minimum salary (136 “reais” or $68). Also, a lot of poor people work for only a half of a minimum salary, without health insurance or social security.After having seen some of the problems Sćo Paulo has, we concluded that for our city to improve, there should be more security in the streets and we should also elect better politicians who really care for Sćo Paulo and for the people who live and work here.
Los Angeles–a city of all possibilities su visom galimybem and persuasions–appeals to a broad mix of visitors, from foodies and celebrities to wannabe stars and families in search of the perfect vacation.
Children know the city as the home of Mickey Mouse (even though he actually lives in neighboring Orange County). Around the world, people know it for Hollywood, and the celluloid image of the city created and recreated in films. Others disparage it as a phony enclave of shallow egotists, as well as the scene of some nasty riots and notorious murders.
As America’s second-largest city, Los Angeles is home to a vibrant mix of ethnic groups and cultures. In addition, it remains the West Coast’s major financial and manufacturing center.
The urban sprawl of Greater L.A. absorbs hundreds of separate cities, thousands of square miles, and millions of people. Much of it has been portrayed in thousands of television shows and movies, creating conflicting images.
Modern Los Angeles is a result of cheap land and cheap gas. Vast neighborhoods of single-story housing, most with backyards, sprawl over city street grids–which prompted novelist Raymond Chandler to describe it as “a big, hard-boiled city with no more personality than a paper cup.”
The city was named and incorporated iregistruotas in 1850, after California had become an American state. It remained small and unimportant until the arrival of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1885, after which it began to grow as the center of a prime agricultural region.
The discovery of oil diversified the economy, and manufacturers started arriving to take advantage of the snowless winters. The motion picture industry–which shaped and marketed the city’s image more than any other force–found the area’s sunny climate ideal for making films.
To assist its burgeoning growth, the city annexed land to build a port at San Pedro, and obtained rights to the Owens River, east of the distant Sierra Nevada, for its water supply.
Los Angeles experienced phenomenal growth in the 20th century. Although the city has lost much of its luster to the usual big-city problems–crime, smog, traffic jams, and urban miestieciu sprawl vangumas, as well as drought, wildfire, earthquake, and mudslides–it continues to attract immigrants from around the world.
And despite the bad press, the majority of residents manage to co-exist quite peacefully
Mexico City is the world’s third largest city, with an estimated population of about 18 million (Ezcurra and Maziri-Hiriat 1996). Increasing population — the annual growth rate is about 2 percent — coupled with the accelerating socially-derived problems, such as potable geriamas water supplies, waste naudoto water removal, and garbage disposal, mean that there are going to be severe challenges to the community in the near future. Couple these problems with the natural hazards inherent in the positioning of Mexico City and the importance of the geosciences in planning becomes very obvious. In this short note I shall describe some of the geological problems which beset Mexico City. These problems are not unique to large cities, but this megalopolis exemplifies some of the more serious aspects volcanic hazarts