Developing healthy eating habits isn’t as confusing or as restrictive as many people imagine. The first principle of a healthy diet is simply to eat a wide variety of foods. This is important because different foods make different nutritional contributions.
Secondly, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes—foods high in complex carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals, low in fat, and free of cholesterol—should make up the bulk of the calories you consume. The rest should come from low-fat dairy products, lean meeat and poultry, and fish.
You should also try to maintain a balance between calorie intake and calorie expenditure—that is, don’t eat more food than your body can utilize. Otherwise, you will gain weight. The more active you are, therefore, the more you can eat and still maintain this balance.
Following these three basic steps doesn’t mean that you have to give up your favorite foods. As long as your overall diet is low in fat and rich in complex caarbohydrates, there is nothing wrong with an occasional cheeseburger. Just be sure to limit how frequently you eat such foods, and try to eat small portions of them.
You can also view healthy eating as an opportunity to expand your ra
The following basic guidelines are what you need to know to construct a healthy diet.
1 Limit your total fat intake. Fat should supply less than 30% of your total daily calories. Limit your intake of fat by having a semi-vegetarian diet. Choose lean meats, light-meat poultry without the skin, fish, and low-fat dairy products. In addition, cut back on vegetable oils and butter—or foods made with these—as well as on mayonnaise, salad dressings, and fried foods.
2 Eat foods rich in complex carbohydrates. Carbohydrates should contribute at least 55% of your total daily calories. Too help meet this requirement, eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and six or more servings of grains or legumes daily. This will help you obtain the 20 to 30 grams of dietary fiber you need each day, as well as provide important vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals.
3 Avoid too much sugar. Besides contributing to tooth decay, sugar is a source of “empty” calories, and many foods that are high in sugar are also high in fat. What is more, cut back on yo
4 Make sure to include fruits and vegetables—such as broccoli, carrots, cantaloupe, and citrus fruits. The antioxidants and other nutrients in these foods are regarded as increasingly important in helping protect against developing certain types of cancer and other diseases. Eat five or more servings a day.
5 Maintain a moderate protein intake. Protein should make up about 12% of your total daily calories. Choose low-fat sources such as nuts, legumes and cereal foods (rice, wheat).
6 Eat a variety of foods. Don’t try to fill your nutrient requirements by eating the same foods day in, day out. It is possible that not every essential nutrient has been identified, and so eating a wide assortment of foods helps to ensure that you will get all the necessary nutrients.
7 Maintain an adequate calcium intake. Calcium is essential for strong bones and teeth. Get your calcium from low-fat sources, such as skim milk and low-fat yogurt. If you can’t get the optimal amount from foods, take supplements.
8 Consider taking supplements of the antioxidant vitamins E and C. Also consider taking a basic daily multivitamin/mineral supplement, especially if you are a woman of child-bearing age (who ne
9 If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. That is one drink a day for women, two a day for men. A drink is defined as 12 ounces of beer, 4 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof spirits. Excess alcohol consumption leads to a variety of health problems. And alcoholic beverages can add many calories to your diet without supplying nutrients.
Nowadays there is a huge variety of entertainment and one of the most popular is cinema. So I would like to express my opinion about films I watch.
To begin with, the greatest influence on my choice about films is made by my friends. We usually share information with each other about the latest films. So if we decide that e new movie is rather good we just buy tickets and go to the cinema to watch it. However, sometimes we don’t agree with each other if a film is worth watching. In that case, we start a long discussion about actors and actress starring in that film, genre, special effects, directors and sometimes soundtracks are included. For me well-known actors/actress and genre ar
Another important thing while choosing a film is reviews in press. I usually read opinions about released films in newspaper or magazine, but like I said the last decision is made by my friends, except those times when we can’t find a compromise. If such a thing happens, adverts on TV and radio help me to decide about a film.
What is more, a lot of people are influenced by reduced prices in cinema, but I and my friends have strong a opinion prices, if movie is worth watching nothing except war or diseases can prevent us from seeing it.
I think a good movie should be watched in a cinema in order to notice all the special effects on the big screen and to be thrilled by amazing acoustics. On the other hand, if you don’t know English well you will have to read titles, so you won’t concentrate enough on the movie.
Seeing a new film on video is also a good idea as you have the ability to analyse every single detail and to watch again if you don’t understand something, but you won’t be so thrilled as watching in the cinema.
Many people decide to wait until a new film is shown on TV, so that they won’t have to pay for watching it, but in my opinion it isn’t worth waiting for years, because you aren’t sure if that film will be on your TV channels’ list.
In conclusion, I would like to say that cinema is a good type of entertainment, so if you feel exhausted after a hard day, a good movie will always help you to relax.
Nowadays our life isn’t safe. It seems that neither police, nor government can guarantee public safety. Statistics show that violent crimes at present have increased. So no one can live in peace and feel safe even in his own home. This situation in Lithuania is getting hopeless.
The fact shows that there isn’t a day in a week without murders, robberies or burglaries. Radio, television and other mass media present news that cars are often stolen by criminals or thieves in Lithuania. What is more, we are not safe enough early in the morning or late in the evening in the streets, because muggers can attack us any time.
There are various kinds of crime nowadays in Lithuania. A lot of dangerous criminals are allowed to escape and roam free. There are more and more burglars, kidnappers, murders, muggers and arsonist, who commit crimes and succeed in escaping penalties by engaging good lawyers.
Most often burglars break into one’s house through the open window or unlocked door and it makes no difference whether it is day or night. They usually take expensive things or money and leave the house in an awful mess. So people should always check if all the windows are closed and all the doors are locked. Also they could install an alarm system. Moreover, in Lithuania burglars and muggers usually murder people for only a small amount of money and especially they attack old people who are too weak to defence themselves.
Juvenile delinquency has become a serious problem as well. The most urgent youth problems are narcotics, alcohol, shoplifting and also mugging. Teenagers become addicted to bad habits at a very early age, so government and parents should solve the youth problem and prevent them from crimes and bad habits.
Some people rob and commit crimes, because of hunger or poverty. But the worst thing is that, if you are poor and can’t afford to have a good lawyer, you can be convicted of murder and imprisoned even being completely innocent. Sometimes it is very sad, because there is one law for the rich and another for the poor people.
If I were the Minister of Justice I would make some changes. Firstly, I would send more policemen to patrol in the streets-especially in the evening, so that people could go for a walk without fear. Secondly, I would restore death punishment. Very dangerous criminals would die and wouldn’t be social burden Finally, I would tighten laws and improve very strict punishments. I think all those changes have effect and there would be less crimes in Lithuania.
Lithuania has a very beautiful landscape, but environment pollution is increasing every day. So if people don’t make any changes we soon won’t have a quite and clean place to relax, also fauna and flora won’t have their natural habitat. For this reason they will become extinct. This is the main fact why conservation groups try to protect and expand national parks or conservation areas in Lithuania.
As I mentioned Lithuania is very attractive for its landscape, but do fauna and flora feel safe in those areas? The answer is no. This is so, because people don’t bother about the environment. They drop litter everywhere they go and so these can cause a lot of problems. Cigarette butts and matches can start fires, so fauna and flora can be destroyed. What is more, broken bottles, rusty cans and empty packages spoil the countryside, let alone that they can cause serious injuries, especially to wild animals.
Another problem is deforestation, which is caused by burning or cutting down trees. As a result, there are no wolves and bears left in Lithuania. Also pollution and poachers are at fault. Chemical waste are released into the air and water, so animals’ natural habitat become polluted and unsuitable to live and poachers hunt endangered animals, so these animals become extinct more quickly.
Conservation groups try to prevent such things in national parks, but they don’t have enough money and equipment to ensure the security and to catch every offender. Such places like Nida, Kursiu Nerija, Ignalina national park are the natural habitat for many species of animals and plants, but these species don’t feel safe there. So I think that the government should pay more attention to this problem. At first, they should give bigger fines and spend more money on the protection of national parks. Secondly, they should expand the territories of Lithuanian national parks and conservation areas, so that fauna and flora could be safe in their natural surrounding.
Once you visit these beautiful places, you can’t believe that Lithuania has such an amazing landscape. I have visited national parks of Kursiu Nerija and Nida and I was stunned by those enormous sandhills, which can be found only in a few countries and Lithuania is one of them.
So in conclusion I want to say that Lithuanian people should be proud that they have such a beautiful landscape and they should also try to protect it from pollution, deforestation and poachers.
EUROPEAN UNION & NATO
NATO and the EU are two big and powerful organizations and they have a lot of member countries, which support each other with essential things (as money and new technologies). There are a lot of opinions of joining such organizations. Some people say that it is beneficial to be a member of NATO and the EU, while others disagree with this idea. So I would like to express my opinion about both NATO and the EU.
Firstly, I would like to speak about the EU. The EU is a unique treaty organization managing economic and political cooperation between European countries. The process of integration began in 1950’s by six countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands). The goal of the union remained the same ever since – to create an ever closer union among the people of Europe.
So a few positive things should be mentioned. First, People have the ability to travel easier than they could before. It is very convenient, as you do not have to wait hours at the customs. Second, there are more opportunities to apply for a job abroad. Employers from other countries are tended to search qualified workers in new member countries, where a lot of good specialist just dream of working abroad. Last, members receive a lot of financial support from the EU, which is very important for the economy of every country.
On the other hand, there are some disadvantages of joining the EU. To begin with, some companies will have to be shut down, because they do not suit the EU standards, so a lot of people will loose their jobs. What is more, cheep productions from other member countries will be imported, so companies which make more expensive, but usually better in quality items will just become bankrupt.
Now I would like to say a few words about NATO. NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It is a military alliance of Western nations for the purpose of collective defense. It was established by the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949.
At first, positive aspects should be considered. If countries decide to join NATO they will get all type of necessary protection against enemies and they won’t have to be afraid of losing their independence. Furthermore, this organization supports with money and helps to modernize military technologies. Besides, military bases will be built and soldiers will secure such countries all the time.
Despite having great advantages, joining NATO also has some drawbacks. Firstly, the preparation to join NATO requires a lot of money and it would be more beneficial to modernize the economy of the country, than to spend huge sums of money on joining NATO. Secondly, member countries have to send their soldiers to dangerous places and to secure them, so it is believed that people shouldn’t risk their own lives for other countries.
So In conclusion, I would like to say that joining the EU and NATO is very useful, but member countries should not forget about the disadvantages these organizations have.
Nowadays it is very important to know a foreign language, because you have the ability to socialize with people from all over the world. In fact, there is a huge variety of languages these days and people just can’t learn all of them. Because of this, the easiest learnt language was chosen to communicate with people from foreign countries. That language is English.
To begin with, millions of people study and use English as a foreign language. It is the language of progressive science and technology, trade and cultural relations, commerce and business. It is also the major language of diplomacy. In our country it is very popular too: it is studied at schools, colleges and universities. So if you know English you won’t have problems abroad. You can socialize with people, read books and papers, listen to the songs words and even watch films without translation. What is more, it is easier to apply for a job.
In my opinion people should concentrate on learning a foreign language at an early age, because when you are young and your mind isn’t crammed with information you learn everything quicker. For example, English, Russian and German are taught at my school. I am only good at English, because I have been learning it since second form and now I can speak it fluently. However, I started to learn Russian at sixth form and this language was very hard for me to learn, because I had to pay a lot of attention to other subjects, so finally I decided to reject Russian.
To overcome such problems, in 2001 on the 26th of September Europe started celebrating the Day of Languages. The aims of this day are to alert the public to the importance of language learning, to increase awareness and appreciation of all the languages spoken in Europe and to encourage lifelong language learning.
At my school we also celebrate the Day of Languages. Not only pupils but also teachers are involved in the organization of this day. They usually find a material about foreign countries, their customs and traditions and try to educate other pupils. Though the main idea of this event is to explain the importance of learning foreign languages.
HISTORY OF CHRISTMAS
People have celebrated a mid-winter festival since pre-historic times. They marked the beginning of longer hours of daylight with fires and ritual offerings. The Roman festival of Saturnalia — a time for feasting and gambling — lasted for weeks in December. Germanic tribes of Northern Europe also celebrated mid-winter with feasting, drinking and religious rituals.
It’s thought that Jesus of Nazareth was born in springtime. December 25th was chosen for the celebration of his birth by a Pope, Julius I, in the 4th century — to include a Christian element in the long-established mid-winter festivals.
Also in the 4th century, a bishop in Turkey who came to be called St. Nicholas was known for good deeds involving children. St. Nicholas is illustrated in medieval and renaissance paintings as a tall, dignified and severe man. His feast day on December 6 was celebrated throughout Europe until about the 16th century. Afterwards, he continued to be known in Protestant Holland.
Dutch children would put shoes by the fireplace for St. Nicholas or Sinter Klaas and leave food out for his horse. He’d gallop on his horse between the rooftops and drop candy down the chimneys into the children’s shoes. Meanwhile, his assistant, Black Peter, was the one who popped down the chimneys to leave gifts behind. Dutch settlers brought the legend of Sinter Klaas to North America — where we came to know him as Santa Claus. The jolly old elf with his sleigh drawn by reindeer was first described by Clement Clarke Moore, in the poem The Night Before Christmas.
Although it was never celebrated in biblical times, Christmas is celebrated in local churches here in Visalia, California in praise of the fact that God loved us so much, he sent his one and only son to earth. He was wholey god and wholey man. Whereas we have succumbed to the temptations of this earth, Jesus was able to overcome all temptations and live a sinless life. He was then crucified as the perfect sacrifice for our sins. One can not understand why we celebrate the birth of Christ without seeing the other end of his life. He was crucified for our sins and resurrected.
Christmas was declared a Federal Holiday in America on June 26, 1870 under the government headed by President Ulysses S. Grant during the period of reconstruction following the American Civil War. Thus, it is untrue that Christmas has always been a Federal holiday. When Charles Dickens published his Christmas Carol in 1843, the US Government was a Scrooge and remained so for 26 years. However, it is a holiday in the United States this year!
Thus, in our culture a question to ask is whether Christmas is a seasonal celebration of winter or a religious celebration honoring the birth of Christ. In truth, it is a mixture of both with, as any economist will confirm, quite a bit of materialism thrown in.Have a Great Season, My Great Friend!
In today’s fast-moving world, people have less time to spend eating, let alone cooking. It is so, because junk food became very popular. In fact, one British hotel group recently announced that its guests are able to order fast food through room service. This move signify a new era in the couch potato lifestyle. So what exactly is junk food.
Basically, it is anything that is high in calories but lacking in nutrition. Hamburgers, crisps, chocolate bars, hot dogs and pizzas fall in this category.
Obviously, a diet of junk food is not the best thing for your health, particularly as it is high in saturated fat. In 1993, the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reported this type of fat to be associated with greater risk of cancer.
Apart from the risk of cancer, another side effect of consuming highly fattening junk food is that you are likely to gain weight. This is especially true because you tend to eat more, as junk food is less satisfying and lower in vital nutrients that healthier food.
The best advice for those who cannot live without their hamburgers or chocolate bars, is to limit the amount of junk food they eat. Low consuming probably do no harm. But why have our eating habits changed? One expert says that it is lack of time and loss of tradition.
He explains that people are too busy to cook and eat proper meals, so they grab whatever is available – and that is usually junk food. Also, the style of life represented on TV, in music videos, is fast. Young people pick up the idea that speed means excitement, whereas anything traditional is low and boring. As a result, they turn down traditional food and go for junk food instead.
Another alarming thing is that the amount of junk food we eat has increased and the amount of exercise we do has decreased. Exercises keep the body fit and healthy, also help to control our weight and, if taken regularly, can decrease our chances of having a heart attack in later life.
What is more, you don’t have to exercise much to gain visible benefits. Doctors say that twenty minutes’ exercise three times a week is all that is necessary.
Even though people nowadays are actually far more aware of the importance of exercise and a healthy diet than they were a few years ago, the new unhealthy way of life is surprisingly popular. This is illustrated by statistics gathered by researchers over the past two decades.
Recent research has shown that young French people, who prefer junk food to gourmet dishes, tend to become overweight. Weight gained in adolescence is extremely hard to lose in later life, so researches are predicting that the new French generation are not going to be admired for their slim figures as the French have traditionally been.
Researchers suggest that the new generation will suffer from heart and liver disease. What can’t be emphasised enough is the fact that a balanced diet and regular exercise bring significant health benefits.
You can gain anything from glowing skin to an all-round feeling of good health, but the vast majority of people seem to be missing out on this due to the pressures of modern life.
Ironically, if people make time to exercise and improve their eating habits, they would probably find that they were far better equipped to deal with their stressful lifestyles that they are now.
LITHUANIA IN 50 YEARS’ TIME
Nowadays a lot of people in Lithuania predict that in 50 years’ time from now everything would change greatly and to the positive side. So I will try to imagine the future of Lithuania and speak about the changes in economy, science and education.
To begin with, the most important aspect for all the Lithuanians is economy. It is believed, that some time later people in Lithuania would live better, because they will have better living conditions. For example, there would be more workplaces, so the number of unemployed people would decrease. As a result, less people would commit crimes. What is more, the salaries would be higher, so people would become richer and they could spend more money on entertainment.
Another very important aspect which is supposed to change significantly is science. I think that in 50 years’ time due to the development of science people would be able to travel in space comfortably and even they could have holidays on the Moon. Though such leisure time would be rather expensive, but richer people in Lithuania could afford it. Furthermore, there would be a lot of changes in medicine, so people would be cured quicker and there would be less incurable diseases.
Speaking about education I can say that due to the development of technologies it would also change and it would be better than today’s one. I think that the greatest changes would be in schools. For example, future schools would be equipped with modern technologies, which would help to gain knowledge faster. Moreover, human teachers would be replaced with robot teachers and every student would have his own computer. In my opinion education in 50 years’ time would be more effective and learning would be much easier.
In conclusion, I would like to say that in modern Lithuania the standard of life would be as good as in other modern countries and every citizen of Lithuania would feel happy and safe living in his homeland.
These days there is a great variety of national and regional newspapers in Lithuania. So people have a possibility to choose which press to buy and read. On the other hand, newspapers aren’t always a good type of mass media, because sometimes some articles aren’t true.
To begin with, I would like to speak about the positive sides of newspapers. The best thing about today’s press is that it provides us with information and events from all over the world. For example, you can find everything from sport events to disasters. This is very convenient as all this information is only in one paper. What is more, newspapers are rather cheep, so there shouldn’t be problems in buying them. But there is one small problem, if you want to get information form the press you should know how to read.
However, this type of mass media has its own disadvantages. The main negative aspect in today’s press is rumours and lies. Usually politicians, TV stars and other important people are involved in such things. Imagine how terrible would you feel when you read nonsense about yourself in the latest newspaper. In fact, sometimes such problems even have to be considered in the court.
If I were an editor of one of the newspapers I would offer to the readers more positive sides of our lives. For example, beautiful places to visit, courageous rescues and other shine things from all over the world, because nowadays there is too much information about disasters, crimes and people begin to think that our world is becoming worse and worse.
But what can be done if today’s editors know that such information sells best and people are most interested in it.
Maybe the youth press is a little bit different from other, because it always writes about teenagers’ problems and how to deal with them, so there is less violence in such magazines.
I think that material published in the youth press is rather good and actual, so I wouldn’t make any changes there.
In conclusion, I would like to say that newspapers are good source of knowledge, but they also have some drawbacks.
Profile education in Lithuania was introduced not so long ago. A lot of people are satisfied with this system, because it has a lot of advantages. However, profile education is new to our country, so it isn’t strange that it has some disadvantages.
First of all, few positive things should be mentioned. Students can choose what subjects they want to learn, so they can study less subjects and they have more time for relaxation. Besides, pupils have the ability to concentrate on those subjects which they need most. Another good thing of profile education is that you have a better preparation for your final exams, as you learn only those subjects that you need and you pay more attention to them. What is more, students improve their knowledge on subjects which they need in future.
Despite having a lot of good points, profile education also has some great drawbacks. Firstly, it is too early for pupils to decide about profile. They are only sixteen and they don’t have a strong opinion about subjects to learn in future. Secondly, this system creates gaps in timetables, so students and teachers sometimes have to wait even for two hours for another lesson. This is very inconvenient and tiring and students usually go home and don’t wait for such a long time, so they can’t get proper education. Finally, there is no balance yet between universities requirements and schools. You learn one kind of subjects at school and when you go to university you have to know such subjects which you didn’t learn at school, so students have to go to tutors and pay a lot of money for teaching.
I think that profile education is good for all schools, but some great changes should be made to improve this system.
Speaking about school leaving exams I can say that I am satisfied with the system of exams, because it is the only chance to test your knowledge and to make sure that you didn’t waste your time at school. Furthermore, examination records help to decide if you are ready to enter university or still have to learn a lot.
I would also like to add that some changes should be made in our educational system. To begin with, more qualified teachers should work in schools, so that they could teach students seriously. What is more, bad pupils, who don’t attend and only disturb lessons, should be sent to special schools, so that teachers could teach and other students could gain knowledge.
In conclusion, I would like to say that education is very important in people’s life. So we should deal with all the weaknesses in educational system and try to gain as much knowledge as we can.
SMOKING & DRUGS
Nowadays more and more people in Lithuania, especially the youth, become addicted to bad habits (e.g. smoking, drugs, alcohol) and this problem is very serious because it causes a lot of damage. So I would like to express my opinion about two bad habits: smoking and drugs.
First of all, I would like to speak about smoking. This is the most acceptable bad habit in Lithuania and many people can’t imagine their routine without cigarettes.
There are several reasons why these people start smoking. Teenagers often smoke, because their parents smoke and they also want to try it. Another reason is that they don’t want to be different from their friends who smoke. What is more, advertisements have a big influence on people, because they just persuade to try smoking. This problem was bigger a few years ago, when cigarette advertisements were aloud. I think our government made a right decision, that they banned cigarette promotion. So I can say that smoking among teenagers is a matter of fashion and among adults is a way to relieve stress.
I am a non-smoker, because I understand the harm which cigarettes cause and I just don’t like the taste and smell of them. In addition, I think that smoking shouldn’t be legalized in schools, because it causes a lot of health problems and the prestige of a school is spoilt.
Now I would like to say a few words about drug abuse. It is becoming the course of 21st century, but why do the young get engaged into this harmful habit? The main answer is curiosity. People usually try drugs, because they are curious about new senses. In the beginning it is believed that you can stop using drugs any time, but when you try them you become addicted to them and you just can’t stop using them.
Only for a few years people feel pleasure taking a new dose, but after that only addiction remains and you want bigger and bigger doses. In fact, consequences are very cruel. First, you become week. Next, you catch diseases very quick. And final, this harmful habit can lead to the death.
To solve this problem our government and society should take some actions. Firstly, they should educate people about the harm of drug abuse. Secondly, strict punishments should be introduced for selling drugs. Finally, more rehabilitation centres should be built, so that addicts have a place where to give up this bad habit.
In conclusion, I would like to say that people should think a lot before trying a cigarette or a drug, because later your life can be ruined.
The first sport events can be found in ancient Greece. The Greeks took games of all kinds very seriously, but especially physical athletic competition. They believed that their gods particularly loved to see strong, fit, graceful human bodies, especially boys’ and men’s bodies. So one way to get on the good side of the gods was to exercise, to eat right, to oil your skin and to create a beautiful body that the gods would love. Because of the Greek tendency to turn everything into a competition, this also meant that there were a lot of athletic competitions in Greece. The most famous of these is the Olympic Games. The Olympic Games were named after the village of Olympia in Greece where they first originally took place in 776 BC.
Young men (from richer families who didn’t have to work) in most Greek cities spent a lot of their time training for these competitions, and the best of them were chosen to compete against the best young men from other cities. Then they all met, at the Olympic and competed for prizes and for the favor of the gods. Of course these games also served as good training for the army, because all these men would be soldiers as well. The events were the same kind as in the Olympics today: running, jumping, throwing a javelin, and throwing a discus. Only men could compete and there was always a feeling that losing at games meant that the gods didn’t like you.
Greek boys also played games which were not part of the Olympic games, like field hockey. They usually played games without their clothes on and so girls were not allowed to watch.
Not only Greek people liked sport, but also Egyptians, Romans and other nations enjoyed to compete. Many of the games these nations played a long time ago, we still play today. Other games have now been completely forgotten. Most of them are fun to play, though. Ball games have been known for thousands of years. People made balls out of leather stuffed with cloth scraps or wool, sewn together with leather thongs or string. So these first steps of ball games gave as two very popular sports such as basketball and football, which nowadays attracts millions of people, who watch men or women competing for the victory. What is more, basketball became so popular in Lithuania that you could hardly find a Lithuanian, who wouldn’t know anything about Lithuanian national basketball team, it’s best players and victories. We also have such good athletes as Virgilijus Alekna – discus thrower, who won gold medals in Sydney and Athens, Austra Skujytė, who won silver medal in Athens at heptathlon, and many others, who always cheer Lithuanian nation with thier terrific victories.
The terrible event for all the ancient athletes were in 393 AD, when the emperor Theodosius abolished the Olympics because he thought they were not religious enough. This ban lasted till 1896, when the frenchman named Baron Pierre de Coubertin revived The Olympics and the first modern Olympic Games took place again in Athens. So after one thousand and five hundred years all the world athlets could again compete for the victory and for the glory.
So in clonclusion I want to say that the greatest wealth in the world is health and if you exercise regularly you will be healthy and won‘t have so many health problems at old age.
I would like to speak about technological development, which changes our learning and studying. Besides I will try to imagine school in 100 years’ time and describe it.
First of all, I would like to say that nowadays the level of technology has become very high and it is still increasing. As you know the main target of it is to make our life easier to live, so it practically changed everything beginning with brainwork and ending with manual labour. As a result, learning and studying in many modern countries are changing rapidly. For example, books are being replaced by computers, because when you are working working with computer you can find useful information faster than reading a book. Computer is usually connected to the Internet, which is the best source of knowledge and information, so you can find almost everything what you need for your studies. Besides, satellite TV changes learning too. It gives a wide variety of programs that you can watch and learn from them. So modern educational system usually advice students to watch satellite TV programs and improve their skills of foreign languages. What is more, cinema can not only entertain, but also as satellite TV is very useful for learning foreign languages, because when you are watching something enjoyable you learn quicker and easier.
Speaking about school in 100 years’ time I can say that it will change greatly and probably will be better than today‘s school. I think future schools will be equipped with modern technologies. First of all, teachers will be replaced by robots, which will know all the learning material exactly, so they will be able to explain everything and without any mistakes. Furthermore, the government won‘t have to pay salaries to these robots, so more money will be invested in new technologies. Secondly, all the students will have their own computers at school, so they will gain knowledge faster. Finally, future schools will have their own satellite TV programs, in order to improve students‘ skills of foreign languages. In my opinion future schools will be much more effective than today’s ones, because entertainment and learning will be perfectly balanced.
In conclusion, I would like to say that technological development plays an important role in our lives. Without it our society would not exist.
Nowadays we can’t imagine our lives without transport. We use public transport, bicycles, cars and other types of transport to get from one place to another. This is very convenient, as walking on foot takes much more time. However, there are some disadvantages as well.
To begin with, people usually buy cars and they don’t think about the damage they cause. So if I had a chance to get any car I want I would choose such a vehicle which uses solar power or electricity as fuel. So this car would be more economical because solar power costs nothing and electricity is much cheaper than petrol. What is more, it would be environmentally friendly, because such vehicles don’t poison our air with exhaust.
Another great problem is driving. These days driving tests are difficult enough and preparation time for them is rather short. So a person, who had never driven a car before, can’t learn everything properly and because of this he has to pay extra money for more driving lessons. In my opinion, government should take this problem under consideration. In addition, to avoid a huge number of accidents stricter traffic laws should be introduced. So that drivers would pay attention to the speed limits and would be afraid to drive drunk.
Speaking about traffic problems, they are becoming more and more serious in Lithuania. In order to decrease them some actions should be taken. First, only public transport should be allowed to drive into the city center, so there would be less pollution and traffic jams. Second, cycling should be more tolerated. Traveling by bicycle is environmentally friendly, because it doesn’t use any petrol and you don’t pollute the environment. In that case, it is the most economical type of transport and it is also quite cheep. Furthermore, cycling is a good exercise for your body and it can help you to stay fit and improve your help. Besides, bicycles are quick in heavy traffic, because you don’t have to wait in traffic jams.
On the other hand, traveling by bicycle is dangerous, because you can fall and hurt yourself. Also unhealthy fumes breathed in is very dangerous for your health. In addition, bicycles aren’t good for long trips, as you can’t take a lot of things with you and you aren’t protected from bad weather.
In conclusion, I would like to say that transport problems are increasing rapidly, so our government should pay more attention to them and try to decrease them.
Lithuania is situated in the middle of Europe, in the northeast shore of the Baltic sea. So our country has a maritime climate: wet, moderate winters and summers. Due to the geographical position the weather is very changeable and the seasons are indistinct.
Usually winters in Lithuania are mild. We seldom have snowfalls and if the snow sometimes covers the ground it thaws in a jiffy. It often sleets in winter and then the roads become muddy and wet. Such weather is really dreadful. But the most awful thing happens when the frost returns again and then all the roads, streets and pavements become icy. It’s very dangerous to walk and lots of people break their bones when they slip and fall.
But sometimes winters in Lithuania are quite different. There can be a lot of heavy snowfalls and all the rivers can freeze over. In some cases the average temperature reach 20 degrees below zero.
Same things can also happen with summers. We had summers when the temperature was about 25 degrees above zero and such heat was just unbearable, lots of people couldn’t sleep at night. What is more, we didn’t have any rain, except occasional showers, so it was like drought. On the other hand, such weather is just splendid for holidays.
However, such indistinct climate is rather annoying, because you can’t know if your holidays will be fine be ruined by terrible weather.
Furthermore, it is believed that weather affects our mood. I agree with such opinion. If the weather is fine you usually enjoy it and you feel energetic and full of power but if the weather is unpleasant, nasty or unpredictable people usually feel depressed and tired. So it isn’t strange that summer is the most favourite season for many people.
Summer is also the best season for me, because you can go swimming, sunbathing or just enjoy your time in the countryside with your friend.
All in all, Lithuanians should put up with such climate and be glad that there are no heavy hurricanes, tornados or unbearable droughts.
1. Personal identification
I’m Darius. I was born in 1978 on the 21th of February in Kaunas. I don’t remember anything about the weather that day, but I know that it was about 2:30 p.m. I was the first child in the family. Our family is not very big, I have a brother. When I was a child I can’t say, that I was a good boy. My parents always want me to be a good man, and now I’m very thankful for that. At that time I didn’t understand that my parents wanted good for me, and I made my mother worry about me very often. I think, that my character isn’t bad now and I’m a good, sincere and tolerant teenager.
In 1985 I started school and now I’m graduating it. I was good at all subjects. I am fond of school. I liked my class. I always felt like at home here. Everybody was so friendly and easy to get a long with. I was on good terms with my classmates and we always spend our free time together. I think, that school years maybe remain in my heart forever.
I want to say a few words about the future. I’m going to take entrance exams and enter KTU. I would like to study Computer Science. My parents are engineers – programmers and I like this profession too. That’s all about myself.
Services aren’t important as food, drinks or home, but it’s enough important to as. One of them we use more frequently others we don’t use. There are many services in my region. There is post near my house. You can use all services that post can offer: to send a postcard, letter or parcel, make postal – order, to buy stamp or postcard. There are petrols where you can buy gas. Also there are hospital and police station in my region. Police station is one of the unpleasant services. You get there when you commit something bad. If you want to do photos it’s no problem, because there are some places there you can make photograph. A Very important service for people’s beauty is hairdressing saloon. But there is only one saloon in my region.
Bank is very important for people, which have their own business. Usually they open checking account. But a lot of firms haven’t enough money so they take loans. Diplomatic services are useful, when you are in foreign country or when you want to go there. And garage – service use people who have a car. Here they can check and put right their cars.
The most important services are hairdressing, photography, post, and hospital. So all services are very useful. They make our life easier.
3. House and home
I live in apartment house. This house is in _____ street. I have an apartment in a nine-story building I live on the second floor. The livers keep house in order. There are many trees near my house. My house was built in 1991. The number of my flat is 17. I live in the two rooms flat. The area of my flat is about 60 square meters. There is a balcony in my flat. I have a fine view from the balcony and windows. I have two bed-sitting rooms, a bathroom, a toilet, a corridor and kitchen. There are bookcases, wardrobes, beds, tables in the bed-sitting rooms. My walls are papered. On the floor there are carpets. I have all amenities hot and cold water, gas, electric light, central heating, lift. In the kitchen there is gas cooker. There are gas meter, electric meter and water meter. I would like to have a detached house in some solitary place, far away from the town’s noise, smoke and polluted air. Sure it’ll be a two-stored house with a big yard and garden.
Lithuania’s flora is rich and varied, because of its geographical position and climatic peculiarities, but we can’t boast that it’s peculiar to it alone. We have typical northern plants such as conifers, deciduous trees. Forests cover one fourth of its territory. 3 centuries ago, they were twice as extensive. Nowadays more woods are cut down than replanted. We have lots of spruce, birch and alder woods as well. It’s a pity such trees as oaks, ashes and limes are decreasing, because they were used as timber. Now we can hardly find oak, ash or lime woods. The preservation and restoration of forest hasn’t been given great attention. Every year hectares of forest are planted, but more hectares are felled. Timber is still the chief article of export. Some trees are remarkable as natural rarities. In East Lithuania at Stelmuze grows an old oak, that according to botanists, about 1,5 thousand years old.
Forests cover one half of the territory in east and South Lithuania. The Varena-Druskininkai forests spread on area of thousands square km. These forests abound in mushrooms, berries and beasts. The Rudininkai forest remind as of historical events. The rebels of 1831 and 1863 against the Russian czar found refuge in it. The Cepkeliai swamp, covering 5000ha is the largest in Lithuania. Broad and beautiful are the Labanoras, Kazlu Ruda and other forests. 40% of Lithuanian’s territory is occupied by arable land.
The Lithuanian forests have inspired many poets, writers and composers. They devoted their works to the charm of woods.
The fauna has no particular species peculiar to it alone. There are various species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. For various reasons many kinds or them became extinct. This fate befell aurochs, bisons, bears, etc. All forests can boast of the giant of woods – the antlered elk. Elk meat is exported abroad. Deer are less common. Roe and hares are abundant everywhere. Wild hogs, foxes, squirrels, martens are rather numerous. The number of wolves has shrunk. The beaver was entirely exterminated, but now it has been reacclimatized. Their houses are frequent on the banks of many rivers. New species of animals such as punctate deer, minks have been acclimatized. They feel quit at home and bear offspring.
We have 300 species of birds. In forests we can hear voices of woodpeckers, cuckoos, owls, hawks and others. In rivers, lakes and swamps are various species of ducks, geese, and swans, where they hatch their young. In Neringa there is a settlement of grey herons, rare birds.
There are about 50 species of fish in Lithuania. We can’t boast that abound in our lakes and rivers. Bream, roach, salmon, eels, carps are caught. Salmon comes to our rivers to spawn.
TV is one of the ways to spend our free time. Sometimes it shows good or sometimes bad things. It’s good, that there are some documentary films, which show us the life of wild animals, old civilizations, and the lost world. There is news, which inform us about the things, which are happening all around the world. Also TV shows some talk shows, where we can hear the interesting interwievs.
But there are a lot of violence and debauchery in TV films, even in cartoons. And violence has a bad effect on viewers, especially on children and teenagers. They can’t understand what is right or what is wrong and they think, that everything is true and start to copy everything and to do the same things as “good guys” or “bad guys”. So, I think, that there are more violence and debauchery in our TV programs, than good and nice things.
7. Museums of Kaunas
There are many museums in Lithuania. Lets talk about some of them – museums of Kaunas. Ciurlionis State Museum of Art is the national museum of Lithuania, founded in 1925. It operates as head office for 5 different museums in Kaunas. Devil museum is a part of the Ciurlionis State Museum of Art. It’s the only devil museum in the world and it was founded by professor Zmuidzinavicius. At that time, the Museum of Medicine Academy have a big interesting collection of skeletons, from fetuses to adults, also skeletons of cats, dogs and monkeys. It helps for students, who are studying Anatomy. It’s the only Anatomy museum in Lithuania.
Vytautas the Great Museum of War is the only war museum in Lithuania. There are gun collection and exhibition about the first two men, who flew over the Atlantic. They have connections with the Lithuania army, organize festivals for and about soldiers. The 9th fort Museum comprises of two different parts: the 9th fort and a separate museum. The 9th fort was built at the end of the 19th century by a Russian czar to defend the Russian Empire. During World War 2 the fort was used to hold the Jews before they were executed. After the war it was used as a prison. In 1959 the fort was opened for the public as a museum. This fort is probably the cruelest concentration camp-museum in the world.
And for the end about T.Ivanauskas Zoological Museum. It’s one of the oldest museums in Lithuania. It has collection of stuffed animals, collected by T.Ivanauskas. It’s the only Zoological museum in the Baltic States, having a big impressive collection of all kinds of animals, nature sounds as background music.
There are various means of travel. We can travel by train, boat, airplane, and finally we can travel on foot. First of all I will say what I think about walking. So, when you use your foot, of course then it is the cheapest way to get somewhere. But if that place is some 100 or more km. away, then everyone prefers a faster way of traveling. I agree that traveling on foot is good for your health, but just imagine that you have to go to another country and return using only your foot – I do not think, that it will be very healthy for you.
Travelling by car is the finest type of travelling. It’s noisy, not good for nature, more dangerous, but it’s fast, comfortable and easy to use. Ship and plane are very useful too, when you have to reach another continent, because usually it would be too wet to get there another way.
Besides all these means of transport people usually get their trip by trains and hitch-hiking. I think, everybody knows, how cheep it is when you spent money given by your parents somewhere else. So it’s no need to speak about train. And the last way of getting somewhere from somewhere is hitch-hiking. Of course, anyone can say that it’s dangerous, but you really don’t need to go alone. It’s even more fun when you go together with your only-friend, girl friend or boy friend. So, I think, it is the funniest way to travel.
In our town every other family has its own cars. Everybody is eager to have a car. It’s especially convenient for shopping. Sometimes cars help people when they hurry to the work or when it’s necessary to take an invalid to hospital. But cars cause a lot of problems. Cars poison our air with exhaust, shatter our ears with noise and the drivers wreck our nerves with dangerous driving.
In Kaunas center the traffic is heavy. Donelaitis and Kestutis streets are one-way streets and in those and other streets are many traffic lights and pedestrian crossings, but sometimes there are traffic jams and parking problems, because some drivers are careless and selfish. Many traffic accidents happen in the main wide streets, for example Barsauskas, Vytautas streets, because the drivers drive much too fast and they don’t pay attention to the speed limits. Also traffic accidents happen when pedestrians forget about road safety and crossing the road. But people aren’t afraid of traffic accidents and they keep buying cars, because it’s the fastest and the most comfortable way to get around.
The Baltic States’ admission to NATO is currently the most pressing topic in the Baltic. NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It’s a military alliance of Western nations for the purpose of collective defense. It was established in 1949. NATO’s member States are: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany (since 1955), Greece (1952), Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain (1982), Turkey (1952), UK, USA. Poland and Czech were admitted this year.
If the Baltic States support the program – “Partnership for Peace” to the fullest extent, they will be admitted as well. Baltic military forces take part in NATO maneuvers and it’s a concrete benefit, as Baltic States want to be admitted as full members.
There are lots of different opinions on what is better for a small country: to be a member of a military organization or to be a neutral country. There are various advantages and disadvantages of both. It’s said, that preparation of Lithuania to join NATO requires from 8 to 10 mln. Litas. That is why it would be more beneficial to modernize the economics of Lithuania, than to spend huge sums of money on joining NATO. Moreover some people say, that the threat of war is only our imagination. For example, during the period of 1944-1953 lots of men were killed, but it was impossible to confirm the act of independence. Meanwhile, in 1990 the independence was restored without any war or guns. So, it would be better to spend money on solving social and economical problems than on joining NATO.
In conclusion the opponents of “Lithuania in NATO” consider, that Lithuania should seeks to be a neutral country. The proponents of “Lithuania in NATO” suggest that joining NATO would confirm the stability of Lithuania. Lithuania is tiny country and the enemies can be too strong and powerful to fight with. So, NATO could help in case in the threat of war.
11. Social affairs
I want to tell you about the town, where I live, about Kaunas. Kaunas is an industrial town. There are a lot of companies, factories and enterprises in Kaunas, but they pollute our rivers and blacken our sky. As Kaunas is a big town, here are a lot of cars, buses, and they pollute our environment too. People, working in these factories, sometimes suffer from ill and die of various diseases, but they don’t complain, because they are afraid to lose their jobs. They have to support their families and money is very important for them. Nowadays prices go up and are high and wages are low in Lithuania. There are many unemployed, poor people. There are a lot of children, who beg for money or food.
I think, that all this sounds very sad, but I hope, someday it will be better. That’s all about my native town.
12. Education in GB and Lithuania
Education is compulsory in our country. Children start school at the age of seven. They can stay at school for twelve years but some of them leave school at the end of the ninth form. These pupils usually go to vocational junior colleges where they can get both secondary education and the qualification. Education in Great Britain is compulsory too. British children start school at 5. They go to the primary school, which has two divisions: the infant school (from 5 to 8) and junior school. From 11 to 16 British children go to a secondary school. At the age of 16 schoolchildren may either leave the school or remain two years longer to prepare for university or college entrance. Education is free; everybody can go to a university or any higher school after finishing secondary school. In Lithuania children go to school five days a week. The school year begins September and ends in the middle of June.
Education in Lithuania has been centralized for a long time, but now almost all schools have their own education system, but all systems don’t differ from each other very much: children study almost the same subjects in all schools. Schoolchildren can transfer freely from one school to another. At that time in Great Britain the education system has been decentralized for a long time and the school curriculum, the organization of lessons, and other things vary from school to school. There are two types of secondary schools: grammar school – giving education up to the age of 18, preparing pupils for university entrance and secondary modern school, which gave general education and some practical training up to the age of 15. After a secondary school, a vocational junior college or a manual training school, children can take entrance exams and enter the university.
13. The School
School is a part of our environment from the time you are a little child until you are almost grown up. We hear very little of what the pupils think of school, and what happens to them here.
At school pupils spend the most important years of their lives. Here they take courage and confidence, make friends and learn to understand life. Whatever school years maybe remain in our hearts forever. Our teachers not only give us knowledge of physics, mathematics, history and ect. But they also taught us to love our Motherland, to be honest and hard working.
In the school I’d like the relationship between teachers and pupils would be changed. Instead of the teacher telling the pupil, both teacher and pupil would learn together, creating warm relationship. A school is a place where people learn together to live together and loved one another.
I like my class. I always feel at home here. Everybody is so friendly and easy to get a long with. I was on good terms with my classmates and we always spend our free time together. I think, that there can be an ideal school. Everybody has their own wishes.
14. “Saule” gymnasium
I attend “Saule” gymnasium. The society “Saule” guided by prelate Olsauskas included several Lithuania schools, supported by the government. Just from the first days of it’s existence, the palace was used for various educational purposes, for teacher’s seminary and finally for girls school. Nuns were invited by prelate Olsauskas to run the school. Our school was built in 1912. Students are selected on their ability to this gymnasium. They have to take entrance exams in math, Lithuanian and English. Only the best are supposed to be admitted. Our gymnasium has a good reputation, especially for math and computer science. It’s quite prestigious to study here. We have advanced courses in math and computer science. Our school maintains a high academic standard. The requirements are much higher than in any ordinary school. Our gymnasium is famous for its old traditions. The teachers and all the system of our gymnasium do everything under the sun to make study all the day round. There are a lot of good teachers, but most of them are sure, that their subject is the most important for the pupils. I can say, that I’m happy here and I need to prepare for university entrance, so I don’t know the better school for that.
15. Food & drink
Food and drink are very important, because nobody can live without eating and drinking. These two things may be a great pleasure. Of course, we have to eat neither too much nor too little. Foods that are eaten on a regular basis make up a diet. Although geographic location and family traditions play major part in forming dietary habits, food choices vary from person to person.
Eating too much salt, sugar and fat can effect your risk of developing heart disease and raise the level of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a natural waxy substance made by the body. It helps to form digestive juices. Eating too much sugar can mean that you’re more likely to become obese and that means a higher risk of getting heart disease. Sugar may taste good, but of course, it contains nothing but calories. Sugar can lead to tooth decoy. Eating too much salt has been linked with high blood pressure, which in turn can cause heart disease. Fast foods are major part of many people’s diets. Fast foods are often high in fat, salt and low in minerals and vitamins.
It’s important to eat more fresh fruit & vegetables, to cut down on salty snacks, chips, nuts, to go easy on sweets, chocolates and to use less salt and sugar in cooking. But the most important thing in changing your eating habits is to cut down gradually.
It’s said, that 70% of young people smoke or have tried smoking. Well I think that smoking is a bag thing. It’s dangerous to us and to others. Smoking causes cancer, various diseases of lungs, throat. Doctors inform us about it, but smokers don’t pay attention to it. Youngest usually like to imitate the adults. For this purpose parents must no smoke themselves. Smoking is like illnesses, once try and you can’t stop. Smoking helps people to relax and they enjoy it. But to give up is very difficult, and some people can’t do this without others help.
I think, that many smokers are selfish people, because there are many places where is “no smoking” sign, but a lot of people ignore them. They do harm not only for their health, but for non-smoker’s health too. To my mind smoking is really not the problem of the person itself, but it’s also the problem of mankind. The person not only poisons itself, but he pollutes the environment also. So it’s better not to begin smoking at all. The life of all people will be healthier, especially of the young people.
17. Weather forecasts
I think, that weather forecast is good thing, but not always it’s right. Sometimes forecast said one thing, but happens another. So, we can’t always trust them. I think, that people are interested in forecasts, when they are going somewhere or when they are going to make a party in open air. Sometimes people are interesting in forecasts when they have nothing to do and are bored.
In spring the sky often is cloudy all day long and it’s raining at intervals. The temperature is about 10 degrees over zero. But sometimes the sky is clear and the sun is shining and then the temperature rise up to 15-19 degrees over zero. In summer sometimes temperature is 25 degrees over zero and it’s very hot and sultry. Sun is blazing, but it’s good only to get sunburn. The wind is very wild in summer, because it’s western or southern. Sometimes it’s drizzling after that there are many puddles everywhere.
18. Seasons of the year
There are four seasons in a year. They are spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Every season is beautiful and pleasant in its own way.
Spring is a wonderful season. Spring comes and nature awakens from its winter sleep. The days become longer and nights shorter. The ground is covered with fresh green grass and the first spring flowers .The trees are covered with new leaves and blossoms. The air is fresh and sun shines brightly. Spring months are March , April and May.
Summer months are June, July and August. The weather is usually fine in summer. It is much warmer than in spring. The trees are green and the gardens are full of flowers. Everybody enjoys summer. A lot of people have their holidays in summer. They can go swimming and boating, they can lie in the sun and get sunburn, they can gather berries and mushrooms.
Autumn months are September, October and November. The days become shorter and the nights become longer. The weather often changes, and it gets colder and colder. The sky is often grey and cloudy, often rains. Autumn is harvesting time; it’s the time when grain, fruit and vegetables become ripe.
Winter months are December, January and February. Sometimes it is very cold (30 degrees or more below zero). It often snows. Winter is a good time for sport. Little children are fond of playing snowballs and making snowmen, older ones go in for skating and skiing.
19. Foreign languages
English is very popular in nowadays. About 85% of people speak English. English is used as native language, as second language or the language, which we have to use in our job. People like English, because it’s easy to learn and to speak.
If we know a foreign language, we are able to speak to foreigners, to write letters or documents to other country. I think it’s very important to know at least 2 foreign languages. I know English and Russian; my parents know polish, English and Russian. I know polish too. I have used my knowledge, when we were in Poland. I spoke with salesmen, when I wanted to buy some souvenirs.
We can talk to tourists if we know foreign language; we can talk, when we are in other country. We can read books, papers, listen to the songs words, news, we can watch films without translation.
And I think that most important must be speaking, because if we have to use foreign language, we usually speak, but not write or read. I think, that we can learn foreign language very well if we only want.
These days the life is really difficult in our country. People have a lot of problems, they have lost hope to live better. It’s the worst thing that could happen. Thousands of people can’t afford to buy even food. Today in Lithuania there are a lot of homeless families, sick and disable people, thousands of lonely, helpless old people, who can’t support themselves only living on their pensions, they can’t afford to pay heavy taxes for a flat, electricity, central heating and gas. They suffer from malnutrition and diseases. We can see beggars on every corner. There are people dying of starvation. Nobody cares that there are hundreds of children who stay away from school.
There are people who beg for help, but nobody hears them. Nobody care about them, others think that it’s nothing to do with them. There are charity organizations. There are people who feel maral duty to help others, they sacrifices themselves for charity, they collect money, but they can’t solve this terrible problem. Almost 50 years Lithuania was exploited by Soviet occupation. Our natural resources were stolen, our industry was suppressed, and people were taken as slaves. Most of people dream to be rich, to earn a lot of money by cheating others and so on.
We go shopping practically every day when we need to buy some foodstuffs or some household articles. Very often we don’t know what to buy and advertisements help us to decide. People are influenced by publicity everywhere – in newspapers, on the train or on the bus, on television, in the shops. While we are shopping we are attracted by colorful packets, by signs of reductions and free gifts. I think advertisements are very useful for sellers and for buyers. They give the public information. If we want to buy something important, we go to a large department store. These stores are very useful places, people enjoy shopping there because all kinds of things are on sale there and they can buy everything they need. All the things for sale are displayed and can be easily seen. “Iki” is the biggest department store in our town. You can get almost everything there. The store is divided into sections: the women clothes, the men clothes, the shoes, the toys, the sports goods, radios and so on. Some of these departments can be called ‘self-service departments’ because customers walk round and choose what they want there. If you need a gift or a souvenir you can go to the souvenir section. There is a mini bar where you can have tea or a cup of coffee and a cake or sandwich. On the next floor you can get everything in the way of clothes wanted by men or women. You can get footwear there too. In the perfume section there is a wide assortment of perfume. So in “Iki” you can find lots of tiny and large things that you may want for you or for your house. On the each floor in “Iki” there are some checkouts where you pay money for your goods. I go to “Iki” too. But usually I go shopping near my house. This shop isn’t large but I can get almost everything there.
Littering is a disgusting habit; it shows a lack of responsibility on all sides. Unfortunately, these days most parents don’t bring their children up properly and don’t set a good example themselves. A local government ought to provide litter cans, place them at regular intervals and empty them regularly. And citizens ought to feel a duty to use them, but untidy people don’t bother, as if it doesn’t concern them. People who leave litter behind them are anti-social, because they create all sorts of danger. Broken bottles, rusty cans, cigarette butts, empty packages spoil the countryside, and they can cause serious injuries, especially to children. Only fools throw away matches and cigarette butts, because they can start fire, especially in dry forest.
I think, that littering is a crime and carries a heavy penalty. But the police are too busy to prevent serious crimes, to worry about littering. If someone dropped a ton of poisonous chemical waste, the police would try to catch him, but they can’t chase everyone who leaves around empty bottles, cans and scrap of paper or cigarette butts after a picnic. Every citizen ought to feel responsibility for their bad habits.
Nowadays our life isn’t safe. It seems that neither police, nor government can’t guarantee public safety. Statistics shows that violent crimes at present have been increase. So no one can live in peace and feel save even in his own home. This situation in Lithuania is getting hopeless. A lot of dangerous criminals are allowed to escape and roam free. There are more and more burglars, kidnappers, murders and killers, who commit crimes and succeed in escaping penalties by engaging good lawyers. Juvenile delinquency has become a serious problem and it’s evident. People can’t trust even banks, which most of them become bankrupt, because they were ruined by greedy, little-skilled people. Only few of these bank workers were convicted of being guilty and sentenced to imprisonment. Others sentence was commuted or the sentence wasn’t carried out at all. And now they are free. Meanwhile lots of people lost their savings.
I don’t believe, that criminals, who commit crimes of a particularly heinous nature can be reformed in the prison. Some people robbing, committing crimes, because of hunger or poverty. But the worst thing is that, then you are poor and can’t afford to have a good solicitor, you can be convicted of murder and imprisoned even being completely innocent. Sometimes it’s not use in locking for the truth and justice, because there is one law for the rich and another for the poor.
Lithuania is a small country at the Baltic Sea. The nature is very beautiful in Lithuania. One must show the foreign visitors it’s wonderful nature and traditions. To my mind, they must see everything what is nice. There are many national parks in Lithuania. You can take your guests to them. The Trakai national Park was designated in 1992 to embrace the historical city of Trakai, the forests, villages and lakes. The most significant historical monument is the Ancient Castle, erected on one of the island of the lake Galve. Zemaitija National Park was founded in 1991. The main aims of the park are the preserve the lake Plateliai system and the nature, to take care of cultural values in Zemaiciu Kalvarija, Plateliai and other places. In the park the visitors can have a good rest and spend the holidays or weekend in the fresh air, in picturesque places, play games, go by water bikes and yachts and do other things.
For the foreigners it’s very interesting to take part at festivals. The festival of Rasa is held on the 22-23 of June. There is a Church festival in Zemaiciu Kalvarija at the beginning of July. Thousands of people come there to pray, sign ancient Church songs and visit chapels, which were built 350 years ago. The Zemaiciai National Park contains many agricultural territories with a great amount of unique monuments, reflecting etnocultural heritage of the very early population up to our days. And that’s all about the places where you can take the foreigners.
Every four years people of Lithuania vote in general elections. Now 3 years have already passed since the last general elections took place. We have almost forgotten all these long political speeches and debates on the radio and TV, all the agitation for one or the other candidate. But one year will fly past and this marathon will start again. The Conservatives, as always, will be hoping to convince the nation, that if people unite under their government, they will overcome such evils as inflation, food shortage, unemployment and crises. The LDDP will be introducing radical new measures including widespread nationalization of private industry in an effort to rescue Lithuania from threatening economic problems. The socialists, the Center Coalition Party, the Liberal Democrats and the other will be trying to persuade the voters that Lithuania can achieve economical stability and industrial prosperity only under their leadership.
In the next elections my classmates and I will be voting for the first time. My family always goes to vote, we belong to Silainiai electoral district. From early morning till evening people go to polling stations and put their voting-papers into ballot boxes. I think, that nowadays people are disappointed with the Government, because they see how one party changing other, but situation in Lithuania doesn’t change. I think, that deputies must work and try to do their best – to make life easier for their electors, but not themselves and then maybe the political situation will achieve stability.
Lithuania is a small plot of land at the Baltic Sea. It is in the geographical centre of Europe (18 km from Vilnius). Lithuania borders with Latvia, Byelorussia, Poland and Russia. It’s not a big country. The territory of Lithuanian Republic is about 65000 square km. The population is 3,7 millions.
The capital of Lithuania is Vilnius.
The official language of the state is Lithuanian. Lithuanian flag consists of gold, green and red ribbons. State emblem — white Vytis in the red field.
The biggest town in Lithuania is Vilnius, then goes Kaunas, very beautiful town on the place where the river Neris flows into the Nemunas. Klaipeda, Panevezhys, Shiauliai and other big cities too.
For the first time Lithuania was mentioned in 1009 in Quedlinburg annals. As a state it was emerged in the early 13th century and Mindaugas became the Grand Duke of Lithuania about 1240. At the end of 14th and the beginning of 15th century Lithuania became one of the most powerful states in the Europe. Lithuania was christened in 14th century, until that time it was pagan. Lithuanian people had to fight a lot for their freedom. The latest occupation ended only in 1990, when on March 11 Lithuania proclaimed its restoration of statehood.
There are two big Universities in Lithuania in Vilnius and in Kaunas. University in Vilnius is very old: it was established in 1579, and another University, which received the name of the Vytautas the Great, was founded in 1930.
Holidays in Lithuania
Every nation and every country have its traditions, customs and holidays. Lithuanians are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It has been the law for about centuries not to work on Sunday. On that day people went to the church, spend their time in the family circle, or went visiting their relatives. Holidays in our country are specially, rich and are different in Zhemaitija, Aukshtaitija and Dzookija.
Christmas is a Lithuanian national holiday. On the eve of Christmas people has a family supper, they don’t meat, only fish, fruits and berries. Everybody is waiting for Christ to be born.
Some people enjoy themselves on the new year’s day. On the eve of New Year they have a party at home, or go the restaurants, visit their friends. The New Year tree is decorated for the Christmas or New Year. The day of Lithuanian’s independence is on the 16 of February. Since 1928 Lithuanian’s people marks this day every year by paying tribute to those who gave their lives for the people’s happiness. For many years after World War the second this holiday was forbidden. Since 1989 it again becomes the national wide holiday in your country. It’s a non-working day. The 11 of March is also a very important day for your country.
Mother’s Day is celebrated on the 1st Sunday of May. The member of family honour mother giving flowers, presents to her on that day.
The 1st of November is day of commemorating the dead usually on All Saints Day. People lay flowers on dear people and honour their memory by observing a minute’s silence.
In spring we celebrate the Easter Day. The tradition of Easter Day is to colour eggs for Easter table.
There are some other holidays in Lithuania, but I tried to discuss the most popular.
London is one of the biggest and oldest cities in the world. This town is about 2000 years old. It’s population with suburbs about 10,000,000. The town is on the river Thames. There are many places of interest in London, so it attracts many tourists.
The main part of London is city. It’s the places where London started. Now it’s business centre. Few people can afford living in this part of the town — it’s very expensive, so most people come there to do their job and leave this region in the evening.
Westminster — it’s the central part of the town. Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, National Galleries are situated there. There are many government offices. In one tower of House of Parliament is Big Ben — the main clock of Great Britain. Just across the street is Westminster Abbey — main church of England. New monarch is crowned there, wedding ceremonies of the Royal family take place there. It is also famous for its poets’ corner — many famous people are buried there.
Not far you can see Trafalgar square with Admiral Nelson’s statue. Under his leadership English fleet defeated united Spanish and French forces.
Another interesting place is Buckingham Palace. If the Queen is in, you can watch changing guards.
West end is the residential part. It’s the richest part of London. Not far from there Hyde Park is situated with famous speakers corner.
East part is the poorest part of London. It is industrial region, so air is polluted, a lot of slums are there.
The tower of London is famous for tower and tower bridge. Tower is museum now, but it used to be a fortress, state prison, the mint, treasury. The tower of the bridge in middle ages was used like place of execution.
There is one more place of interest — British Museum.
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuanian Republic. It’s the largest city in our country and it is political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre too. The central bodies of the republic power — parliament, called the Seimas, Government, various ministries, TV and Radio stations, editorial offices of republic newspapers, theatres, museums are located in Vilnius.
The first documentary reference to Vilnius dates back to 1323, when the Great Duke Gediminas proclaimed Vilnius the capital of Lithuanian state and invited foreign artists, scientists, builders to come live and work here. Vilnius has got a very beautiful Old Town, which reminds us the history of our native country.
In the centre of the Old Town, on the Castle hill, stands the Gediminas Tower, a part of an old castle built 6 centuries ago. There is a square in slope of the Castle Hill. It’s called the Cathedral square, because there is a cathedral in the centre of it. This cathedral, reconstructed in the end of the 18th century by the famous Lithuanian architect Stuoka-Gucevichius, is the most important catholic church in Lithuania.
Vilnius is a mixture of the main architectural styles: Baroque, Classicism, Renaissance and Gothic. The church of St. Anna is considered to be a Gothic masterpiece, the Gediminas castle is a representative of Gothic style too. Well-known representative of Baroque is the church of St. Peter and Paul. The Italian sculptors worked on the masterpieces of art of this church. There are thousands of sculptures in it. Classicism dominates in some Cathedral, University buildings. Vilnius University is very old, it was established in 1579.
There are many new districts built in the latest 30 years: Lazdynai, Baltupiai (shame of Vilnius), Karolinishkes, Fabijonishkes, Justinishkes. I don’t admire such “modern” houses of blocks, factories, standing in the centre of the city.
Despite this, I don’t want to criticise Vilnius more. It’s my native town and I couldn’t live in any other town.
The cities of Great Britain
Great Britain is abundantly populated, but most part of Great Britain people lives in cities. It’s about 80 percents. There are many old and beautiful cities. The biggest city is London. In north of London there is a middle size city Cambridge. Cambridge is famous for its colleges. The first college Peterhouse was built in 1284. There are 22 colleges in Cambridge now. Its staff consists of teachers and students. Many great men have studied at Cambridge, among them Cromwell, Newton, Byron, Tennyson, Darwin. If we go to north – west from Cambridge we’ll drive up Birmingham. It is the second city after London. Birmingham is one of the biggest economic city in Great Britain. There are many architecture monuments in Birmingham. In the North of Birmingham we can find Manchester. It is the second biggest city in Lancashire after Liverpool. It is the industrial capital of the North of England. Manchester is the fifth largest port in Great Britain although it is 56 km away from the sea. It is connected with the sea by the Manchester Ship Canal. Its population is about 700.000 people. Manchester is the twin city of Sank – Petersburg. Liverpool is the West of Manchester. Liverpool is the fourth city in Great Britain. It is the second port after London by the size and importance. A famous group “The Beatles” was born here in the 1960. Liverpool is famous for its cheese too. The next city is in the north of Liverpool. It is the old capital of Scotland – Edinburgh. It is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. It is situated on the seven hills and goes down those hill to the bay firth of forth. The city is well planed with beautiful old houses. The last city is Glasgow. It is in the centre of Scotland. Near the river Clyde. Glasgow is a big industrial city of Great Britain. It produces one third all Great Britain production. I think that all cities of Great Britain are beautiful and great.
My Famous writer (Charles Dickens)
Ch. Dickens is famous English novelist of the 19th century. Ch. Dickens was born in the 1812 in Portsmouth, a town in the South of England.
In 1821 his family went to London. Dickens’s father was a very clever man, but he was very poor, so the life of the family was very hard. Charles had to go to work when he was ten. For two years he worked at a small factory in London. Later he worked as a clerk in a lawyer’s office. He spent a lot of time reading and educating himself. In a few years he become a newspaper reporter. Dickens published his first book in 1836. It was a collection of sketches of London life. This was followed by his “Pickwick Papers” which made him famous. It is one of funniest books in the English language.
After “Pickwick Paper” he wrote “Oliver Twist”. In “Nicholas Nickleby” his next book, he showed an English school where the boys were starved, beaten and terrified by their schoolmaster.
Then his novels “Dombey and son”, “David Copperfield”, “Hard Times”, “Little Dorrit” and many others appeared one after another. London with its contrasts: the world of rich people and powerly. He truthfully described what he had learned in his hard childhood and youth.
Dickens’s style of writing was journalistic and most appropriate for the wide range of readers.
The works of Charles Dickens show the abounded faith of the writer in the final victory of truth and goodness over the dark forces of evil.
Dickens is one of my famous English writers, I highly value his novels for their realism, their humour, their love and sympathy for ordinary people.
Ch. Dickens died in 1870 and was buried in the Poets Corner of Westminster Abbey.
The Seasons of the year
There are four seasons in a year. They are spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Every season is beautiful and pleasant in its own way.
Spring is a wonderful season. Spring comes and nature awakens from its winter sleep. The days become longer and nights shorter. The ground is covered with fresh green grass and the first spring flowers .The trees are covered with new leaves and blossoms. The air is fresh and sun shines brightly. Spring’s months are March, April and May.
Summer months are June, July and August. The weather is usually fine in summer. It is much warmer than in spring. The trees are green and the gardens are full of flowers. Everybody enjoys summer. A lot of people have their holidays in summer. They can go swimming and boating , they can lie in the sun and get sunburnt , they can gather berries and mushrooms.
Autumn months are September, October and November. The days become shorter and the nights become longer. The weather often changes, and it gets colder and colder. The sky is often grey and cloudy, often rains. Autumn is harvesting time, the time when grain, fruit and vegetables become ripe.
Winter months are December, January and February. Sometimes it is very cold (30 degrees or more below zero). It often snows. Winter is a good time for sport. Little children are fond of playing snowballs and making snowmen , older ones go in for skating and skiing.
History: The first theatres were in ancient Greek. People sat in the open air on a hillside, while below actors and dancers performed on a space called orchestra. Plays were tragedies and comedies. In the middle ages people performed miracle and mystery plays- stories from the Bible or morality plays.
Some of the first indoor theatres were built in England in the 16th century. Groups of actors performed the plays of Shakespeare and others. Actors wore clothes of their days. Boys took women parts, as women were not allowed to act. Since the 18th century plays became closer to real life. The plots are usually about lives of ordinary people.
My first visit: I can’t say I like the theatre very much and I often visit it. But sometimes I go to visit the Opera House. It’s my favourite theatre.
It was open in 1974. Unfortunately, I wasn’t able to see the 1st Opera performed there, because I was born only in 1976. To the best of my memory, the 1st ballet I saw was “Spragtukas” by Chaykovskij. I was about 7 years old that time. That evening was very impressing. For the first time I saw such a wonderful interior and so many people, dressed festively. We bought tickets to the boxes and I had a very good seat (the best you can get in the boxes, of course). I could see almost everything around me. For the first time I saw such a big audience and such a big nice area. Everything was strange for me. I was too little to understand anything. I even didn’t know who played the main roles, what was the cast of the ballet. But I really remember, that the cast had to appear on the stage again and they got many flowers. The evening I spent in the Opera House made a great impression on me.
Some years later I finally understood it was a fairy-tale, not the real life.
My last visit: I like theatre very much. My favourite theatre — the Opera House. I often look through the theatre advertisements in order not to miss my favourite plays. Last month I visited the Opera House. I went to see the opera “Carmen” by Gorges Biset. I was unlucky. All tickets to the stall were sold, so I only got tickets to the boxes. By the entrance door I met my friends. We went to the cloakroom dressed off, bought the programs and climbed up to the boxes. The lights went off. The overture was being played while the curtains were rising. The scenery wasn’t very particular. But the singers were great. There were a lot of applause after the play. The cat had to appear on the stage 3 or 4 times.
Great Britain is on the British Islands. It’s surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the English Channel. The climate is influenced by the surrounding waters, particularly by the Gulf stream. That’s why the climate is rather mild. Summers are not very hat and winters are not very cold. There is no snow in the greatest part of GB.
The landscape is nice. There are no high mountains in GB, but they have some high hills in Scotland, which they call Highlands. There are a lot of small lakes in Scotland, which are called lochs. The biggest river is the Thames.
GB is constitution monarchy. It has a monarch, but he doesn’t rule, he just reigns, controlled by the parliament. The King or the Queen is the symbol of the continuity of the state. Elizabeth II (the 2nd) is in the thrown now. The parliament consists of 2 Houses — the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
There are 2 main parties in Great Britain: labour and conservative. The conservators are in power now. The premier-minister is John Major. Naturally, his is conservative.
Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. Great Britain and Northern Ireland make up the UK.
England is the greatest part of GB. The capital of England is London. It’s one of the biggest and the oldest cities in the world. Its history goes back to the beginning of our Era. The population of London, including the suburbs, is about 10 million.
The other major cities of England are: Manchester — an industrial city, Liverpool — a port.
Stradford on Avon is very popular with the tourists. This is the birth place of Shakespeare. Every year theatre festival is held in the Royal Theatre there.
Windsor is a small town, famous for the Royal summer residence.
People make their living working in ship-building industry, light industry. “Rolls-Royce,” produced in England, is know all over the world. Scotland is the second biggest part of GB with the capital Edinburgh, and another big city is Glasgow. There are a lot of lochs in Scotland. The most famous is Lichens. People believe that some monster lives there. Scots have a very fine national costume. The most characteristic part of it is a kilt. A kilt is a pleated skirt, the pattern is tartan. The bagpipe is a national musical instrument. It’s a leather bag with pipes. They still wear their national costumes and play the bagpipes on the certain occasions. The Scottish language is an English dialect. At school and in the offices they speak the standard English. The capital of Wales is Cardiff. The speech is Walish. Northern Ireland is a part of Ireland. The capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast. Southern Ireland is an independent state with the capital Dublin. They have religious problems there. The Northern part of Ireland is Protestant, while the Southern Ireland is a catholic land.
There are different kinds of films. Western, love stories, cartoon, tragedies, horror films, detective stories, feature films, musicals. Your choice depends on your mentality and intellect.
I’m impressed by feature films, especially with distinguished actors or actresses. There are names in the cinema history, which are regarded unique and timeless. Such is Greta Garbo, who herself is the history of the cinema.
Greta Garbo the distinguished film actress , was a unique personality among Hollywood stars , in the 1920-30’s , who never revealed to the world her biography.
All we know about her is that she was born in Stockholm in 1906, was trained in the city school , and at 16 become a pupil of the Royal Dramatic Academy. She never played on the stage.
What did she have that made her a great star? Her work began when she was given a script. She studied it very thoroughly. She studied out every situation, every time detail of it, everything. She memorised all the script which had been translated specially for her into Swedish. She knew exactly what she would do in front of the camera in every episode. She worked at top speed and at full emotion. She never rehearsed. She gave to the camera all she had, leave nothing for extremely difficult to play with Garbo.
She was a miracle. Like every great actor she could throw all of herself into a part, and having done that, she came out of it quite lifeless, her vitality burnt out.
On the set between scenes she would sleep in chair during all the intervals. She was and she looked different from all other stars, she as unrecognisable being tall, boyish, rather badly dressed, with no make up on he face. But the studio bosses often seeing Garbo on the screen for the first time become speechless as they saw a true miracle, a great artist. Cameras were found of shorting her. Garbo on the screen was extremely popular.
Garbo life was never social success. Fame couldn’t give her anything but difficulties. She lived modestly, without fine clothes or jewels, without house or an expensive car.
She worked with many film directors, which liked her, because their pictures with Greta Garbo were a great success. This film about the famous actress and a simple woman, in life, made a deep impression on me and it is still fresh in my memory.
At the doctors
When a person is ill he mustn’t goo to his job, he must to consult a doctor. He may get a sick leave certificate and stay at home. If he is seriously ill the doctor must treat him at home or sent him to hospital. Medical service is free of charge in our country.
We call the doctor when we have a cold and high temperature or a pain in some part of your body. When the doctor comes he takes the temperature and feels your pulse. Then he examines your heart, lungs of the part of body, which hurts. Then he tells you what the matter is. If you have a stomach acme the diagnoses are indigestion or upset stomach. If you have a sore throat or a bed caught that means that you have the flu. The doctor prescribes medicine and gives the instructions how to use them. For example: “Take the medicine 3 times a day after miles”.
If you need an operation you have to go to hospital where were surgeon performs it. If you are too ill to work you go to hospital in an ambulance. After your illness you can go to rest-home until you are completely recovered.
When you have a toothache you go to the dentist. The dentist examines your teeth and if your tooth has a cavity he puts in a filling. If your tooth is too bad he pulls it out. But the best way is to be healthy and keep off the doctor’s.
Famous people of Great Britain and America
There are many countries in the world and many great men here. And I want to talk about few of them. First I would like to talk about famous American man.
I think, that word Washington knows everybody. Almost all people knows, that Washington is a city – capital of United States of America. In fact Washington is a name of one great man, who founded this city 200 years ago. George Washington was born in 1732. Her parents was a farmers. When Washington was young he worked as landmark, after he was a soldier. Washington had part in The independence war of America. And he was a man, who developed first constitution in the world – constitution of USA. In 1787 George Washington was elected as a first president of USA. So Washington was one of USA creators, who build the base of United States of America..
And now I want to talk about two famous men of Great Britain.
First about Isaac Newton, great scientist, who was discovered a lot of things, which we are still using now. Isaac Newton was born in 1643 near Lincolnshire. He was learning in Cambridge university. This university now is one of greatest in the world. Isaac Newton was a great scientist in mathematics, physics, geometry, optics, mechanics. He invented such things as telescope and law of gravity and a lot of inventions in mathematics and geometry.
The second great man from Great Britain I think was William Shakespeare. He is famous play writer in the world. But yet we know very little about his life. So, he was born at Stradford-upon-Avon, a small town in the middle of England in 1564 and he died at the very same date 52 years later. He learned in local grammar school Latin, Greek. He got married 18 years old and after some years he had 3 children. Later he left his village and went to London. By the end of 1580’s he was known as an actor and playwright. Many his plays were performed in a London theatre called “The Globe.” “The Globe” was a round wooden building and Londoners liked the theatre very much, so it was always full of people. In a short time Shakespeare’s plays became extremely popular. After few years he returned to Stradford and bought the finest house in the town. He died at he age of 52. In the beautiful church at Stradford, beside the winding Avon river he was buried.
There are many kinds of transport: car bus, train, ship, plane, coach and bicycle. You can travel with one of them and different transport gives you different pleasure. The fastest way to travel is travelling by plane This transport is useful then you want to travel long distances. Anyway travelling by air is most expensive. Another way to travel between continent is travelling by water on ship. Ship goes much slowly, but is low cost in comparison with ticket prices on plane. So if you want to travel inside continent you can choose between train coach and car. Train is fastest way to travel inside continent and is low cost. I think, that travelling by car is finest type of travelling, because you have full control of your travelling way. You can satisfy driving your car and see all around you all land views.
So, but the best way to travel is travel on your boots! To go to a trip with tents is very fine. In evening we usually a tired and we sit by fire and tell different stories from our lives. It gives satisfaction for me. This sort of travelling is a good training for your body and is good for us health, and of course is free of charge.
It’s wrong to think that letter writing is sometimes that everybody knows how to do it.
The rules of letter writing vary in every country. Letters are of several different kinds and each one has its own rules for content and style. It can be personal and business letters. Personal letters are those than concern the writer an individual. They are intimate and formal. Bread-and-butter letters we write to a friend when we have stayed at his house at weekend. They are written to express thanks for the hospitality. You should be very careful to address your letter to the host.
Business letter deal with matters of official or public nature.
While writing the letters it’s very necessary to keep up to the rules of letter writing especially when you write business letters. First we should know that all the letter should be dated. The date should be written in the top right corner of the first page. Then you should write your address. Every letter you begin with the word “dear,” followed by the name of recipient. Then you know how to end it. It depends on the type of the letter. Business letter always ends with: ”with best wishes” or “yours truly.” The end of the letter can be yours name and should be finished by signature.
My plans to the future
It’s a responsible task to choose profession. You must know what you really want. Sometimes I think about it, because it’s a high time to decide. I’m planing to enter Vilnius University or Vilnius Technical University. If I don’t enter it I’ll go to a vacation junior college. I suppose I would like to study computer programming and mathematics. These subjects are difficult, but I think a good specialist must know this. My future profession will be connected with computer and information technologies. There are not many people who want choose profession as mine.
I decided what I want to do three or four years ago. I want to be a specialist in information technologies. I think this profession is with a light future. My parents know about my choice. They think, that I must choose profession such I like myself. But in immediate future I must finish schools and exams and get certificate of maturity.
Famous people of Lithuania
Now I want to talk about famous Lithuanian people.
First about famous Lithuanian painter and musician Mikalojus Konstantinas Chiurlionis. He was born in 1875, in Dzookija. He studied in Warsaw, in Leipzig. He learned playing piano, painting. He often visited foreign countries, meets a lot of famous people.
Chiurlionis left many musical creations. He wrote chorale songs, sonatas, symphonies, creations for the piano and the organ. Chiurlionis was the man, who started writing Lithuanian symphonic music. His symphonic poems “Sea” and “Forest” are well known and liked all over the world, Chiurlionis created more than 300 pictures. The most of them are widely known. He created cycles of paintings “Funeral symphony” “Zodiac” ” Fairy-tale”. The most beautiful painting by Chiurlionis is “Kings.”
He organises the first exhibition art in 1906 in Vilnius.
He died, when he was 35. Although he lived not long, he made a lot in his life and left many famous creations for us.
Another two man famous not only in Lithuania, I think are Steponas Darius and Stasys Girenas. Both they were born in Lithuania, but migrated to The USA. They are famous, that they flied non-stop from America to Europe in June of 1933. Darius and Girenas bought aeroplane in USA. It was the most popular type of aeroplanes. Some changes were made in plane and the rebuild aeroplane was called Lituanica.
On July 15, 1993 the Lituanica took-off. Their goal was Kaunas. But. they didn’t reached finish. Their plane falls in Germans forests. There are many versions of their fall. One historic says, that disaster occurred due the difficult weather and some defects in engine. Others say, that plane has beet shouted by Germans.
Now the parts of Lithuanica are at War museum in Kaunas.
Now I’m 18 years old. I attend secondary school No.43 in Vilnius. I have been going to this school for 12 years now.
Our school is 19 years old, it was founded in 1975. The school is not very large. There are about 800 schoolchildren and about 50 teachers here. There are many good teachers, and my friends. So my school is very good school in comparison with other schools. The school building is not very large and nice. We have a large playing field near our school. Inside the school building we have many special classrooms, where different subjects are taught. Our school has a chemistry laboratory. Besides special rooms for each subject, we have also good woodworkshop and metalworkshop, a wonderful gymnasium, nice school hall and a library.
My favourite subjects are foreign languages, both — English and Russian and mathematics. We have got football and basketball teams at your schools. I like basketball team, because I like this kind of sports. Sometimes we have guests at school. So I can say, that school life is interesting.
I live in Puss street near he Vingis park in the 27th house. My flat is on the ground floor. There are two rooms, kitchen, bath and toilet rooms in my flat. The rooms are not the same size. I usually live and sleep in the smaller room. In my room are two windows, so it’s a light room. Through the one window I see Pusu street and through the second I can see yard with trees in it. There are many things in my room, but the mains are my sofa, table, a book shelf on the wall, and my PC on the table. In main room there are four or five chairs, two arm-chairs, little table, sofa, piano and section. All room’s walls are coloured by yellow colour. In kitchen are four stools, table, refrigerator of course there are some other furniture in kitchen. So, I like my flat. My neighbours are not noisy, but sometimes one my neighbour makes noise in the middle of the night. He sometimes likes to listen loud music.
Usually it begins from Friday after school, but if it’s Friday it have to passed as a working day. So on that day I do my home works. Clean the floor, put in order rooms, clean dust out of the rugs and other. Till the 6 o’clock everything have already done. So the evening is quite free and I can do what I want. Usually I go to my friends. That’s how I spend Friday’s evening.
Saturday is non-working day for me. So I have a rest all that day. On that day I go to my friends, or to the Vingis park with my parents. If it’s a summer we go to the lake. In the evening I listen to music. Saturday is all for pleasure.
On Sunday there is a less time for pleasure. It’s working day for me. On that day I have to do my lessons. It takes for me a few hours. In other part of the day is free. So I can read a book, or surf the Internet, read e-mail or playing games. Sometimes my parents and I go to the guests. On Sunday I go to bed a bit earlier, because tomorrow I have to go to school.
My working day
I am ending the 12th form now. But now I want to talk about my working day then I wented to school some time ago. Usually my working day begins at 7:30 a.m. At this time I get up. Then I go to bathroom to wash. After washing I make my bed and dress up. Toll the 8 o’clock everything has already done. Then I have my breakfast and after 15 minutes I am on the way to school. Usually I have 6 lessons but sometimes there are 7. I am at school from 8:30 a.m. till 2:10 or 3:05 p.m. We study various subjects but my favourite subjects are art, chemistry, fizical training, rusian literature. After school I go home and have dinner. After it, if the weather is fine I go to the yard or to my friends. But if the weather is bad I stay at home and do my lessons, read e-mail, calling to my friends. At six o’clock I have supper. After supper I read a book or do my homework. I’m busy till 9 p.m. Then comes time to have a rest. I listen to radio, watch TV. If I very tired I go to the bed early. Usually I go to bed after 10 or 11 p.m. And this is the ending of my working day. On the next day everything begins from the beginning.
Sport is liked in every country. Young and old people go in for sports. Football has especially many fans. It’s very difficult to get the ticket to the stadium when football match takes place there. Thousands people watch matches on TV. When the favourite team wins, fans are very happy (like students who have taken exams), but if favourite team loses, fans are usually upset. Young fans then usually get drunk and go to the streets breaking everything. For example in GB The Liverpool Football Club was not allowed to play in international championships because of behaviour of their fans. I think it wasn’t great for people of the country because football is liked very much in UK.
There are also amateur clubs throughout GB. The members of these clubs meet at weekends and play for their pleasure.
Other major sports in GB are cricket and rugby-football. The most popular in GB is football. They call this game “soccer.” But most people of GB like practising walking, jogging, swimming, playing tennis, etc.
In Lithuania people like sports too. The major sport in Lithuania is basketball, the most known team is “Zhalgiris”. The base of “Zhalgiris” formed the team which participated in Olympic Games and won bronze medals. Now there are LKL association. It was created two years ago. The most famous basketballers are Sabonis and Marchiulionis. Both of them are now playing for foreign teams.
Another popular sport in Lithuania is football. But skills of our professional teams are low, so our country hasn’t won any prize in international championships.
Lithuanians like playing tennis, swimming, etc.
I like sports too. My favourite sports are basketball, football, volleyball and tennis. I’m not a good player, because I play for my pleasure. Sometimes I play table-tennis with my friend. It’s very interesting game. It’s groove my reaction
This world is becoming a rubbish bin! The amount of pollution on Earth is unbelievable! Clouds of choking smog, beaches coated in oil, rivers turned red by chemicals. All of these are obvious examples of pollution.
However, not all types of pollution are easily seen. For example, invisible plumes of gas may drift over our towns and cities. They can cause asthma and chest problems. They can also kill trees. Trees stop wind and rain removing soil, they modify local climate and slow down climate change by storing carbon. Unfortunately, the forests are rapidly shrinking. Every year, huge areas are destroyed by human activity. Another problem is finding out the size of the
area affected. Winds can blow pollutants across thousands of kilometres, from one side of an ocean to the other. Chemicals flowing down large rivers can pollute many countries on their way to the sea.
The world is full of beauty, but it is going to be dirty because of the pollution. So lets make our world beautiful again by saving trees and stop littering and polluting