1. 3psl. External structure it is morphological structure. E.g. post-impressionists the following morphemes can be distinguished: prefixes “post-“”-im” the root “press” The noun forming suffixes “ion” “ist” and the grammatical suffix of plurality “-s”. All these morphemes constitute the external structure of the word.Internal structure of the word or it’s meaning is referred to as “the word semantic structure.
2. 4psl. Referential approach seeks to formulate the essence of meaning by establishing the interdependence between words and things or concepts they denote. The referential approach distinguishes between three components closely connected with meaning: the sound form of the word, the concept underlining this sound form, actual referent that part or aspect of reality to which the linguistic sign refers. The best-known referential model of meaning is the semiotic triangle. Concept
Sound referent FormThe dotted line shows that there is no immediate relation between word and referent: it is established only through the concept. Those three components are interdependent but are not identical with the meaning.
3. 8psl. The two main types of word meaning are the grammatical and lexical meanings to be found in words and word forms. Lexical meaning refers to the phenomena of objective reality. Grammatical meaning refers to the correlations between the words in the sentence. Besides the grammatical meaning there is another component of meaning: Lexical meaning to be found in words and word forms. Unlike the grammatical meaning this component of meaning is identical in all the forms of the word, e.g.: the word forms “go, went, gone, going” posses different grammatical meanings of tense, person etc, but each of these forms possesses the same semantic component denoting the process of movement. Lexical meaning of the word is the same throughout its paradigm. It means that all the forms of one and the same word are lexically identical. But in English language are some words, which have no lexical meaning, only the grammatical one: prepositions, conjunctions and participles. Also some words may loose their lexical meaning and be used only in their grammatical form. Eg I have read this book. Did you go? Have and do in these sentences have entirely lost their lexical meanings they have only grammatical forms. They are called desemantized. The degree of desemantization may vary and grammatical meaning of the word and the context. “E.g., I must have my hair cut”, or “ she turned pale” have and turned retain their lexical meaning to a certain degree and are partly desementized words
4. 9psl. Lexical meaning includes denotational and conotational components. The denotational component expresses the conceptual content of the word. Every word or a word group must have only one meaning. Without this component the communication between people who speaks the same language would be impossible. Conotational components we can define like augmentation of meaning. Denotative connotative Lonely alone melancholy
5.11psl. The connotational component includes emotive charge and stylistic reference.Words differ in their emotive charge. In these three synonyms : liking, love, worship” the emotive charge of the word “worship” is the heaviest. Many words acquire an emotive meaning only in a definite context. In that case it has only contextual emotive meaning. E. g. “I feel so darned lonely today”. In the vocabulary of any language there are many words, which are undoubtedly bearers of emotive meaning. These are interjections; swear words, exclamatory words and a great number of qualitative and intensifying adjectives. Some of them practically have no logical meaning, only an emotive one. Oh ah pooh darn gosh Christ God etc.Words differ not only in emotive charge, but in stylistic reference. When placed in different situations, people instinctively choose different kinds of words and structures to express their thoughts. The suitability or unsuitability of a word for each particular situation depends on the functional style it represents.
6. 13psl. Change of lexical meaning. In the course of historical development word change their meaning. The cause of the change of meaning is the change of notion of the word. E.g., “earth” in O.E. meant “soil” but nowadays it means “planet”. Different kinds of changes in a nation’s social life, in it’s culture, science, technology, arts lead to gaps appearing in the vocabulary which must be filled. The process is being carried either by making new words or borrowing foreign words or by applying some old word to a new object or notion.14psl. all the factors accounting for the semantic changes of the words may be grouped into: extra-linguistic and linguistic causes. By extra linguistic causes we understand various changes in the life of speech community. The changes in all spheres of human activities are reflected in word meaning. E.g. the word “carrus” in Latin meant a four-wheeled wagon drawn by a horse. At present it denotes other means of transport a motorcar. Very frequently functional semantics has to do with the change of meaning. In the course of history one word is ousted by another but the name of the previous thing is transferred to a new thing because of the resemblance of the functions of two things. E.g., “pen” goes back to Latin “penna” a feather of the bird. Goose feathers were used in writing.By purely linguistic causes we understand factors acting within the language system. The most common form is called ellipsis. Ellipsis is the phrase made up of two words; one of these is omitted and its meaning transferred to its partner.Another linguistic cause is discrimination of synonyms.The process of development of a new meaning is traditionally termed transference. It should be taken into consideration that in any case of semantic change it is not the meaning but the word that is being transferred from one referent onto another. The result of such transference is the appearance of a new meaning.
7.15psl.When a word passes from general usage into some specific sphere of communication it undergoes some sort of specialization of its meaning. E.g. the word “play” suggests different notions to a child, playwright, a musician etc. When the meaning of the word is specialized, the word has fever referents; the application of the word is narrowed. E.g. O.E. deor – wild beast; Mod.E.- deerThe process reverse to specialization is termed generalization of meaning. In that case the application of the word is widened. In most cases generalization means a higher degree of abstraction. E.g.: “to fly” originally meant “to move through air with wings”; at present it denotes “any kind of movement in the air and outer space and also very quick movement in any medium. When words are transferred from special sphere into a wider usage their meaning is extended or widened.
8. 16psl. Meanings can become “better” or “worse” which is neither logical nor plausible. As a matter of fact by “degradation and elevation” is meant not meaning itself but referent on to which a word is transferred.Degradation is the semantic shift indicating that the referent degraded its meaning, most often it shows that the referent is lowered in the social status. E.g.: the word “knave” O.E. cnafa – meant boy. Later it began to mean “servant” from the habit of calling servants “boys”. Later it became a general term of abuse and scorn and began to express moral wickedness.Degradation of meaning besides social reasons may have psychological linguistic reasons. a) traditional association of nouns with certain adjectives e.g. hussy – an impudent girl. Originally it meant only a girl. But it was associated with the adjective “idle” so “hussy” became degraded. b) intonation and inversion may also be the cause of degradation e.g. you are a good friend. A good friend you are! It acquires quite an opposite meaning. c) there are cases when a word has quite a neutral meaning but its derivatives may undergo degradation: “scheme” – a plan, but “scheming” – making intrigues.Elevation of meaning is a semantic shift when a referent acquires ameliorated meaning, most often when a referent goes up in a social scale e.g. “minister” originally meant “a servant” at present means an important public officer.
9.18psl. Superordinate it is the upper term of inclusion e.g. the concepts “tulip” and “rose” are included in concept “flower”, so “flower” is the superordinate, the lower term is called hyponym. But there are many words, which doesn’t have their superordinate term, like colors.
10. 18psl. Synonymy synonyms are traditionally described as different in sound form but identical or similar in meaning. First of all identity of meaning can not be applied to polysemantic words e.g. the verb “look” is usually treated as a synonym “see”, watch, observe. But in another of its meanings it is not synonymous with this group of words but rather with the verbs “seen” appear”.20psl. V.V.Vinogradov distinguished three types of synonyms.Ideographical synonyms are words differ in additional semantic components added to the common denotational component of meaning e.g. to remember, to recollect etc.Stylistical synonyms are synonyms that differ in the presence or absence of their stylistic coloring e.g. chatty, talkative. Ideographical-stylistical synonyms are a mixed group of synonyms containing differences both in denotational component of meaning and in the stylistic coloring. E.g. marriage (neutral term) matrimony a formal term.Absolute synonyms are words identical in meaning stylistical coloring.
11. 20psl. Types of connotations. The connotation of degree or intensity can be traced in the following groups of synonyms: to surprise- to astonish- to amaze-to astoundThe connotation of duration: to stare-to gaze- to glance- to peep- to peer. All the synonyms except “to glance” denote a lasting act: to glance describes passing lookEmotive connotations? Emotion is expressed by the leading semantic component whereas in the former it is an accompanying, subsidiary characteristic.The causative connotation can be illustrated by the examples “to sparkle” “to glitter” (with positive emotions. The causative connotation is also typical with the verbs “to shiver” and “to shudder”. In semantic structure of these verbs the cause of the act of trembling is enclosed; “to shiver with cold, from chill etc.The connotation of manner can be singled out in some group of verbal synonyms. The verbs “to scroll – to trot – to pace – to swagger – to stumble all denote different ways and types of walking, including the length of pace, tempo, gait and carriage, purposefulness or lack of purpose.The connotation of attendant circumstances can be observed by a verb “to peer” one peer at somebody. So the semantic structures of “to peer” is enclosed circumstances preventing one from seeing clearly.The connotation of attendant features can be described by examples: pretty- handsome- beautiful. Each of then describes a special type of human beauty. Stylistic connotation deals with stylistically marked words. Stylistic connotation is subject to further classification: colloquial, dialect, and slang etc. e.g. Meal – sack, bite, snap, repast.22psl. The dominant synonymall the synonymic groups have a central word of this kind whose meaning is equal to the denotation common to all the synonymic group. This word called the dominant synonym. The dominant synonym is general term, stylistically and emotionally neutral, potentionally containing the specific features rendered by all the members of the synonymic group e.g. in the word group: to shine, glisten, flash, sparkle, glow, glare, shimmer, glimmer, gleam the verb shine stands out as the most general term.
13. 26psl. Words identical in sound form but different in meaning are termed homonymse.g. bank- shore, bank institutionHomophones identical in sound form, but different in spelling and meaning.Full homonymy some words are homonymous in all their forms. E.g. seal – a sea animal and a seal- stamp. The paradigm “seal, seal’s, seals, seals” is identical for both of them. Partial homonymy e.g. to find, found, found and to found, founded, founded. When some word forms are identical.Homographs are words identical in spelling but different in their sound form and meaning. e.g. bow [bou] a shooting instrument, bow [bau] the bending of the head or body.
14.32psl. ? Phraseological units or idioms represent the most picturesque, colorful and expressive part of the language vocabulary.Word groups known as phraseological units or idioms characterized by a double sense: the current meanings of constituent words build up certain picture, but the actual meaning of the whole unit has little or nothing to do with that picture creating an entirely new image. 36psl. Sources of Ph.U. There are two major classes of them. Pure English Ph.U. and borrowed PH.U.Pure E.ph.U of non-terminological character.Pure E.ph.U. of termilogicalPure E.ph.U. usually seals with customs, traditions of English nation, e.g. “a baker’s dozen”- thirteen. Some ph.U include names, surnames.e.g. Queen Anne is dead – your news is stale. A certain group of pure E.ph.u. deals with myths and legends: “kiss the blarney stone”- have the ability to flatter with one’s work The last group of pure E.PH.U of non-terminological character is closely connected with historical facts: “Double dutch” seems to be meaningless. This expression has negative connotation and dates to those times when England and Holland were competitors at sea.37.psl.Pure E. PH.U. of terminological character. Various fields of activity gave birth to a lot of phrases of this kind, e.g. “spick and span” clean and tidy. There lot of ph.u. which originated from various fields of sport.e.g. boxing “to hit below the belt” to behave unfairly.38psl. PH.borrowings Bible is the most important source of Ph.U. Biblical phrases are used both in written and spoken language “At the eleventh hour.” Almost, but not quite late to do smth (matthew)Another group of PH.U. are those which allude to Biblical plot” a doubting Thomas” skeptic.41psl. Classification of PH. U.V.V.Vinogradov’s classification system is based on the degree of semantic cohesion between the components of a ph.u. He classifies ph.u. into three classes: Phraseological combinations are word groups with a partially changed meaning. they are clearly motivated, the meaning of the unit can be easily deduced from the meaning of its constituents. Usually one component of such word group is used in its direct meaning and the other- in the transferred sense e.g. “to be at one’s wits end”Phraseological unities are word groups with a completely changed the meaning, that is the meaning of unit does not correspond to the meaning of its constituent parts. They are motivated units. Emotional qualities of the word are often based upon the metaphorical image created by the whole word group. The metaphor on which the shift of meaning is based, is clear and transparent.
Phraseological fusions represent the highest degree of blending of the components whose meaning is completely absorbed by the whole. They are demotivated word groups whose meaning can not be deduce from the meaning of the constituting parts; the metaphor on which the shift of meaning was based, has lost its clarity and is obscure; e.g. “red tape”, “The green eyed monster”