klonavimas

KAUNO TECHNOLOGIJOS UNIVERSITETAS
INFORMATIKOS FAKULTETAS

RESEARCH WORK

Cloning the Human Race:

The Importance of Cloning Technology

Atliko: studentas: Algirdas Budvytis

Patikrino: dėstytoja Zita Murauskienė

CONTENTS

Introduction........................ 3

Human cloning is beneficial................... 3
What is clone? .................... 3
Curing diseases ................... 3
Relieving infertility .................. 4
Plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgery......... 4
Ethical implications ................. 4
Discussing the problem ................... 5

Conclusion ........................ 5

Bibliography ........................ 5

Vocabulary............... . . . . .... 6

INTRODUCTION

The announcement of the birth of the cloned ewe, Dolly, in 1997 by scientists at the Roslin Institute, UK, was a shock for the entire world.

Cloning: The word sounds like science fiction. But cloning iis now science fact for many species, and it could hold the answer for the majority of problems of aging humans. Recent advances in cloning have come with remarkable speed, but doubts about their applicability to aging have remained. However human cloning and its technology are necessary and should be continued because the cures to diseases may be found, the infertility problem may be solved.

Imagine a world full of “Mini-Hitlers”, genetic replicates of Adolf Hitler, seeking world domination. Picture thhem starting a second Holocaust on a worldwide scale, killing millions upon millions of people as a “final solution” to establish a superior race. This scenario is far-fetched, but this is the kind of thing people think about when they he

ear the word “cloning”.

HUMAN CLONING IS BENEFICIAL

Ø What is clone?

A clone is a group of genetically identical cells. For example, tumours are clones of cells inside an organism because they consist of many replicas of one mutated cell. Another type of clone occurs inside a cell. Such a clone is made up of groups of identical structures that contain genetic material, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Curing diseases

High hopes in developing new cures and treatments for serious and unmet medical needs have been driven by the cloning technology.

Some diseases are inborn and cause permanent defects on an individual. This suffering may end soon if cloning is permitted. Doctors expect to eventually offer expectant mothers an option to diagnose and trreat the future early enough to correct disorders such as Down’s Syndrome, miscarriages, and genetically induced sensory diseases like blindness or deafness.

Human cloning would solve the problem of finding a transplant donor whose organ or tissue is an acceptable match and would eliminate or drastically reduce, the risk of transplant rejection from the host. The host must first have his own clone, which would mean that clones would be genetically identical to the host. For transplanting organs from one another, th

he match would be near perfect.

Ø Relieving infertility

Infertility is caused by genetic defects, injuries to the reproductive organs, congenital defects and exposure to toxic substances and radiation. Many assisted-reproduction technologies have been developed. This includes surrogate mothers for women without a functional uterus, intracytoplasmic sperm injection for males who can’t produce viable sperm, and IVF (in vitro fertilization) for women with blocked or missing fallopian tubes. However, these treatments have proven to be highly inefficient and they can’t help people whose reproductive organs have not developed or have been removed. These people will pursue years of painful and expensive treatments to have little chance of success. Human cloning can offer infertile people a higher chance of success. Most people are infertile because they can’t produce viable gametes. Cloning technology wouldn’t require viable sperm or egg, any body cell would do. This technology would be able to bypass defective gametes and allow infertile people to have their own biological children. Cloning technology may even prevent clinical depression, divorce, and suicide among infertile people. This is because infertility often leads to them.

Ø Plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgery

Because of human cloning and its technology the days of silicone breast implants and other cosmetic procedures th

hat may cause immune disease should soon be over. With the new technology, instead of using materials foreign to the body for such procedures, doctors will be able to manufacture bone, fat, connective tissue, or cartilage that matches the patients tissues exactly. Anyone will able to have their appearance altered to their satisfaction without the leaking of silicone gel into their bodies or the other problems that occur with present day plastic surgery. Victims of terrible accidents that deform the face should now be able to have their features repaired with new, safer technology. Limbs for amputees may be able to be regenerated.

Ø Ethical implications

Many of the ethical arguments against human cloning are induced by misconception. The “Mini-Hitler” scenario I have listed above is far-fetched, but that is exactly the kind of thing people think about when they hear the word “cloning”. People think that cloning technology can produce an exact copy of an existing adult human being. This isn’t true. Cloning technology can only produce a cloned embryo. The embryo must develop in a uterus. The developed child must experience childhood and adolescence. People think that a clone will be both behaviourally and physically identical to its donor. T

This also isn’t true. The clone will probably be identical physically, but not behaviourally. Genes contribute to the array of our abilities and limits, but our behaviour and mentality is constantly shaped by environmental factors. Even identical twins show differences in behavioural and mental characteristics. Someone trying to clone a future Adolf Hitler might instead produce a modestly talented painter.

DISCUSSING THE PROBLEM

The future of the human race

Still, human cloning and its technology have their benefits and research work should be continued. Abortion is legal although it is to kill a foetus. If there is a right to abort foetal life, there must be a parallel right to create life.

AIDS and other diseases are still incurable. Many doctors and scientists see cloning as a very conceivable way of solving these problems and freeing these suffering people soon.

Human cloning is a possibility in playing a big role in our future.

CONCLUSION

The government should regulate human cloning. Banning it would deprive many beneficial treatments from people who need it. I have mentioned only a few of cloning technology’s significant benefits. Cloning technology can lead to a better understanding of cell differentiation. This would allow biologist to produce tissues and organs for transplant. Cloning can help carriers of genetic defects to have healthy children. It can even help to completely eradicate genetic mutations and defects. Treatment of infertility is one of its most promising benefits. Cloning technology can help infertile people to have their own children, one of life’s most powerful biological drives. Besides, ethical implications involved in human cloning are only temporary. They are induced by misconception. Education will change people’s negative attitude towards human cloning. If we give human cloning a chance, it will most likely become a part of our daily lives.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://year2067.com ,

http://www.alteich.com/resourse.html ,

http://www.worldbook.com/fun/bth/cloning/html/what_is.html ,

http://www.globalchange.com/clonlink.htm ,

VOCABULARY

1. relegate – to give someone or something a less important position than before
2. conceptual – based on ideas
3. likelihood – the degree to which something can reasonably be expected to

happen; probability
4. detractor – someone who says bad things about someone or something, in

order to make them seem less good than they really are
5. fiction – something that people want you to believe is true but which is not true
6. applicable – affecting or connected with a particular person, group, or situation
7. infertility – an infertile person or animal cannot have babies
8. ewe – a female sheep
9. of a plant above the ground or the smaller parts

that grow from it, from which leaves grow
10. cartilage – a strong stretchy substance, or piece of this, that is around the joints

in a person or animal’s body
11. implication – a possible future effect or result of a plan, action, or event, which

must be considered or discussed
12. counseling – the act of listening to people and giving them support with their

problems, especially as your job
13. negotiate – to discuss something in order to reach an agreement, especially in

business or politics
14. worrisome – making you anxious
15. pertain to sth – to be directly connected with something

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