What people do when they get laid-off

I. INTRODUCTION
Unemployment really is one of the economic and social problems. However, stressing of this problem usually leaves people with an impression that it is the most urgent in Lithuania. One could read in an article in one newspaper that this problem is not that urgent as our politicians present it. (According to the Statistics Department as of II quarter 2004, there were 183.4 thousand of unemployed. The unemployment rate decreased to 11.3%. In 2003 the unemployment rate reached 12.7%. In 2003, as compared with 2002, the nuumber of unemployed decreased by more than 20 thousand or by 9%.)
The aim – to research how extensive unemployment rate by age groups, sex and education is in Lithuania, also problems in finding employment in Lithuania (particularly for women).
II. METHODS: UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW AND OFFICIAL STATISTICS
Unstructured interview – random sample consists of about 1000 respondents (“Lithuanian Labour Exchange” participants) who were asked several of questions pertaining to:
What they did when they were out of a job: did they look for work;

If not, did they waant to work;
If so, why did they not look even though they wanted to work?
And the main problems in finding job;
Official statistics – were used to research how extensive unemployment rate by age groups, sex and education is in Li

ithuania (the Tables were took from http://www.std.lt/, “Labor Force- Employment and Unemployment in 1996,” Publication No 3170, Vilnius, 1997)

Table 1. Unemployment rate by age groups and sex
(average annual; per cent)

Age groups 2003
Total 12,4% Males 12,7% Females 12,2%
15–19 45,2 15–19 39,9 15–19 53,4
20–24 21,8 20–24 19,7 20–24 24,5
25–29 12,1 25–29 15,3 25–29 8,6
30–34 10,5 30–34 10,8 30–34 10,2
35–39 10,4 35–39 11,3 35–39 9,4
40–44 11,4 40–44 11,5 40–44 11,3
45–49 10,5 45–49 10,0 45–49 11,0
50–54 12,4 50–54 11,7 50–54 13,0
55–59 11,5 55–59 9,8 55–59 13,1
60–64 11,5 60–64 13,2 60–64 8,8
65+ 5,4 65+ 2,7 65+ 8,9
http://www.std.lt/

Table 2. Unemployment percentage by education

Total Male Female

thousands % thousands % thousands %
Total 317 100 155 100 162 100
Universities 32 10.1 12 7.7 20 12.4
Higher educational institutions 77 24.3 30 19.4 47 29.0
Secondary shools 101 31.9 48 31.0 53 32.7
Professional secondary schools 61 19.2 39 25.1 22 13.6
Other schools 46 14.5 26 16.8 20 12.3
“Labor Force- Employment and Unemployment in 2003,” Vilnius, 2004

III. RESULTS
The results of the unstructured interview –
Questions:
What they did when they were out of a job: did they look for work;

If not, did they want to work;
If so, why did they not look even though they wanted to work?
And the main problems in finding job;
Of the 1000 employees who were laid off and looking for work sometime in 2003:
– 57% had been looking for work by January 2004;
– 6% did not look because they were waiting for annswers from employers or for a recall to their former job;
– 3% did not look because they were discouraged;
– 32% did not want to work;
– 2% wanted to work but did not look because of various obligations unrelated to work;
– And the main problems in finding job were:
o Cannot find a job in chosen profession;
o Cannot find a job because of no education or profession;
o Cannot find a job because of age;
o Cannot accept jobs because of:
§ Inadequate wages;
§ Requirement of non-limited workday;
§ Bad working conditions;
§ Temporary employment;

Results of the of

fficial statistics –
Table 1.
– Unemployment rate by age groups and sex:
Mostly the unemployed are:
15–19 age youth, it is about 45,2%, mostly females – 53,4%.

The main problem of the youth unemployment is the economic and social polarization of society determines the increasing differentiation in young people and conflict between generations. Many young people think that they are not so well integrated in society. They often feel ignored or unprepared to compete on the labour market. What is striking though, is that young people in many cases do not seem to be so interested in changing “this social alienation”.
Least the unemployed are:

65+ age pensioners, it is about 5,4%, mostly females – 8,9%;
The main problem of the pensioners’ unemployment is the age. It includes the behavior reaction, efficiency and health etc. But it is necessary to say that these age group employees mostly have work places, because of his or her work experience, dependability etc.
An average the unemployed are:

20–24 age persons, it is about 21,8%, mostly females – 24,5%.
The main problem of that age group unemployment is household and study.
Table 2.
– Unemployment by education:
Mostly the unemployed by education are:
Finished only Secondary schools, it is about 31.9%, mostly females – 32.7%.
Least the unemployed by education are:

Finished Universities, it is about 10.1%, mostly females – 12.4%.

An average the un

nemployed by education are:

Finished Professional secondary schools, it is about 19.2%, mostly males – 25.1%.
Why there are so many unemployed women? Women are more severely affected by the loss of a job than are men. Women are more sensitive to the negative social and economic problems that unemployment creates. In addition to working outside of the home, the traditional role of a woman is to be the caretaker in the family. However unfairly, in addition to her job, she takes the major responsibility for the well being of the children, the cooking, the washing, the shopping and the myriad of other household duties that custom says is “the woman’s job.”
“The carried sociological studied showed that 80% of women having employment regard men’s social and economic status to be more rewarding than theirs. Less than one third of the women agree with this traditional gender role in today’s changing world. These findings are corroborated by Prof. V. Leonavicius in his treatise, “A Person’s Identity and Gender Role,” Kaunas University Of Technology, Sociology in Lithuania, Kaunas, 1996. “
A new problem to Lithuania is that many young women, after their maternity leave, lose their qualifications, because of the lack of up to date knowledge and skills. There ar
re no free retraining courses for these women supported by th e State in Lithuania. As for retraining courses for which there is a fee, women usually cannot afford to spare money from a small family budget.
IV. CONCLUSION
The summarize of the research is:

– Of the 1000 employees who were laid off and looking for work sometime in 2003, 57% (mostly) had been looking for work by January 2004;
– Mostly the unemployment rate by age groups and sex is 15–19 age youth, it is about 45,2%, mostly females – 53,4%
– Mostly the unemployed by education is that who were finished only Secondary schools, it is about 31.9%, mostly females – 32.7%.
– Mostly the unemployed are women, because of household and other social limitations and attitudes.
Lastly, unemployment is a traumatic and demoralizing experience for men and for women. There is a loss of self-esteem and self-confidence. Intellectually, a person can know that the loss of a job was because of factors beyond his or her control, yet will somehow feel to blame. The longer the period of unemployment, the greater the erosion of self-worth and the greater the sense of failure.

V. REFERENCES

http://www.std.lt/web/main.php?parent=924
http://www.ldb.lt/ldb_site/en/index.aspx/en/forecasts/labour_market_forecasts/?menu_id=137
http://www.std.lt/
“Labor Force- Employment and Unemployment in 2003,” Vilnius, 2004
“A Person’s Identity and Gender Role”, KTU, Sociology in Lithuania, Kaunas, 1996.
“Lithuanian Labour Exchange” employee Rita Sieliosiuniene

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