Visi 11 klasėje rašyti darbai

Sandra Svanidzaitė, 2003
My written topics 3
Advantages and disadvantages of keeping a pet at home 3
Cottages in Lithuania 3
Description of a Friend 4
Endangered species of animals 4
What environmental problems is the world facing at the moment? What should the governments do to protect the environment? 5
Environmental problems 5
Personal Identification 6
The role of free press in general 7
Money makes the world go round 7
Fast Food 8
Shopping 8
Animals in captivity 9
(Gyvūnai nelaisvėje) 9
Letters 10
Application for summer cources 10
A letter for a friend 11
Paragraphs 12
People keep pets for several reasons 12
Several ways to improve your English 12
What a lot of patience teachers must have 12
Topics frrom the book 13
Animal testing 13
Can we live longer? 13
Computers 13
Environment, pollution 14
World’s wildlife in danger 14
Fame: a Blessing or a curse? 14
Invent yor way to riches 15
Technological advancement 15
The importance of sport 15
Tourism 16
More Education, Less Environmental Damage 16
TV- A Child’s Friend or Enemy 16
Violent Crimes 16
So you want to be a millionaire? 17
Success 17
Idioms, expressions 18
Idioms with “eye” 18
Idioms “Skin” 18
Idioms 18
Sentences with “terms” 18
Sentences with “weather” 19
Grammar Section 20
First and last Paragraph Techniques 20
Linking devices 21
USE OF ENGLISH SECTION 23
Present Perfect – Past Simple – Past Perfect 23
Countable/Uncountable Nouns – So/Such – Much/Little – Many/Few 23
Gerund – Infinitive – Too/Not Enough – Participles 23
Modals 24
Conditionals – Wishes – Unreal Past 24
Passive Voice – Causative Form 25
Relatives 25
Reported Speech – Introductory Verbs 26
Reported Speech – Modals 27
Clauses – Linking words 27
Comparisons 28
My written topics

Advantages and disadvantages of keeping a pet at home

At some point in their lives most people have considered about pets. One must wonder however if keeping a pet brings more positive or negative points. I assume th

hat subject of keeping a pet is very controversial. Their benefits are numerous and yet much can be said against them.
The first reason for supporting pets is that their benefits for children are undeniable. Keeping a pet is an important part of every child’s childhood and plays a big role in both their physical and mental development. It teaches children how to play with them, look around them, while at the same time aiding tolerance and understanding of each other.
From a social standpoint, pets play a large role in many lonely people’s lives. Nowadays more than ever lonely people are fond of keeping pets, because it helps to raise their mood, when they are in low spirits and not too feel so extremely lonely.
The final point in favour of keeping a pet is that there are a lot of people who are crazy about attending various animals’ exhibitions and showing the best points of their pets to the others.
However, there are drawbacks to keeping a pet and perhaps the most obvious one is that pets cause a lot of damage. In fact, a lot of people face with this problem. To avoid it they always have to lo
ook around their pet and try not to keep it in rooms which are full of valuable things.
Secondly some people can’t keep pets because of their health, usually they are allergious and cannot live with a pet in the same place.
Furthermore some pets, especially dogs dislike little children and they are likely to bite them. It is advisable to think twice before buying a pet and consider both positive and negative points.
In conclusion, there are strong arguments both for and against the keep of pets. Yet, despite the health problems, risk to valuable things, it seems that more and more people are keen on keeping pets at home and their benefits are invaluable.

Sum of words: 354

Cottages in Lithuania

At some point in their lives most people have daydreamed about joys of spending their holiday in a nice cottage. Due to this, more and more cottages are restored or built in our country. I feel very strongly that it is an extremely good way to spend our holiday even if you are fed up with living in a big, noisy town.
The main point in favour of spending holiday in a cottage is that it usually offers a lot of wo

onderful attractions and entertainments that otherwise you might not have the chance to try. As far as I know, most of the cottages are situated near the beaches, because it is very easy to attract a lot of tourists and offer them great attractions. As a result, when you spend your holiday in a such cottage you can find some of the county’s beaches within easy reach. Also there are many sandy coves just waiting to be explored.
Although, if you are fond of fresh fruits I am dead certain you can easily find a cottage with a sunny small orchard containing apple and plum trees.
Moreover, some of Lithuanian cottages are situated near lakes and the owners frequently offer to catch the boat to the closest villages and take a look at picturesque valleys.
Furthermore, if you are used to live in comfort and luxury, some of Lithuania cottages are offering extremely high standard of accommodation. Frequently you can find a sheltered patio with a barbecue and garden furniture. You can take a woodland stroll, go mushroom picking. Usually such cottages are situated right next to beautiful streams that wind their way through eye catching valley. You can also find ex
xtensive grounds where you can do, grassy play areas where you can do what you want.
Needless to say, there are few cottages next door to working dairy farms and guests are welcome to watch the cows being milked. Usually horse riding is one of the greatest entertainments.
Al things considered, perhaps, there is no need to spend your holiday at home even if you live in a crowded place. The ideal place for your holiday can be a lovely cottage situated in secluded valleys.

Words: 370
Description of a Friend
The person I like and admire very much is my friend Vaida. It is very difficult to say why, but I want to say a bit about her appearance and character. To the best of my knowledge, she has something that attracts everybody. I would like to start describing Vaida from her character, because I pay more attention to it, than to her appearance and the way she dresses.
The first thing, I have noticed about her, that she has hundreds of positive and no negative qualities. She is one of those girls, who are always good-tempered, because she has a kind smiley face and she is always friendly and pleased to see you. I can mention that she is generous by nature. That’s why she is always surrounded by friends. Another reason why she has lots of friends is that she could never let her friends down and tell a lie. So taking everything into account, she is frank, modest, just, flexible, patient, and always determined to do her best. Also I have to mention that she is likely to be communicative and talkative with her friends. What I like in Vaida’s character is that she is always affectionate, cheerful, conscientious, considerate and reliable person. But I have also to say a bit about her appearance. It strikes me that, she is fashion addict, because she always tries to keep up her best with the latest styles. This spring she wears new sunglasses which makes her look fashionable and cool. Vaida is short-haired, blue-eyed, full-lipped, oval-faced, right-handed girl. I have to mention that she has beautiful wide-set blue eyes and big thick eyelashes. Her complexion is healthy but sometimes it is sallow. Her features are delicate. So on the whole, I can say that Vaida is ambitious, persistent and well-bred girl. She is always very easy-going about lots of things, and she doesn’t worry about her life and the way she looks. I assume that’s why we get on.

Endangered species of animals

Environment plays a large role in every human’s life. Frequently we just don’t pay attention to all bad things we do to nature. Unfortunately, the number of endangered species of animals are increasing at an alarming rate. This problem is very common, all the countries in the world face with it.
Lithuania has also a quite large number of endangered species. Lithuania’s fauna has no particular species peculiar to it alone. There are large numbers of mammals, birds, reptiles. For various reasons some of them became extinct. Nowadays it is impossible to find bisons or bears in the forests. The number of foxes, wolves, elks has shrunk. We have 300 species of birds, but they also face with various problems leading to extinction.
Much can be done to protect endangered species. Needless to say, we can’t act single-handed . For example, government should make a substantial progress in organizing programmes how to protect animals , also government should pass some new laws which could restrict people from polluting, cutting down woods. In addition to this, woodlands and forests are home to large numbers of animals and as the land is vital to their survival this is having alarming effects. Also human population expansion and the effects of hunting are threatening animals. In order to protect them, animals are kept in captivity, for instance, in zoo. The idea is that when animals are able to breed (veistis) in safety their numbers will increase enough so that some of them can be released in their natural habitats.
It is very important to protect all species because it is our fauna and we can’t loose species just because we don’t know how to protect them.

Words: 287

What environmental problems is the world facing at the moment? What should the governments do to protect the environment?

Pollution nowadays has increased as a result of technological advancement combined with the fact that large numbers of people are polluting, because they don’t know what harm they do to our nature and with very few prospects of improving the situation. In my opinion there are several major environmental problems with which the world faces nowadays.
Firstly, as I have recently mentioned technological advancement has become a focus of today’s society. The world has faced and become conscious with lots of problems leading to a real environmental crisis. One of the problems is that people are destroying earth’s natural recourses. Moreover, we can put forward such well-known factors as air pollution, water pollution, discoloration of trees, reduction of various species of animals as well as reduction of vast areas of woodlands and forests.
Environmental problems such as freak weather conditions, fire, and acid rain are resulting the reduction of forests. These areas are home to large numbers of animals and as the lands are vital to their survival this is having alarming effects. So many species of wildlife are in danger of disappearing completely from the face of earth.
Furthermore, air pollution has been a problem since industrial revolution. The smoke in the atmosphere causes global warming. Due to this, in a lot of countries there are laws limiting the amount of smoke the factories can produce.
As a result, all these environmental problems made society change its opinion towards nature. Therefore, a lot of countries made a substantial progress in developing programmes which is a beneficial help to restrict people from polluting.
An important part of deterring young people from polluting is better education. If taught that pollution causes a lot of environmental problems, young people would be less likely to pollute.
To sum up, perhaps the best solution to the problem is for the government to revise all out-of-date laws and begin to take wide-ranging actions.

Sum of words: 337

Environmental problems

Environment plays a large role in every human’s life. Frequently we just don’t pay attention to all bad things we do to nature. Unfortunately, pollution levels are increasing at an alarming rate and we should do everything as well as we can to reduce it.
The main reason why it is so important to protect the environment is that we should think not only about ourselves but about future generations as well. Nowadays, we have faced with such problem as ever-growing number of endangered species in the world. Moreover, a lot of factors such as acid rain, fires, and freak weather conditions are resulting the destruction of vast areas of woodland. These areas are home to large numbers of animals and the land is vital to their survival.
Needless to say, there is always a way out. For example, recycling can be of a great help. The subject of recycling is very controversial. It’s benefits are numerous and much can be said against it. The most important point in favour of recycling is that is helps to achieve reduction in environmental damage, but on the other hand a lot of counties face with such problem as the lack of money to make a substantial progress in their recycling system. But, despite this, these countries are still trying to recycle such materials as paper, glass, various goods from plastic.
Much can be done about it, if all individuals tried to do their best to cut down on household waste. Furthermore, they can try to less he use of electricity, water, also we can try to change the way various goods are packed and use less plastic.
Looking for a way out, it is vital for government to take widespread actions and raise it’s competence in many areas. An important part of deterring people from polluting can be better education. If taught that pollution causes a lot of environmental problems, people would be less likely to pollute.

Words: 370

Personal Identification
In the first place I am Sandra. I started school at the age of six. Now I am in the tenth form at ‘Saltinio’ secondary school in Marijampole. Actually I am sixteen years old. This year I will be sitting about my exams. As a matter of fact, I am in a bit of a panic. Personally, I am not sure that I pass all my exams. So I am worried about it. To my way of thinking I am fairly bright and hardworking, but on the other hand sometimes I am inconsistent. Actually, my homework preparation depends from my mood, but in the most of time I try to do my best. Sometimes I never stop working and in my view it is one of the best my features. As far as I know, I have an ability for mathematics and I am quite good at it. I am keen on English, but unfortunately I can’t stand Russian. In fact, I know English far more better than Russian. Personally, I am not interested in out of school activities.
I have some good friends and I am very fond of it. I fell very strongly, that I am always willing to help, cheerful, easy-going, generous, self-confident and unselfish. What I am keen on is spending my sparetime with friends. Unfortunately, I am a bit short of time these days. I have got a whole lot of work and I am scary about it but, on the other hand I am determined to do my best. Personally I am keen on music, but discos aren’t really my scene. I enjoy listen to music at my spare time. Nowadays it is impossible to escape from music even if we want to. It thunders out of every high-street shop, hisses horribly from other people’s stereo on public transport and blasts out of open car windows. For instance, early classical music helps us fell relaxed and peaceful.

As far as I know, I am quite good at working with computer, but in fact my homework are on the top. In my opinion the Internet is here to stay and will change our lives for the better. In my view, computers in the future will be a part of our furniture. We will talk to them, ask them questions and have access to all the knowledge in the world. Computers can help us stay in touch with our friends. To my way of thinking, computers and the Internet make our lives easier.
Actually, some time ago, I used to be interested in watching television, but now I have changed my mind. I assume I can do something more beneficial than watching TV.
I am quite interested in reading books. I suppose it will be very useful in my future. Especially, I am crazy about reading on reading English books. In my opinion it is very beneficial, because you can explore yourself, how many words you know, and also you can find many expressions for your English lessons, but on the other hand I adore reading Lithuanian books, because I am only learning English and I don’t know it so fluently as I know Lithuanian, but maybe sometime in the nearest future I will know English as good as I know Lithuanian, but actually it is only a dream. Personally, I am almost sure that this dream comes truth.
Now about my family. As a matter of fact, I live with my parents. I am not very critical of them, because we understand each other and haven’t got many problems. On the other hand, there is one problem with my sister. As far as I know, she is fairly bright, but she is quite lazy too, and she is far too interested in out of school activities. So my mom and I bosse her around and she puts up with it. What else can she do? My family haven’t got so many problems with me as with my sister. My mom always says that she is very fond of me. So my sister and I are completely different. My dad has a very hard work, so he spends most of his time working.
My main ambition is to pass my exams successfully, entry the university, complete it and have a very good job.
This is all what I can say about me, but not everything what was written in this topic is true. I have wrote some nice sentences, which has nothing to do with me, because only of brilliant structure.

The role of free press in general

Free press is an important part of today’s society and plays a large role in many people’s lives. Newspapers and magazines have entered he lives of even the poorest members of society and it is very rare to find anyone who doesn’t read them.
There are many things to be said in favour of free press and the most obvious one that undoubtedly it makes our lives easier and more interesting. While reading newspapers or magazines you can find stacks (kalnai) of handy hints (patogus, naudingi dalykai), you can use in your daily life. Also you can be impressed by a treasure-trove(šaltinis) of information. In addition to this there are a lot of different kinds of newspapers and magazines and it is impossible to read them all. So from your standpoint (požiūris) you have to choose which are the best for you. Dozens of newspapers and magazines are published in our country, but not all of them enjoy equal popularity. As far as I know, the most popular are The Lietuvos rytas and The Respublika. Moteris, Laima, Panele, Cosmopolitan are the most popular magazines. To tell the truth, I am not very keen on reading newspapers, because I find it quite boring. On the other hand, during my spare time I adore to look threw magazines. It doesn’t mean that I read all the articles, I try my best to choose the most interesting ones.
It is often said that the popular press aims to entertain its readers rather than inform them and I can strongly agree with this opinion., because I can’t stand various factual reports and international news stories. I enjoy reading various rumors about celebrities, also magazines for women are my favourites. Usually, they are full of ideas how to survive in rough and tumble (sunkumai, netvarka) of world of work, they are also full of handy hints (naudingi dalyai) to keep you looking your best. There re stacks (kalnai) of advices you need on everything from keeping trim (švarus, tvarkingas, lieknas) to shooting the most suitable clothes for you.
Needless to say, I also enjoy reading science magazines such as Kompiuterija or Naujoji Komunikacija, I assume they are the best ones about computers published in our country. These two are full of the latest news from technological world.
To sum up, there are a lot of different kinds of magazines and newspapers and everyone can choose what he likes the best.

Words: 413

Money makes the world go round

It is popularly believed that money makes the world go round and I can strongly agree with this opinion. It is impossible to imagine how our world would be like if there would be no money no rich or poor people.
The benefits of being rich and powerful are numerous and yet much can be said against it. There are many things to be said in favour of being rich and the most obvious one that undoubtedly you have to put a lot of efforts if you want to become a rich person. There is no specific formula you can you to become a millionaire. For instance, at school we are told that gaining knowledge is all we need to do well in society. With being rich also comes adoration, meaning that rich people will always be surrounded by people who want to be with and be seen with them.
However, there are drawbacks to being rich and the most obvious one being a complete lack of privacy. Nowadays, such people are followed almost everywhere they go and their lives are scrutinized in details by newspapers. In addition, to this rich person can never be sure whether people like him for the person he is rather that his money or name.
The main advantage to being rich s that it tends to go hand in hand with being successful person, but we can’t forget that success doesn’t happen by accident, it comes like a rewarding (atlyginimas) to your hard work, patience and so on and so forth. True success turns out to be based on more than motivation. There is a need for harmony, balance, creativity, healthy relationships.
In conclusion, most people dream of becoming rich and famous. They worry constantly (pastoviai, nuolatos) only about their money and reputation. They are rarely (retai) satisfied with what they have. To tell the truth, I am not like these people, money isn’t an essential thing in my life there are a lot of more important things.

Words: 341

Fast Food

To start with, food and drink are very important, because nobody can live without eating or drinking. Needless to say, these two things may be a great pleasure. Of course we have to eat neither too much nor too little. As a general rule, geographic location and family tradition play major part in forming dietary habits, food choices vary from person to person. The fact of the matter is that fast food is major part of many people diet’s. It’s clear, fast food is frequently high in fat salt and low in minerals and vitamins. To tell the truth, my family dislikes fast food. To the best of my knowledge, there are seven Macdonald’s restaurants in Lithuania. I really can’t stand all the Macdonald’s restaurants that we have now. Personally I believe, that they all look the same, the food tastes like plastic, and although a burger and fries contains loads of calories and you are hungry again five minutes late. I feel very strongly that I am fond of traditional food. In fact I am keen on my mom’s cooking best.
In general, if you want to stay healthy and slim it’s important to eat more fresh fruit and vegetables, to cut down on salty on salty snacks, chips, nuts, sweets, chocolates and to use less salt and sugar in cooking.
As far as I know, eating too much salt and sugar can effect your risk of developing heart disease and raise the level of cholesterol in the blood. Eating too much sugar can mean that you are more likely to become obese and that means a higher risk of getting heart disease. Indeed, sugar tastes good but, of course, it contains nothing but calories.
In addition some people can keep slim without any effort, but a lot of people do put on too much weight and dislike it. Besides some of the people put their faith in exercise, but the problem here is that you can sweat off a couple of kilos , but it all back again with a big plate of macaroni.
Taking everything into account, a well-balanced diet should provide all the vitamins we normally require. Vitamins are vital for growth, good health and maintenance for normal functions of the body. Modern methods of preserving, freezing and long-term storage of food, together with overcooking destroy many of the vitamins.

Shopping
We go shopping practically every day. First of all, frequently we don’t known what to buy and advertisements help us to decide. As a general rule, people are influenced everywhere: in newspapers, on television, in shops. To the best of my knowledge, while we are shopping we are attracted by colorful pockets, by signs of reduction and free gifts. On the whole advertisements are useful for sellers as well as customers. I am inclined to believe, that shops have ways of getting customers to spend money and you probably don’t even notice. Firstly, shops have wide doors to make you want to go in. The owner of shops supposes that if it is easy to go in, you will. Secondly, nowadays when you are shopping, music makes you feel relaxed and more likely to spend money. Finally, when you want to try some clothes on, mirrors and special lights in changing rooms can make you look healthy and slim. Furthermore if you wanted to look at the clock you would be very disappointed, there are no clocks on the walls, so you don’t worry about time. In addition advertising is everywhere: on the floor, on the walls. In general the message is all the same buy and buy.
The fact of the matter is that, I love going shopping. I usually go with my mother and sister. To tell the truth, we go shopping to a supermarket or to a large department store.
To put it briefly, we go to shops practically twice a week. Indeed if we want to buy something special we go to a department store. These stores are very useful places. It needless to say, it is clear why people enjoy shopping there. Everything on sale in under one roof, all the goods are displayed so that I can see them easily and the customers can walk round and choose what they want. Besides, there is a mini bar, where we can have a cup of coffee and a slice of cake.
As a matter of fact, when I need some food I go to a supermarket, because I prefer shopping there. Supermarket is a large shop where people can buy a lot of foodstuffs under one roof. However, customers are not served by a shop assistant. Instead the customer in a supermarket picks what he wants from the shelves and takes it to a cashier. To make it easy for the customers certain areas of floorspace and shelving carry similar types of products. In my view supermarkets provide convenient and speedy shopping.
Teenagers are over twice as likely as the rest of the population to describe themselves as shopping conscious. They are crazy about shopping because it is a quite good way to spend their sparetime.
In conclusion I am fond of shopping, but I am not from those teenagers who are crazy about shopping and act without thinking twice.

Animals in captivity
(Gyvūnai nelaisvėje)

Animals in captivity, especially in zoos, are an important part of today’s society and it plays a large role in many people’s lives. The subject of keeping an animal is very controversial. It’s benefits are numerous and yet much can be said against it.
The first reason for supporting it, is that human population expansion and the effects of hunting are threatening species to such an extent that they are almost extinct. In order to protect them, animals are kept in captivity, for example, in zoo. Moreover, having a good zoo which is full of various species of animals can be a great attraction for tourists. Animals winning the hearts of visitors allow to earn a lot of money and encourage greater investment to improve their living conditions. What is more, this can be of a great help to employ people, as we all know lots of countries face with the problem of unemployment. Finally, visiting zoo is an extremely good way to spend your spare time, zoos gives you the opportunity to see animals that otherwise you might not have the chance to see.
As we have seen much can be said in favour of zoos but we can’t forget the drawbacks. First of all, animals face with frustration, they show signs of unhappiness, and usually they are under stress, bored, lonely and desperate for a mate. Due to this, they begin to show sudden mood changes and signs of aggression and hostility. To avoid possible dangers zoo authorities have to increase safety measures, organize treatments for such frustrated animals. However, frequently animals live under bad living conditions, most of them have outgrown their cages, pools, so as a consequence they aren’t capable to move freely and can’t live comfortably. In addition to this, air conditions and temperature are unsuitable for some animals, for instance, if we have an animal from tropics it will have difficulties adjusting to new living conditions.
To sum up, there are strong arguments both for and against keeping animals in captivity. Yet, despite various problems, zoos are still a popular way to protect them from extinction.

Words: 357

Letters

Application for summer cources

Mokolu str.102-57

LT-4520 Marijampole

October 29, 2001
Staff Manager
Nationwide Summer Courses
Basanaviciaus str.52-28
LT-2012 Vilnius

Dear Sir,

I am writing in response to your advertisement in the Issue 2 of New Streetwise and I am writing in a hope that you consider me for the job as a course assistant next summer.

To start with, I am in my late teens. Actually, I have played the piano for five years and, to my way of thinking, I am quite good at it. To tell the truth, I am enthusiastic, hard working, flexible, energetic, patient, kind, tactful, well-bred and of course, I am always determined to do my best.

One of the reasons I am applying is that I love children very much. During last few days I have come increasingly to feel that this job perfectly suits for me. Moreover, I adore young children, working with them, sharing my impressions. With the help of your summer courses I am looking forward to expanding my professional perspectives, which I strongly believe is vital for my future career. Generally, I would be very pleased if you gave me this wonderful opportunity to improve my musical skills by spending a summer with children and I am confident that assisting in your summer course will give me a valuable educational experience, I would not otherwise have.

In fact, I am from a family of four. My parents are wonderful persons, and my sister, who is fifteen years old, is one of the best students in her music school. I myself am conscientious and unafraid of challenge. In general, languages are my best subjects, and I never get tired of learning. I am already fluent in Lithuanian, English, Russian languages.

It needless to say, my school is one of the best schools in Marijampole. It is also a friendly school which encourages good relations between students and teachers. I enjoy this atmosphere, as I am sociable person and get on well, with all people I meet.

Please do not hesitate to contact me if you require any additional information. If you have any questions concerning my previous experience, I will be pleased to come for an interview and I am available at any time.

Yours faithfully,
Sandra Svanidzaite

A letter for a friend

Liepų str. 52-82
LT-2500 Vilnius
October 9, 2001

Dear Ingrida,

I am sorry it has taken me so long to reply to your last letter, but the problem is that, I lost your address during my summer holiday and only a few days ago I found your last letter. I know I should have contacted you before, but my mom has been really strict about the phone bill.

In the first place, this summer was one of the most wonderful time I have ever had. To tell the truth, it is very hard to start going to school after a long summer break. The fact of the matter is that, I am feeling a bit more settled now, as I have been going to school for about a month, although I miss summer a lot. I fell very strongly, that I love going to school. I always feel like at home here. In my view, everybody is so friendly and easy to get along with. Actually, I am on good terms with my classmates and we are crazy about hanging out with friends on Saturdays. To my way of thinking, teenagers all over the word have things in common, but on the other hand a lot of things are very different, for instance, the way teenagers speak, and so on and so forth.

As I previously stated, I am keen on going to school, but the main disadvantage of going to school is that I have to get up early. Having to get up early feels weird. Generally, at the moment it is quite cold and dark in the mornings so I find it hard to get out of bed. A few days ago, I had to write a history test and I was quite scary because I didn’t know the right answer.

Anyway, I suppose you are ok, and you know all answers to your tests. On the whole, I know you can’t stand mathematics, so I hope you are surviving mathematics lessons without your best friend.

To put it briefly, I am in a bit of a hurry, because I am meeting with my new friend. She is really cool, and I am almost sure, you will like her.

Please drop me a line. I am looking forward to receiving your reply as soon as possible.

All the best to you and all your kind family,
Sandra

Paragraphs

People keep pets for several reasons

People keep pets for several ideas. First of all, their benefits for children are undeniable. For example, they play a large role in their mental development and at the same time teach children how to look around them, play with them. Also, keeping a pet allows to avoid the feeling of being lonely. Pets help you to raise your mood when you are in low spirits. Furthermore, hundreds of people all over the world are crazy about keeping pets because they adore attending in various animals’ exhibitions. Those people look a lot around their pets and want that they would be the best. As we have seen, there are a lot of reasons for keeping pets so more and more people are fond of having pets and their benefits are invaluable.

Words: 131

Several ways to improve your English

There are several ways of improving your English. First of all, I have to stress that speaking is an essential part. You can improve it by trying to speak as much as possible without any special preparation. For example, you can create dialogues on the spot of the moment also attend in various discussions. Secondly, if you want to be brilliant in English you have to do your best to listen to English TV programmes or recordings. Furthermore, reading also plays a large role in improving your English. For instance, it is vital to read English books because you can expand your dictionary. As we have seen, there are a lot of ways of improving your English and if you want to make a substantial progress you have to take them all.

Words: 132

What a lot of patience teachers must have

What a lot of patience teachers must have. Firstly, as they often deal with difficult situations they should remain well-balanced, tactful and easy-going. Also, a teacher should never behave unpolitely and be a good example to the students. Secondly, another essential personal trait is ability to communicate with students. This profession requires extraordinary attention to children especially to those students who need a lot of help from teacher. Lastly, devotion to one’s profession helps to achieve good results and be on a good terms with all students. If a teacher does his work with patience and determination all his students will be pleased. As we have seen, teachers must have a lot of patience in order to cope with all difficulties.

Words: 121

Topics from the book

Animal testing

The subject of animal testing is very controversial. In my opinion, animal testing should not be banned for a number of reasons.
The first reason for supporting animal testing is that many products must be tested on animals to ensure hat they are safe to use by humans. For example, diabetics would not be able to inject insulin to control their diabetes, had it not been developed by testing it on animals.
Moreover, the effects of chemicals such as insecticides can be observed on animals and their offspring and results achieved faster since animals have a shorter life spam than humans and the ability to multiply easily.
The final and the most important point in favour of animal testing is that it is aimed at finding cures for diseases such as cancer. Most of these tests cannot be doe in any other way. Forty years ago polio was a common calamity amongst children. Animal testing led to a discovery of a vaccine and now this disease is very rare in developed countries. While some animals undoubtedly suffer the end justifies the means.
Contrary to popular belief, laboratory animals are not ill-treated and their suffering is kept to a minimum. As already stated, I am in favour of animal testing, provided that it is conducted under strict conditions and there is no alternative.

Sum of words: 224

Can we live longer?

There has been a trend towards healthier living in the last two or three decades. However, there is still a lot of debase which style of life is the most likely to help you live longer.
Many people believe that staying fit and taking regular exercise can lead you to a long life. It’s true that the healthier we are the better we feel, but does this lead to a longer life? Some people would like to think so, but there is no real proof that exercise is the answer.
Obviously, abusing our bodies can lead to a disaster. Drinking, smoking or leading a stressful life can shorten our lives dramatically. But even then some people live to excess, something pears to protect them. Could it be a genetic make-up they have inherited from their parents? A particularly strong gene could help people combat illness.
On the other hand if we are unlucky because we have inherited a weak gene, then there is little to be done. Even if this is the case, then a balanced diet could be a help if not a cure. It has been proven that diet can help a variety of illnesses – from cancer to rheumatism – and even if we do not suffer from these illnesses a healthy diet can surely enhance the quality of our lives.
There is no certainly that any of these things will prolong our lives but even if we are unlucky in our genetic make-up, there can be no harm in giving our bodies the best, even if nature does not.

Sum of words: 265

Computers

Computers are a major technological breakthrough of the twentieth century. Their benefits are numerous yet much can be said against them.
The main disadvantage of computers is that staring at a screen for long periods of time can be damaging to the eyes, and sitting on a chair for hours at a time is certainly not healthy. Secondly computers distract from social interactions such as conversation. Also, people can be inclined to become anti-social and stay at home and use their computer. Finally, the most persuasive argument against the use of computers is that the more jobs are done by computers the less are done by people.
However, the advantages of computers are numerous, such as undeniable educational benefits, especially to children. School subjects become more interesting when presented on a computer screen. Moreover, computers can be fun with a seemingly endless variety of games which can be played on them. In addition, computers are valuable to any business, making life easier and saving time by being capable of storing and retrieving vast amounts of information at he touch of the button. Furthermore personal can be seen as the use of computers increases the powers of concentration.
To sum up, there are strong arguments against and for the use of computers. Yet, despite the health problems, risk to jobs and personal interaction, it seems that as long as the use of computers is regulated the benefits computers provide to education and businesses are invaluable.

Sum of words: 248

Environment, pollution

Recycling has become extremely popular in the US, particularly in recent years when the number of recycling schemes has increased by 500 percent. The enthusiasm for re-using materials has become from the realization that Americans produce far more waste per person than most Europeans.
America even exports its waste. The remaining waste is buried in the landfill sites (atliekų laidojimo vietos). Disposal (atsikratymas) of waste posses a major problem. Landfill sites can cause pollution of water supplies. Some rubbish is burnt but this pollutes atmosphere. The obvious answer is to recycle more. Recycling is already a big business. Recycled products are no longer seen as poor quality goods but as desirable alternatives.

If I were a scientist I would find a way to repair the hole in the ozone layer. Scientists believe that if world temperatures rise, sea levels rise too and many towns will be flooded. It is also possible that many fertile places will become dessert. If this happened, there would be chaos throughout the world. If people had disposed of their rubbish more carefully, the environment wouldn’t have been polluted in the first place. Governments are also responsible for this situation, because if there had been tighter laws on pollution, factories wouldn’t have released such harmful chemicals into the atmosphere.

World’s wildlife in danger

Conservationists are very concerned about ever-growing number of endangered species of animals in the world. Environmental problems such as freak weather conditions, fire, acid rain are resulting the destruction of vast areas of woodland and forest. These areas are home to large numbers of animals, and as land is vital for their survival this is having alarming effects. The use of ozone-friendly products and, of course, recycling helps to achieve a reduction in environmental damage. Safari parks have also been established in an attempt to give protection to animals from big-game hunters. Numbers are slowly beginning to increase and will hopefully continue to do so in future.

Fame: a Blessing or a curse?

At some point in their lives most people have daydreamed about joys of being famous. One must wonder however, if being famous is an achievement or a curse.
The main advantage to fame is that is tends to go hand in hand with being rich and despite the cliché that money cannot buy happiness, famous people can be as least miserable with comfort.
With fame also comes adoration meaning hat famous people will always be surrounded by people who want to be with, and be seen with them. This means that they are welcomed wherever they go, surrounded by the best things in life and protected from the bad.
However, there are drawbacks to being famous, the most obvious one being a complete lack of privacy. Nowadays celebrities are followed almost everywhere they go, and their lives are scrutinized into detail by newspapers and magazines. Furthermore, a famous person can never be sure whether people like him for the person he is rather that his name, which can lead to a sense of isolation.
In conclusion, as appealing as fame, wealth and adoration are, it seems that cost to one’s personal life is just too great.

Sum of words: 203
Invent yor way to riches
Making a financial success ou of your initial ideas can be a complicated and time-consuming process. But for some, the rewards make the effort worthwhile.
However, then it comes to inverting a number of difficulties stand in the way. For example, obtaining a patent can be complicated – a company must be found to develop and market the product, and of course international sales must be considered as well. The first step, ideally, is to look for a gap in the the commercial markets and then invent something to fill that gap.
What are the characteristics of successful invention? „It‘s origiral and it‘s wanted“. There are three things that inventors often overlook. First you have to sit down and ask yourself whether there is a market for your invention. Secondly, can it be made economically? There has to be a really big profit-margin (grynasis pelnas) to persuade a manager to take it up. And finally, if you really want to make money, is it a one-time (trumpalaikis) product or can it be developed to keep sales going on for years?

When a new product comes onto the market it is important that it be publicised as much as possible, using advertising, so that people will want to buy it. An advertising campaign usually involves paying an agency to promote the product in number of ways: television advertisements, large posters on hoardings (skelbimų lentos). Its success often depends on this more and more than on the quality of the product itself.

Words: 255
Technological advancement

Moving towards the 21st century, technological advancement has become a focus of today’s society. Technology has entered the lives of even the poorest members of society, and it is very rare to find anyone who does not have some form of modern technology, such as TV or food processor, in their home.
There are many things to be said in favour of technological advancement, the most obvious one being that it undoubtedly makes people’s lives easer. Without the benefits that technology brings the world would be a much harder place to live in. For example how would any business cooperate without faxes, computers?
On the other hand technology has also the potential to destroy everything at the touch of he button. The danger of technological advancement is that machines will completely replace humans, leaving fewer jobs and reducing human contact in everyday life, which cannot be a good thing for society.
In conclusion, although technology has he potential to provide a better quality of life for everyone, it is also capable of destroying everything within a very short space of time. As such it should be developed with caution and should never be allowed to take the place of human contact, because this is what ultimately holds the society together.

Sum of words: 212

The importance of sport

Sport is an important part of today’s society ad plays a large role in many people’s lives. Now more than ever, sports dominate headlines and athletes have become national heroes. The question is does sport merit this kind of interest and attention?
From a social standpoint, sport plays a positive role in uniting people from different social backgrounds in support of their favourite team. This can aid people understanding and tolerance of each other. However, just as sport unites people so it can divide them, as it is often demonstrated by crowd violence at football matches.
As far as education is concerned, sport is an important part of every child’s shooling, as it plays a big role in both physical and mental development. It teaches children how to work as a part of a group and cooperate with other, while at the same time improving their physical condition. The only drawback to this is that children who are less able to perform well in sport are likely to feel inadequate in comparison to their more gifted classmates, which may affect their self-confidence.
From an economic point of view, sport can be very profitable as it attract a lot of sponsorship and advertising. On the one hand this creates revenue for the sporting industry which allows for expansion and improvement. On the other hand, large sums of money are paid to event organizers to promote products such as cigarettes which are harmful to our health.
In my opinion, sport should be used s much as possible to encourage people and lead to a healthy and peaceful life instead of being used to promote unhealthy products.

Sum of words: 278

Tourism

Tourism can have both a positive and a negative effect on an area, although in many cases only the positive effect will be obvious. In rural areas, the onset of tourism may have dramatic effects upon the local community, creating new jobs and providing a flow of cash which most inhabitants will be happy to take advantage in. However, the disadvantages of tourism can be equally dramatic, with towns changing their character and becoming too overdeveloped and crowded, as well as more expensive.
On a large scale, tourism can be very beneficial at developing countries. If tourists spend more money it means that the country can improve living conditions or its citizens, as well s create new jobs. Tourists are shown the way other people live, and leave feeling better informed about a different stile of life, that they otherwise might not have the chance to see. Perhaps, the most popular type of tourism is going away to a warm sunny place and lying on a beach for two weeks. People taking this kind of holiday usually have no interest in the culture of he place they are visiting and as a result it becomes like a “home from home”. Restaurants cooks tourists their native food instead of local specialities, and tourists mix together rather than with locals. This can destroy any character the area may have, and the area may lose part of its valuable culture forever.

Sum of words: 240
More Education, Less Environmental Damage

The most important step towards preserving the ozone layer is to educate the public about it, especially the younger generation. This could take place in schools, with the air of environmental projects to children. If people fully understand the importance of the ozone layer, they will be more likely to protect it.
Apart fro educating future generations e also need to put pressure on people to recycle as much as possible. Only in this way will we be able to conserve the earth’s valuable resources for generations to come.
What we should concentrate on now is developing new types of transport and power which do not pollute the atmosphere, as these are the biggest sources of environmental pollution.
TV- A Child’s Friend or Enemy

Much can be said in favour of television because of the fact that it is a medium for transmitting information. This means that it can both entertain and educate a child helping him to accumulate knowledge and learn about the world, while keeping him amused. Television is also undoubtedly a convenient option for many busy mothers, acting as a “babysitter” much of the time wile they get on with everyday chores.
On the other hand, much of what is shown on television is unsuitable for younger children, painting a misleading picture of life which includes murder bad language and unnecessary violence. This can have a harmful effect on a child’s perception of events, meaning that he will become accustomed to such behaviour and see nothing wrong with it. Television can also have the effect of turning a child into a zombie, who will have difficulty relating to other people after spending long hours sitting uncommunicately in front of moving images.

Violent Crimes

Violent crime has increased as a result of greater accessibility to weapons combined with the fact that large numbers of young people are unemployed, with very few prospects of finding a job. In my opinion there are several solutions to the problem.
An effective solution is for the government to have a greater control over guns and other dangerous weapons. Therefore, new laws should be passed to restrict people from owning fire arms.
Another suggestion is to help young people to find work. The problem of unemployment could be helped if the government created jobs and work programmes for young people.
An important part of deterring young people from violent crime is better education. If taught that violence is not the answer to their problems young people would be less likely to turn to crime.
To sum up, perhaps the best solution to the problem of violent crime is better more vigilant policing, which will ensure that more criminals are caught.

Sum of words: 163

So you want to be a millionaire?

There is no specific formula you can use to become a millionaire. At school, we are told that gaining knowledge is all that we need to do well in society.
Studies show that there is little connection between how well children do at school and the success they achieve as adults. Frequently, millionaires come from a wide variety of backgrounds.

The easiest way is to start out wealthy. If you are not born wealthy, you may be able to take advantage of your good looks. People expect a good-looking person to be kinder and more efficient.
However, it is possible to be too beautiful. You can easily find yourself employed as a decorative figure while your less attractive colleagues are moving up the career ladder. Successful people are divided into two categories: entrepreneurs and the intrapreneurs. The former often left school early, and had several business disasters. They have awkward personalities, but they are very determined. The latter, however, have risen up through the levels of organizations. They are the children everyone thought would do well. Over half of them went to universities. They are good and get o well with people.
Even if you are born poor and lack the height or look of a top model, there is still plenty you can do to improve your success. There are many courses and self-help manuals available to help you reach the top.
Success doesn’t happen by accident. Successful people are the ones who, when something doesn’t work, try something else. Unsuccessful people keep doing the same thing, only harder.
You have to learn to concentrate on specific tasks that need attention, rather that allowing to be overwhelmed by a mountain of things waiting to be done.
One thing is sure, though. True success turns out to be based on more than motivation. There is a need for harmony, balance creativity and healthy relationships.

Words: 322

Success

Most people dream of becoming rich and famous, but is that the success really about? It is a fact that many people who have got fame and wealth are far more happy with their lives. They worry constantly about their money and reputation. They are rarely satisfied with what they have. Singers may lose popularity, athletes be injured and can no longer perform well, and rich business people may lose their money in making risky deals. The best thing to be happy with oneself and one’s life is to reconsider what success really is. All people must realize that human values and qualities are far more important than material things. Being close to your family and having friends you can rust and depend on also make for a happy and successful life. These are the things that really count and give you the right to consider of a success.

Words: 151

Idioms, expressions

Idioms with “eye”

1. Famous people are always in the public eye and are followed around by reporters wherever they go.(=well known (esp by the media))
2. We climbed up the mountain to get a bird’s eye view of the surrounding countryside. (=a view of sth from a high position)
3. Robert is the apple of his mother’s eye. You can see how much she loves him.(=the person somebody loves most)
4. Is Jane on holiday? I haven’t set eyes on her for weeks. (=to see sb)
5. When we visited the fairground, the children were all eyes.(=totally fascinated)
6. An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth is a saying in the Old Testament.(=to take revenge)
7. Could you keep an eye on my flat while I am away.(=to look after sth)
8. She always wears extremely eye catching clothes! (= attractive/noticeable)
9. Angela won’t go out with you. She only has eyes for Rob.(=to be in love with sb)
A bacterium is too small to be seen with the naked eye. (=to see without he use of a microscope)

Idioms “Skin”

1. If you go out in the rain without umbrella, you will get soaked to the skin.(=to become very wet)
2. Oh, you gave me such a fright! I almost jumped out of my skin.(=to get a terrible scare)
3. He is such skinflint; he never buys anyone a birthday present.(=person mean with money)
4. She has to have thick skin to be able to ignore all his nasty comments.(= to be unaffected by criticism)
5. Although Ann is nothing but skin and bone, she is about to start a new diet.(=extremely thin)
6. Beauty is only skin deep; Sue is attractive but she has a nasty character.(=on the surface)

Idioms

1. This box contains lots of odds and ends (small worthless articles).
2. They should finally put an end to their constant arguing. (stop)
3. I find it hard to make ends meet, because my salary is low. (to afford everyday expenses)
4. The discussions had come to a dead end, negotiations (derybos) were therefore stopped. (no way out)
5. You shouldn’t give up, because there is always a light at the end of the tunnel. (hope)
6. The meeting was brought to an end because it was getting nowhere. (stopped)
7. You have got the wrong end of the stick ; I didn’t cause the accident. (misunderstood)
8. When all the wok was finished, we found ourselves at a loose end. (not knowing what to do)

Sentences with “terms”

• Jane is not on good terms with (nekaip sutaria) Susan , her business partner, at the moment. They argued last week beause Susan thought they should not be on equal terms (užimti panašias pareigas) in the business. She wanted to be in charge, which mean that in terms of (kalbant apie) responsibility, they would be on good terms with (gerai sutarti) each other.
• William has not yet been able to come to terms with (susitaikyti) his father’s death , but I think that in the long term (laikui bėgant) he will.

Sentences with “weather”

• The old sailor’s face was weather-beaten from all the years he had spent at sea.(aged by the weather)
• The stadium can be used in all weathers because roof can be closed when it rains. (no matter what the weather is like)
• We will go for a picnic on Sunday, weather permitting. Let’s hope it is sunny! (if the weather is good)
• Together we’ll weather the storm until things get better. (get through difficulties)
• I didn’t go to school because I was feeling under the weather.( not very well)

Grammar Section

First and last Paragraph Techniques

First Paragraphs Last Paragraphs
• Increased drug use among young people today is a problem that must be tackled by society if is to be prevented from causing more damage than it already has. • If something is not done soon, an alarming increase in the number of young drug users inevitable, which will undoubtedly have a harmful effect upon society as a whole.
• There can be no doubt that television is the sole cause the breakdown of modern society and that it has absolutely no beneficial effect upon a child’s development. • The negative role that television plays in the development of a child can be summed up with a quotation from George Mikes, who said “Television is of great educational value. It teaches you while still young how a) to kill, b) rob, c) embezzle, d) shoot, e) poison
• What can be done to protect our cities from environmental pollution? Over the past decade our cities and towns have become more polluted than ever and this is a trend that it looks set to continue. • To conclude, it seems that the only ay to improve the quality of our surroundings is to work together to protect the environment. Unless this is done, many cities and towns will have to become uninhabitable within the next fifty years.
• Have you ever considered emigrating to another country with a warmer climate where it hardly ever rains? This tempting prospect has been on many people’s minds this winter as we face endless, cold, damp, days stuck indoors. • On balance , it must be said that although moving abroad sounds like an end to all our problems, it often is not. In many cases it can be far more difficult than living in Britain, mainly due to the fact that it involves taking on a whole new culture and way of life.

Linking devices

To make contrasting points

Although, yet, however, nevertheless, in spite of, but, while, despite, even if, even though, at the same time Killing endangered species is illegal. However, people will not stop hunting them.

To list points Firstly, in the first place, first of all, to start with, secondly, thirdly, finally First of all, the government must revise the out-of-date laws, which were written twenty years ago.

To add more points on a topic What is more, furthermore, also, apart from this/that, in addition to, moreover, besides, too, not to mention the fact that Furthermore, the city should conduct inspections of zoos.
To list advantages/disadvantages One/another/one other/ a further/the main/the first/ the greatest advantage/ disadvantage of The greatest advantage of regular exercise is that it leads to a healthier life style.

To express personal opinion In my opinion/view, to my mind/way of thinking, personally I believe, it strikes me that, I feel strongly that, I am inclined to believe that, it seems to me that, as far as I am concerned In my opinion/view department stores offer a greater selection of clothes than small boutiques.

To refer to other sources According to, with reference to According to this report that brand of sun cream causes irritation to sensitive skin.
To conclude Finally, lastly, above all, all in all, taking everything into account, on the whole, all things considered, in conclusion, as I have said, as was previously stated, to sum up On the whole, the university offers a wide range of courses and provides modern facilities.
To express cause Because of, owing to, due to, for this reason Due to the harsh winter, many crops were destroyed.
To express effect Therefore, thus, as a result, consequently, so, as a consequence As a result many people have lost their jobs.
To emphasise what you say Clearly, obviously, of course, needless to say, in particular Needless to say, the research has proven that eating healthy foods and exercising regularly
Reduce the risk of heart disease.
To express reality In fact, actually, as a matter of fact, in practice, the fact of the matter is that In fact, the report states that most college graduates are interested in pursing a Master’s degree in future.
To express difference between appearance and reality On the face of it, at first sight, apparently At first sight, the building looked safe but it was reported to be need of major structural repairs.
To state an argument against your opinion It is popularly believed that, people often claim that, contrary to popular belief, it is a fact that, people argue that Contrary to popular belief, the teaching profession is in need of qualified educators.
To state other people’s opinions Many people are in favour of/against, some people argue that, a lot of people think/believe Many people are in favour of/against the mayor’s proposal to raise local taxes.
To introduce the other side of the argument Opponents of his view say, however there are people/those who oppose..claim that Opponents of this view say that increasing the school year will only overwork students.
To express balance

While, on he one hand, on the other hand, whereas While working for a large company is prestigious, it can be stressful.
To give examples For example, for instance For instance, in the past six months, retailers have reported a 25% drop in sales of electronic equipment.
To refer to what actually happens In practice, in effect In practice, consumers spend more money on luxury items.
To make general statements As a rule, generally, in general, as general rule, on the whole As a rule, girls get better exam results than boys.
To make partly correct statements Up to a point, to a certain extent, to some extent, in a way, in a sense Some companies have tried to create more positions to some extent, considering the high rate of unemployment.
To express limit of knowledge To the best of my knowledge, for all I know, as far as I know As far as I know, residents were opposed to city’s plan to build a nuclear power plant in their area.
To rephrase That is to say, in other words In other words, they disagree with the manager’s decision.
To bring up other points or aspects As far as .is concerned, regarding, , with regard to, as for As far as the community is concerned, the area is in need of a new elementary school.
To imply that nothing else needs to be said Anyway, at any rate, in any case At any rate, a new community centre will greatly benefit the people of the town.
Accepting the situation As it is, under the circumstances, things being as they are Under the circumstances, the situation cannot be improved.

USE OF ENGLISH SECTION

Present Perfect – Past Simple

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