UNIT 1 The Individual and Society

UNIT 1 The Individual and Society

Task 1 Discuss the following statements. Which of them could be used to define culture? Before reading the text, explain in your own words what is meant by culture. Work in small groups or pairs and then share your ideas in the classroom .

1. Culture is extraordinary. Everybody has their own beliefs and ways of interpreting them. This is our life .
2. The culture of a group of people is the relations within the group .
3. Culture includes the people’s inndividual desire for more knowledge and constant progress .
4. Culture is a special process of exchanging experience connected with social issues of a group of people .
5. Culture is the general knowledge about different questions which concern life and society as a whole . It is handed down from generation to generation .
6. Through culture people, families – and all groups in society – know how to function effectively .
7. Culture is an integrated pattern of institutions , rituals , tools and objects of art that characterise one people annd distinguish it from another .
8. Culture is art and music . The culture of a group can be recognised by all its various creative compositions of the dramatic , musical , puppet theatre , film productions , opera or ballet , philharmonic , symphonic or chamber orchestras .<


9. Culture is the museum of writer , or the monument to a composer . All the memorials of the past are part of that culture .
10. Religion and cultural heritage (folklore , legends and myths ) form a central part of a culture .
11. Ethics and morality form the spiritual part of culture .
12. The national heritage of treasures , historical buildings and museums .
13. The observance of etiquette commonly shared by the whole nation .
14. The person’s ability to interpret art and the metaphors therein .
15. The ability of the members of a nation to communicate with each other .
16. The things you do every day .
17. The nation’s ability to purify itself from evil .

Task II Understanding a text . The following text will introduce you to the concepts of culture , norms , mores , values , roles and cultural diversity.
Read the text carefully, check the meaning of the unknown words in a dictionary. Give the definitions to the words in bold.

TEXT 1. CULTURE

People and society .
Human beings are social animals . We share our lives with other humans – in families, in schools , in workplaces and so on . The groups we live in and with are social groups . We behave in similar ways to other people . Most of the time we can understand and predict what other pe

eople are thinking and doing . This is the basis of society – the’socio’ that you are studying in sociology .

A term very closely related to society is culture . Sometimes culture is used to mean the very best achievement in art , music , literature and so on . In sociology , however , it has a broader meaning . Culture refers to the things that are shared by the members of a society , the things that make it possible to understand other people . It includes behaviour that we have learned , that is , shared ways of doing things . These are different in different cultures . For example , in some cultures it is normal to eat with your hands , in others with chopsticks and in yet others with a knife and fork . It includes language because we have to be able to communicate with the other members of our society .

Socialisation . Culture has to be learned . We are not born knowing that we should eat with a knife and fork ; we have to learn this , usually from our parents . We don’t even know at first what we can and can’t eat . Babies often experiment with eating things that horrify their parents , or mix foods up in a way older people fi

ind unpleasant . This is because babies have not yet learned the cultural rules about eating . The process of learning is called socialisation . We belong to one culture . While other cultures will also have a language , ideas about what , how and when to eat , what to wear and so on , these may well be different from our own . Differences between cultures are referred to as cultural diversity . Culture then gives us something we share with some other people , but is also something that makes us different from many people . We learn who we are not only through what we are like , but through what we are not like . Other animals can be described as social because they live in complex societies with animals carrying out different roles . Ants and bees , for example , have societies that work because different types of insects – queen , drones , workers and so on – are doing different work , all contributing to the overall survival of the nest or hive . But other animals have little if any culture . Most of what they do is by instinct . A worker ant never had the choice of doing anything else . Humans have very few instincts . We have reflexes – we blink or duck ,
without thinking about it , if we see an object coming towards us – but not instincts , which are patterns of behaviour that are inherited , not learned . The ability of birds to migrate to places they have never been before is an instinct , and there is no equivalent in humans . Human babies are in fact helpless compared to the young of other animals – we have to be taught how to do almost everything . Our behaviour is learned , not inherited , and is part of our culture .

Unsocialised children .
Very occasionally , children are not socialised , and therefore do not learn a culture . There are legends about human babies raised by animals , such as the twins Romulus and Remus who in Roman stories were raised by wolves . More recent and well – documented cases suggest that children who do not grow up with other humans cannot make up for this later . The early years are vital – little children learn languages , and many other things , very quickly , but this becomes harder as they grow older .
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One such case is ” The Wild Boy of Aveyron ” , a boy of about 11 or 12 found in France in 1800 .

‘On 9 January 1800 a strange creature emerged from the woods near the village of Saint – Serin in southern France . In spite of walking erect , he looked more animal than human , although he was soon identified as a boy of about 11 or 12 . He spoke only in shrill , strange – sounding cries . The boy apparently had no sense of personal hygiene and relieved himself where and when he chose . He refused to wear clothes , tearing them off as soon as they were put on him . Later the boy was moved to Paris and a systematic attempt was made to change him from beast to human . The endeavor was only partly successful . He was toilet – trained , accepted wearing clothes and learned to dress himself . Yet he was uninterested in toys and games , and was never able to master more than a few words . So far as we can tell , on the basis of detailed descriptions of his behavior and reactions , this was not because he was mentally retarded . He seemed either unwilling or unable fully to master human speech’ .

( Sociology by A . Giddens 3rd edition , Polity , 1999 )
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It seems that by not being with other people , this boy had missed out on some of the important things we learn through socialisation . What were these things ?

What makes us human ?
Was the wild boy of Aveyron a human being ? Yes , of course , in the sense that he was a member of the same species as us . Yet in many ways he missed out on some of the important things that make us human . He never really learned to communicate at more than a basic level with other people . He did not belong to French society or to any society , because he could only join in to very limited extent . To many sociologists , it is possession of a culture shared with others that makes us human . We do not and are not meant to live completely alone .
All of human progress , all aspects of social life today , are built on the relationships of people with other people . As was said at the start of this section , we are social animals – yet this is exactly what makes us distinctively human .

NORMS are the unspoken and unwritten rules of behaviour in everyday life . We learn them during socialisation , and they tell us what we should and shouldn’t do in particular situations . Sometimes they may be explicitly taught to children by their parents or others , but often they are learned through observation , and also by trial and error – by seeing what the reaction of others is .

MORES ( pronounced ‘more rays’ ) are a stronger form of norms referring to ways of behaving which most people in a society believe are essential to maintain standards of decency . There is a mores which is not always present in norms . The term is less widely used in sociology than norms . Even stronger than mores are RULES , REGULATIONS and LAWS . Organisations like schools and places of work have rules , and are able to punish those who break the rules . Laws apply to the whole of a society . Rules and laws are usually written down , and those who break them know as they do so what the likely punishment will be if they are caught .

VALUES are the beliefs that lie behind social norms . For example , one norm is that if you get on a bus on which there is only one passenger , you do not sit next to that person ! ( How might the passenger react if you did ? ) This is not simply a norm , because it reflects the underlying values of privacy and personal space . In our society , we assume the passenger would prefer not to have the company of a stranger . It is possible , however , to imagine a society where to fail to sit by and talk to the passenger would be seen as being unfriendly , and would be disapproved of . The majority in any society shares values , in this sense . They are not the same as attitudes , on which people can differ enormously within a society . In politics , for example , people disagree as to which party has the best policies ( a difference in attitude ) but most people feel that the political system of having parties , with voting and elections , is preferable to having a dictator . Values that you may think of as your own personal values are in fact shared with many others . You have learned them from other people ( although you may have chosen them from among several possibilities ) . Some of the basic values in Britain can be traced back to Christianity . Although religion is not as strong as it once was , it still guides many people’s ideas about what is right and wrong behaviour . We are often in new social situations where we have no experience of the norms required . Knowing the values of our society helps us work out what the norms are likely to be . Values differ enormously between societyes . Western societies place a high value on materializm , the possession of money and consumer goods . In other societies in the past , such as the Cheyenne of North America , possessions were considered worthless except for the prestige that could be acquired by giving them away . A Cheyenne who gave away everything he owned would be highly respected ; someone who did that in Britain today would be considered eccentric or even mad .

STATUS refers to the position someone has in society . For example , being a pupil in school is a status , as is being a son or daughter . In sociology a distinction is often made between ASCRIBED STATUS and ACHIEVED STATUS . Ascribed status is decided by social characteristics fixed at birth , and cannot be changed easily , for example an individual’s gender and ethnicity . Achieved status is the result of a person’s own efforts , for example in getting educational qualifications or entering a professional career . Norms tend to go with statuses . For example , there are norms expected of a pupil in a classroom , or of a teacher. The set of norms that goes with a status is called a ROLE . Just like a part in a play , a role gives us a script to follow , but allows room for us to perform it in our own way . Everyone has many roles , which we switch between quite easily , sometimes having several roles at the same time . Here is a list of some roles :

CULTURAL DIVERSITY. The forms of behaviour, which are found in all cultures, sometimes refer to as CULTURAL UNIVERSALS. They – some cultural universals:

LANGUAGE. Children should study to speak their language to participate completely in their society(community). Though languages are very much complicated (as you will know, whether you study modern foreign language) small children are capable to study their language rather quickly. Language allows us to speak with others, to inform our feeling and to know us directly both past and future. Languages change extremely (for example on that, how many tenses they have, or on, whether the nouns have a sort or not) but divide(share) the basic structure, which does(makes) it by easier for children to study languages
– Family roles : father , husband , son , uncle , brother , godfather .
– Work – related roles : teacher , head of department , lecturer , writer , trade union member .
– Social and leisure roles : football supporter .
There are also many roles people play only occasionally , or for short periods : a patient for a doctor and dentist , a customer for various shops and banks , a passenger for bus and train companies and so on . Each of these roles gives me a shared interest with others , and puts me in a relationship with others . When we know and understand each other’s roles , social life becomes orderly and predictable . Even if I have never seen a particular doctor before , I know what to expect when I go to his or explanation and advice or treatment . I also know how I should behave – there is a patient’s role – and the doctor will expect me to behave like a patient .

MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY. All cultures have arrangements by which one or more men form a socially approved relationship with one or more women for the purpose of having and raising children. Our society, of course , only allows one man and one woman, and we approve the relationship through the wedding ceremony. These ideas are examined in more detail in the chapter on families.

RELIGION. Belief in a god or gods, or in some form of supernatural or magical power, seems to be a universal feature of human cultures, as are rituals and other practices involving these beliefs. For some people, these beliefs are proof that there is a god who is so vast and unknowable that different cultures inevitably worship god in different ways.

PROPERTY. All cultures have rules that allow an individual or family to claim things as their own.

A BAN ON INCEST. The one thing which all cultures ban is not, as you might at first think, killing people ( in fact, depending on the circumstances and who the victim is, this is sometimes approved of; for example, killing an enemy soldier in wartime ). Nor is it cannibalism; there have been societies where eating people was acceptable in some situations. Incest, that is sexual relationships between close relatives such as brothers and sisters, and parents and their children, is the one thing that is almost universally banned. There have been exceptions when royal families, such as the Pharaons of Ancient Egypt, are seen as divine, because it was thought unacceptable for gods to marry or have children with ordinary people. Pharaons therefore had to marry very close relatives, such as a sister. Even within these cultural universals , there are wide differences between cultures. For example, while all cultures have some kind of religious belief, what exactly people believe in and how they show this varies considerably. There may be belief in a single god ( as in Christianity ), or in many gods, or in natural spirits. There may be formal institutions such as churches, or none at all.

HOW CULTURES DIFFER. Cultural diversity or difference is striking. We will look here at two types of difference:

FOOD. We all have to eat, but what is eaten, when and how varies. In Britain we do not normally eat insects, or certain animals such as cats and dogs, but these may be considered delicacies elsewhere. Pork and beef are eaten in Britain, but pork is not eaten by Jews while Hindus do not eat beef. We eat many foods with a knife, fork and spoon ( although for some foods and some occasions eating with your fingers is acceptable ); in other cultures, chopsticks or fingers may be the norm. Even when we eat reflects cultural diversity ; if you have visited southern Europe you will know that people tend to eat their evening meal much later than is normal in Britain.

CLOTHING. Some protection from the weather is common but not universal; some peoples go without clothing ( though decorating the body seems to be almost universal ). Clothing norms tend to be different for the two sexes . Trousers are a western tradition ( though not everywhere in the west; Roman men wore tunics and togas and Scotsmen wore kilts ). Men’s clothing from other parts of the world, such as the Malaysian sarong , would look odd on a British man in most situations. In Islamic countries norms require females to cover their legs, arms and sometimes their faces and heads.
In studying other cultures it is important not to assume that your own way of doing things is necessarily better than anyone else ‘s. Each culture must be understood on its own terms; its norms and values will be different, but not better or worse. Avoiding making judgements in this way is called CULTURAL RELATIVISM.

AN END TO DIVERSITY? Western ( or more precisely, American ) consumer culture has spread rapidly around the world in the last few years. This means that in many countries people can ( if they can afford it ), for example, drink Coca Cola or eat at McDonald’s or wear a baseball cap. Hollywood films (such as TITANIC ) and some pop music are also popular all around the world, although in most countries people also like and listen to artists from that country. English is the most important global language, spoken and understood all around the world. Does this mean that cultural diversity will eventually disappear, and everyone have American or western culture?
The answer is probably not. The response of many cultures is to try to keep their traditional practices; this can even be a way of making money out of tourists, who will pay to see traditional dances or buy carvings. Being seen as different from other places is essential to attract tourists. It seems likely that people will choose to keep the elements of their culture they value most, and combine them with the aspects of western culture they want. People in western countries will also borrow from elsewhere. ‘Ethnic’ clothing and jewellery are popular, and we eat food prepared in the styles of many different cooking traditions. British food culture has changed so much that curry ( originally from India ) is now a national dish. Since the possible combinations of the west and the rest are endless, you could argue that cultural diversity will even increase.

TASK III. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE TEXT.
Answer the following questions:
1. What is meant in sociology by “culture”?
2. What does the term “socialisation” mean?
3. How do you understand cultural diversity?
4. Some animals are social, but they do not have a culture. Explain the meaning of this statement.
5. What is meant by a cultural universal? Explain using examples.

TASK IV.
Write a one-sentence definition in your own words of each of the following:
1. norms 3. rules 5. ascribed status 7. roles
2. mores 4. values 6. achieved status 8. role conflict

TASK V. INCREASE YOUR VOCABULARY.
Say which words correspond to the following definitions:
1. The process by which people, especially children, are made to behave in a way that is acceptable in their society.
2. The ideas, beliefs, and customs that are shared and accepted by people in a society.
3. Less intelligent than other people because of slower mental development.
4. Generally accepted standards of social behaviour.
5. Your principles about what is right and wrong, or your ideas about what is important in life.
6. The position that someone has in society, in an organisation etc, or the way they are expected to behave in a relationship with someone else.
7. Your social or professional rank or position, considered in relation to other people.
8. When individual is faced with competing demands from different roles.
9. Aspects of culture that are found in all cultures.
10. The belief that no culture is superior to another.
11. The wide range of differences between cultures.

TASK VI.
Which words have the same meaning as:
1. Ideas, beliefs, customs.
2. Spend time ( with other people ), relate.
3. Unfriendly, distant, not linking ( with other people ).
4. Position, rank, reputation.
5. Matrimony, wedding, wedlock.
6. Belief, doctrine, theology.
7. Ownership, asset, capital.
8. Prohibition, interdict, taboo.

TASK VII. UNDERSTANDING A TEXT.
The next text in this unit will deal with THE SOCIAL CONTROL. Sometimes it takes the obvious form of physical force and punishment, but most of the time it involves the groups and institutions we looked at earlier as agencies of socialisation. You will also read about CONSENSUS AND CONFLICT.

Read the text, looking up anything you do not understand in a dictionary.

TEXT 2. SOCIAL CONTROL

Societies have to have ways of making their members CONFORM TO norms and values. Everyone learns the culture of their society through socialisation, but knowing norms and values does not mean people will conform to them. Therefore societies develop ways of making people toe the line – do as expected – at least most of the time. To achieve this it is necessary to have a system of SANCTIONS. Sanctions can be either rewards for conforming to society’s expectations, or punishments for failing to conform. Failing to conform is called DEVIANCE.One particular form of deviance is crime, which involves breaking not just a norm but a law. Sanctions can be applied by an official institution, such as a court, or by a person in authority. This is referred to as formal SOCIAL CONTROL. Sanctions can also be applied by everyone in everyday life; for example, you would probably find a way of letting a friend know if you disapproved of something they had done. Your disapproval, and perhaps the threat of the friendship ending, would be the sanction. This is an example of informal social control. The range of sanctions that can be used is vast. In everyday life, it might be a ‘ tut ‘ of disapproval, or a comment if someone pushes ahead of you in a queue. In school, it might be a frown of disapproval from a teacher, or being sent out of the room, or being suspended. In the case of crime it might be a fine, a prison sentence or even in some countries execution. When we studied socialisation, we saw that socialisation was necessary for social life to exist at all. The same agencies of socialisation through which we learn culture are also AGENCIES OF SOCIAL CONTROL, because they can impose sanctions on those who do not conform. Sociologists differ in the way they interpret this. Functionalists see social control as essentially good, and necessary if society is to function well. Others such as Marxists and feminists are interested in how people can be made or persuaded to behave in ways, and to believe in things, that are against their interests. Seen in this way, social control is not positive at all; it suits those who control, not those who are controlled. We will now look at the agencies of socialisation again, this time drawing out how they make people conform, that is, how they act as agencies of social control as well as socialisation.

FAMILIES. We are at our most impressionable when very young, and the strength of the bond between parents and children means that parents are in a uniquely powerful position to influence children. During primary socialisation in the family, children accept norms and values to such an extent that they internalise them; that is, they think of them as their own and they act as a conscience. We come to believe the norms and values are right and proper, and so we are unlikely to deviate from them. If we do, we are likely to feel guilty and express remorse. Parents have many ways of influencing their children’s behaviour. They reward some kinds of behaviour, and make clear their disapproval of others. They act as role models; the constant example set by people that the child would like to be like is a powerful influence

SCHOOLS exercise control over pupils in many ways. Pupils have to be in school and have to behave in certain ways ( for example, working in lessons ), and they can be punished if they do not conform to these requirements. Some sociologists argue that this control of behaviour is the real purpose of schools; what is actually taught in lessons, the content of the curriculum, is less important than the acceptance of authority and punctuality. This other side to what is learned in schools is called the ‘hidden curriculum’. Pupils who do as they are told will be ideal workers later in life.

PEER GROUPS are powerful agents of social control because people feel a need to belong to groups and fear rejection. They will therefore conform to peer graup norms. A group of workers in a factory, for example, may have an unspoken agreement not to work too hard. Anyone who broke this agreement would be subjected to sanctions, for example the other workers might not speak to them, or might insult them.

RELIGION. To believers, religions offer very powerful rewards for good behaviour and punishments for bad behaviour. In Christianity, sinners face an eternity of hell and damnation, while the righteous will have everlasting peace in heaven. These are, for Christians, far more powerful motivations than any earthly reward or punishment. Other religions also lay down rules for good conduct, and prohibit other behaviour, promising rewards and threatening punishment.

MASS MEDIA. Messages in the media can have a strong influence on behaviour. The news constantly tells us who has been punished for which crimes, and police and crime dramas also reinforce the idea that breaking the law is wrong. Television provides powerful role models. Girls may strive to be very thin because the media pushes the message, through advertising and the prominence of models, that this is what attracts boys. This is a form of social control, influencing how girls think and behave, with potentially serious consequences.

FORCE. If the agencies of social control discussed above fail to control people’s behaviour, societies have yet more powerful sanctions. The police are an organisation set up for the explicit purpose of social control, with a range of sanctions, from cautioning to criminal charges. They can use force when they think it necessary. They can use handcuffs, truncheons, and even sometimes guns. Criminals ( people who break the law ) can be completely removed from the rest of society, by being put in prison. Sometimes even this is not enough. If the police cannot cope, the army will be used. At times, in Britain and elsewhere, the army has been used to control crowds and demonstrations. In Northern Ireland in 1969, when the police were unable to control the increasingly unstable situation, the army was sent in. It became a more or less permanent presence on the streets; social control was enforced through the threat of immediate armed response.

TASK VII. UNDERSTANDING A TEXT.
The next text in this unit will deal with THE SOCIAL CONTROL. Sometimes it takes the obvious form of physical force and punishment, but most of the time it involves the groups and institutions we looked at earlier as agencies of socialisation. You will also read about CONSENSUS AND CONFLICT.

Read the text, looking up anything you do not understand in a dictionary.

TEXT 2. SOCIAL CONTROL

Societies have to have ways of making their members CONFORM TO norms and values. Everyone learns the culture of their society through socialisation, but knowing norms and values does not mean people will conform to them. Therefore societies develop ways of making people toe the line – do as expected – at least most of the time. To achieve this it is necessary to have a system of SANCTIONS. Sanctions can be either rewards for conforming to society’s expectations, or punishments for failing to conform. Failing to conform is called DEVIANCE.One particular form of deviance is crime, which involves breaking not just a norm but a law. Sanctions can be applied by an official institution, such as a court, or by a person in authority. This is referred to as formal SOCIAL CONTROL. Sanctions can also be applied by everyone in everyday life; for example, you would probably find a way of letting a friend know if you disapproved of something they had done. Your disapproval, and perhaps the threat of the friendship ending, would be the sanction. This is an example of informal social control. The range of sanctions that can be used is vast. In everyday life, it might be a ‘ tut ‘ of disapproval, or a comment if someone pushes ahead of you in a queue. In school, it might be a frown of disapproval from a teacher, or being sent out of the room, or being suspended. In the case of crime it might be a fine, a prison sentence or even in some countries execution. When we studied socialisation, we saw that socialisation was necessary for social life to exist at all. The same agencies of socialisation through which we learn culture are also AGENCIES OF SOCIAL CONTROL, because they can impose sanctions on those who do not conform. Sociologists differ in the way they interpret this. Functionalists see social control as essentially good, and necessary if society is to function well. Others such as Marxists and feminists are interested in how people can be made or persuaded to behave in ways, and to believe in things, that are against their interests. Seen in this way, social control is not positive at all; it suits those who control, not those who are controlled. We will now look at the agencies of socialisation again, this time drawing out how they make people conform, that is, how they act as agencies of social control as well as socialisation.

FAMILIES. We are at our most impressionable when very young, and the strength of the bond between parents and children means that parents are in a uniquely powerful position to influence children. During primary socialisation in the family, children accept norms and values to such an extent that they internalise them; that is, they think of them as their own and they act as a conscience. We come to believe the norms and values are right and proper, and so we are unlikely to deviate from them. If we do, we are likely to feel guilty and express remorse. Parents have many ways of influencing their children’s behaviour. They reward some kinds of behaviour, and make clear their disapproval of others. They act as role models; the constant example set by people that the child would like to be like is a powerful influence

SCHOOLS exercise control over pupils in many ways. Pupils have to be in school and have to behave in certain ways ( for example, working in lessons ), and they can be punished if they do not conform to these requirements. Some sociologists argue that this control of behaviour is the real purpose of schools; what is actually taught in lessons, the content of the curriculum, is less important than the acceptance of authority and punctuality. This other side to what is learned in schools is called the ‘hidden curriculum’. Pupils who do as they are told will be ideal workers later in life.

PEER GROUPS are powerful agents of social control because people feel a need to belong to groups and fear rejection. They will therefore conform to peer graup norms. A group of workers in a factory, for example, may have an unspoken agreement not to work too hard. Anyone who broke this agreement would be subjected to sanctions, for example the other workers might not speak to them, or might insult them.

RELIGION. To believers, religions offer very powerful rewards for good behaviour and punishments for bad behaviour. In Christianity, sinners face an eternity of hell and damnation, while the righteous will have everlasting peace in heaven. These are, for Christians, far more powerful motivations than any earthly reward or punishment. Other religions also lay down rules for good conduct, and prohibit other behaviour, promising rewards and threatening punishment.

MASS MEDIA. Messages in the media can have a strong influence on behaviour. The news constantly tells us who has been punished for which crimes, and police and crime dramas also reinforce the idea that breaking the law is wrong. Television provides powerful role models. Girls may strive to be very thin because the media pushes the message, through advertising and the prominence of models, that this is what attracts boys. This is a form of social control, influencing how girls think and behave, with potentially serious consequences.

FORCE. If the agencies of social control discussed above fail to control people’s behaviour, societies have yet more powerful sanctions. The police are an organisation set up for the explicit purpose of social control, with a range of sanctions, from cautioning to criminal charges. They can use force when they think it necessary. They can use handcuffs, truncheons, and even sometimes guns. Criminals ( people who break the law ) can be completely removed from the rest of society, by being put in prison. Sometimes even this is not enough. If the police cannot cope, the army will be used. At times, in Britain and elsewhere, the army has been used to control crowds and demonstrations. In Northern Ireland in 1969, when the police were unable to control the increasingly unstable situation, the army was sent in. It became a more or less permanent presence on the streets; social control was enforced through the threat of immediate armed response.

TASK VIII. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING.
Answer the questions:
1. What is meant by sanction?
2. What agencies of social control do you know? Explain how they control people’s behaviour.
3. For which perspective is society based on consensus?

TASK IX. INCREASE YOUR VOCABULARY.
Which words have the same meaning:
1. Discipline, power, constraint.
2. Obey, do what you are told.
3. Link, relationship, unit.
4. Get rid of, refuse to accept, repel.
5. Physical power, coercion, limit.
6. Discord, disagreement, fighting.
7. Approval, agreement.

TASK X. UNDERSTANDING A PRINTED TEXT. The last text in this unit is about THE PROCESS OF SOCIALISATION and it’s main agencies, and SOCIALISATION INTO GENDER ROLES.

Read it carefully; looking up anything you do not understand in a dictionary.

TEXT 3. SOCIALIZATION INTO GENDER ROLES

THE IMPORTANCE OF GENDER. The first thing that we usually ask about a new – born baby is whether it is a girl or a boy. This indicates the importance of a person’s sex. In fact, it is possible to predict certain things about a baby’s future by knowing its sex; for example, a girl is likely to live several years longer than a boy. The social role that goes with someone’s sex is referred to as gender. Gender is a very important aspect of a person’s IDENTITY. Gender is to some extent shaped by the biological differences between males and females, but there are also gender differences that come from particular societies.

Gender roles are different in different place and times. For example, a hundred years ago many people accepted that ‘a woman’s place is in the home’. Women were expected to spend most of their time and energy being housewives and mothers and do not compete with men in employment. There has been a dramatic change since than. It is now seen as acceptable, even a good thing, for girls to gain high qualifications and take up highflying careers. In spite of these changes, there are still considerable differences between the gender roles of boys and girls, men and women. These can be called STEREOTYPES. Stereotypes are one-sided, exaggerated ideas. The stereotypical teenaged girl is interested in romance and her appearance. The stereotypical teenage boy is mainly interested in football, and far less concerned ( or at least claims he is ) with his looks.

THE FAMILY AND PRIMARY SOCIALISATION. Parents treat boys and girls differently in many ways. A feminist sociologist, Ann Oakley, suggested that there are four ways in which gender socialisation takes place in the first years:

MANIPULATION. Parents encourage behaviour that is seen as normal for the child’s sex and discourage the behaviour associated with the other sex. For example, mothers may encourage girls to pay more attention than boys to their hair and appearance.

CANALISATION. Children are ‘channelled’ by their parents towards toys and activities seen as appropriate for their sex. For example, girls may be given toys such as dolls and miniature kitchens that encourage an interest in being a mother and doing housework. Of course, boys may get these toys as well, but they are more likely to have ‘boys’ toys -trains, cars and so on.

VERBAL APPELLATIONS. These are the ways we talk to children that tell them at an early age how important gender is – ‘good girl’, ‘naughty boy’ and so on.

DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES. Boys and girls are encouraged to get involved in different activities. Girls are expected to help their mother indoors while boys get greater freedom to roam outdoors. As they get older, girls are still expected to help out at home far more than boys.

Many parents are aware of these differences, and decide to try hard to bring children up in non – sexist ways. This is very difficult, because children are soon receiving messages from other agencies of socialisation. We will look at four briefly here.

AGENCIES OF SECONDARY SOCIALISATION. EDUCATION. At school, socialisation into gender roles continues. Although boys and girls now study the same things, they learn to behave differently, in the classroom and in the playground. Teachers may treat boys and girls differently. The way subjects are taught and the books that are used may reinforce this. For example, older science textbooks are far more likely to show men and boys carrying out experiments. Children learn from this that scientific experiments are an activity that is more appropriate for boys than girls. Later, at A level and degree level, fewer girls than boys choose to study sciences.

MASS MEDIA. Gender differences are apparent in the mass media children use. Television programmes, magazines, books and music all carry what sociologists call representations of gender. Although there are now deliberate attempts to avoid gender stereotypes, there are still strong differences. Boys are more likely to be the heroes of stories, to be active and adventurous. Girls are more likely to be shown as less active, more interested in the home, and needing the help of boys and men to do things.

RELIGION. The teachings of traditional religions such as Christianity and Islam lay out very different roles for men and women. The prophets and other characters in the holy books are mainly men, and God himself is always seen as male. Almost all priests are men. From these messages girls will form the impression that religions consider men to be more important.

PEER GROUPS. Group of friends of the same age play a very big part in establishing gender roles. From a very young age, both sexes learn from their peers what is appropriate for their sex. They also learn that if they behave too much like the other sex, or play with them too much, they risk name calling and perhaps worse. This applies more to boys than girls. Girls are allowed to be ‘tomboys’, but boys who like activities seen as feminine face scorn.

TASK XI. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is primary socialization? Give examples.
2. What are agencies of secondary socialisation? Explain how they play a part in socialisation.
3. Why is gender thought to be a very important aspect of a person’s indentity?
4. What are stereotypes? Explain by referring to gender roles.
5. What does A. Oakley mean by canalisation? Explain using examples.
6. Indentify and explain three other ways in which gender socialisation takes place in the early years.

TASK XII. CONDUCT THE RESEARCH TO FIND OUT.
Is it true that girls are expected to help out more at home? You can ask questions about housework, tidying up the bedroom, walking the dog, mowing the lawn, doing shopping and so on. Present your findings in the class.

TASK XIII.
Make a chart showing all aspects of your identity. Start with the words “Who I am?” in the middle and around them place all your identities, and the people you share them with.

TASK XIV. IMPROVE YOUR WRITING SKILLS. Study the material on summary writing and write a summary of the text ( choose any text of the three given in this unit ).

TASK XV. LISTENING: “New Global Super-culture”

VOCABULARY PREVIEW
The boldfaced words below are from a lecture about a global super-culture. Read the sentences and the definitions that follow. Match each sentence with the correct definition of the boldfaced word.
1. Some societies have a very HOMOGENEOUS population. Almost everybody has the same appearance and belief system.
2. The influence of some cultural traditions is DIMINISHING. One day, these traditions may disappear completely.
3. Advertising is the most effective way of selling COMMODITIES, such as food and clothes, world wide.
4. The Internet DISSEMINATES news and ideas around the world very quickly.
5. The speaker HIGHLIGHTED the problems existing in today’s society. Then she gave several examples.
6. It is INEVITABLE that people’s lifestyles will become increasingly similar as the world becomes smaller.
7.In big cities like New York, lifestyles are CONVERGING as immigrants introduce foods, languages, and other elements of their home cultures.
8. In some parts of the world, there is PREJUDICE against people because of their race, nationality, religion, or political beliefs.
9. Frank is fascinated by politics; in particular, he’s interested in how IDEOLOGIES differ from culture to culture.
10. Although Irene couldn’t speak Spanish, she CONVEYED her meaning successfully by using body language and gestures.
11. Travel can give us great INSIGHT into foreign cultures.
12. We need to PRESERVE cultural traditions that are in danger of disappearing.

a. consisting of the same parts or members

b. stop from being destroyed or changed

c. knowledge; understanding

d. coming together from different places

e. communicated

f. certain to happen; unavoidable

g. set of beliefs or ideas

h. spreads information or ideas

i. becoming smaller or less important

j. products that are bought or sold

k. unfair dislike based on race, religion, etc.

l. emphasised; made noticeable

LISTENING TO THE LECTURE

BEFORE YOU LISTEN
You will hear a lecture about a global super culture. Cross out the three topics you think the speaker is least likely to mention.
1. How ideas spread around the world
2. World-famous sports cars
3. How to do business in foreign countries
4. Why people’s lifestyles are becoming increasingly similar
5. How the media promote celebrities
6. The world’s best-loved foods

LISTENING FOR MAIN IDEAS
Close your book. Listen to the lecture and take notes.
Use your notes to complete the sentences below. Check ( / ) a, b or c.

1. The first part of the lecture focuses on _____________ of the new global super culture.
a) causes
b) effects
c) characteristics

2. The second part of the lecture focuses on ___________ the new global super culture.
a) research about
b) history of
c) disadvantages of

3. According to the speaker, ________________________ have contributed most to the development of a global super culture.
a) air travel, the media, and English
b) advertising, politics, and technology
c) fads, fashions, and pop music

4. According to the speaker, the main advantage of the new global super culture is
a) increased unity
b) higher standards of living
c) better governments

5. According to the speaker, the main disadvantage of the new global super culture is ___________
a) increased prejudice
b) environmental problems
c) loss of cultural diversity

LISTENING FOR DETAILS
Close your book. Listen to the lecture again. Add supporting details to your notes and correct any mistakes.
Use your notes to answer the questions below. Compare your answers in small groups.

1. According to the speaker, what is the best measure of cultural diversity?
2. What two types of revolution did the air plane cause?
3. What fads and fashions have become international phenomena?
4. Why do many movies and TV shows have universal appeal?
5. How has advertising caused people’s habits and lifestyles to converge?
6. How have political circumstances influenced the global super culture?
7. How has immigration influenced the global super culture?
8. Where do the Ainu , the Chipaya , and the Penan come from?

PROJECTS
The excerpt below is about Survival International. Read the excerpt. Then discuss the questions in small groups.

SURVIVAL INTERNATIONAL
Survival International is a world wide organisation supporting tribal peoples. It stands for their right to decide their own future and helps them protect their lands, lives, and human rights. Over the last thirty years, Survival International has developed imaginative ways to support tribal peoples’ rights. In over half our cases they have brought positive results, saving lives today and bringing lasting benefits for tomorrow. This work can take many forms.

ORGANISATIONS: In many countries, Survival supports tribal peoples’ own organisations which have recovered land, made alliances, and refused to let their way of life be destroyed. Survival’s funding of Aboriginal-run land councils in Australia, for instance, has helped these people win back control of their lives.

MEDIA: Survival draws media attention to tribal peoples. Through articles, radio and television interviews, and advertising, it exposes the crimes committed against tribes, and governments and companies face criticism that threatens their international status.

EDUCATION: Survival believes that the most effective force for lasting change is widespread public concern which can only come through knowledge and education. Survival conferences and educational resources-books, magazines, exhibitions, slide shows, films, and tapes-reach children and adults in over eighty-five countries. These influence public opinion and have received unprecedented praise from tribal peoples. MONEY: Survival finds money for self-help and emergency projects. Small sums can bring great change. For example, Survival supporters raised over 2.000 dollars for emergency medical work with the Yanomami people. DEMONSTRATIONS: Survival members hold regular and peaceful demonstrations at embassies and company headquarters in many countries-a silent protest at the violation of tribal peoples’ rights. This tactic has proved very effective in shaming governments and influencing public opinion. A three-year embassy vigil helped in getting yanomami land rights recognised.
LAW: Survival advises on the drafting of laws concerning tribal peoples and provaids legal advice in specific cases. Survival lawyers helped the Barabaig in Tanzania and Masai in Kenya in the fight for justice. Only when governments respect international law and human rights conventions will the future of tribal peoples be secure.

For more information, contact: Survival International 6 Charterhouse Buildings London EC1M7ET UK
www.survival-international.org

a. What ways of supporting and protecting tribal cultures are mentioned?
b. Which way do you think is most effective? Why?
c. Which way do you think is least effective? Why?
d. Can you think of any other ways to support or protect tribal cultures? If so, what are they?

Prepare a five-minute presentation about your favourite cultural tradition for your classmates. Explain why you like it and how you would feel if it were to disappear.

TASK XVI. SELF STUDY: http://anthro.palomar.edu/change/Default.htm

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