TYPES OF BUSINESS
It is very important to know about support for small, medium businessin country, types of business, advantages and disadvantages if we want tofound a company. Types of business are not the same inn every country.Today basic regulations regarding the types and procedures of incorporatingbusiness organizations and performing business activities are found indifferent laws and other regulation acts. My topic objective: to describe types of business in Lithuania andGreat Britain. Goals: 1. to describe a concept of business; 2. to speak about types of business organization and enterprise grouping in Lithuania and Great Britain; 3. to make acquaintance of small, medium business importance, advantages and disadvantages for Lithuania economic. Method: literature analysis. I chose this topic because it seems very interesting for me. I studyadministration so it is very urgent for me. I hope this experience will beuseful for my studies. I think it is necessary to know about Lithuaniabusiness for everybody.
CONSEPT OF BUSINESS
Business- economic activities, which is make from production of goodsand commerce. Business is occupation which makes money. Business isincreasing of riches by economic standpoint. Business occupy importantplace in a country economic.Kind of enterprise: ➢ Industrial- when raw materials and materials are buying and goods are making from it. ➢ Commercial- goods are buying for selling. ➢ Financial- when securities are selling. Object is money or currency.
TYPES OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION IN LITHUANIA
Based on the Law on enterprises, the following types of enterprisesmay be formed in Lithuania: 1. personal enterprise; 2. general partnership; 3. limited partnership; 4. private stock company (UAB); 5. public stock company (AB); 6. investment company; 7. state enterprise; 8. municipal enterprise; 9. agricultural company; 10. cooperative company. A personal enterprise may be owned by a single individual or spouses.The owner’s liability for the obligations of his personal enterprise isunlimited and generally applies to all of his personal property. The ownerremains liable for the obligations of his personal enterprise even afterits liquidation. General partnerships are enterprises with unlimited liabilityestablished on the basis of a partnership or joint venture agreementbetween several individuals and legal persons. The general partnership iscreated through the transfer of property from individual ownership to co-ownership within the partnership, with the purpose of conducting businessactivities under a common name of the firm. All partners are jointly andseverally liable for the obligations of the general partnership. Thegeneral partnership is not liable for the obligations of its partners ifsuch obligations arise in their activity unrelated to the activities of thegeneral partnership. A limited partnership consists of general and limited partners. Thedifference between limited and general partnership lies mainly in thedegree of liability of the respective partners. General partners haveunlimited joint and several liability, identical to the unlimited liabilityof the partners of the general partnership. The limited partnership has atleast one general and one limited partner. Private and public stock companies. A stock company is an enterprisewhose authorized capital is divided into shares. The company is liable forits obligations only to the company’s obligations of its assets. The minimum authorized capital for a private stock company is10000litas. The minimum number of shareholders in a private stock companyis one and the maximum number is 100 in a public stock company, the minimumauthorized capital is 150000 litas. The minimum number of shareholders in apublic stock company is one and there are no limitations on the maximumnumber of shareholders. Shareholders of stock companies may be Lithuanian or foreign naturalor legal persons. Each shareholder has such rights in the company that are inherent to the shares owned. Shares are securities certifying the participation in the stockcompany’s capital and entitling them to certain property and non-propertyrights. Shares issued by stock companies are divided according to: • the manner of disposal- registered shares; • the rights attached- ordinary and preference shares.Both private and public stock companies may issue registered shares. Bearershares may be issued by public stock companies only. Ordinary sharesconstitute the main part of the company’s shares and may be issue by bothprivate and public stock companies. All ordinary shares must be of equalnominal value. The total nominal value of preference shares may not exceeda third of the authorized capital of the company.Public stock companies are prohibited from introducing any restrictions onthe shareholders’ right to transfer fully paid shares to other persons.Their shares may be traded publicly. The Law on Securities Market requires public stock companies toregister their shares with the Securities Commission of the Republic ofLithuania prior to their circulation. In addition, certain disclosurerequirements are applicable to public stock companies. Securities issued bypublic stock companies may be traded either privately or through the stockexchange. The stock exchange is the only venue for the execution of thesecondary purchase-sale of securities included in the official or currenttrading lists of the stock exchange registered in Lithuania. An investment company is a public stock company whose activitiesprincipally consist of investing into securities. A special law regulatesthe formation and activities of investment companies. State enterprise- is founding for giving services, which can not givepersonal enterprises, agricultural company and stock companies. There isabout 700 state enterprises in Lithuania. State enterprise can promulgateshares. A foreign investor may own up to 49% of the authorised capital in astate-owned enterprise. When foreign capital comprises 51% or more of the authorised capital of the enterprise, it is to be converted into a jointstock company. Representative offices of foreign firms, institutions andorganisations in Lithuania are not considered as foreign capitalenterprises. They have the status of natural persons and can carry out arange of commercial activities as agents for their parent companies. A Company in Lithuania will be a subsidiary and a foreign enterprise– a holding company when foreign enterprise obtains more then 50% of votingshares in Lithuanian company, or a foreign enterprise may obtain acontrolling package of shares and establish a subsidiary which may becontrolled by a holding company and still have an independent legal status.
ENTERPRISE GROUPINGS IN LITHUANIA
The following types of enterprise groupings are provided in theLithuanian legislation: • concerns; • consortia; • associations. A concern is an economic structure that unites independent companiesrelated by common interests, agreements on patents and licenses, jointscientific research and production technology programmes or other closecooperation. The concern is established through an acquisition of shares inother companies which results in the creation of a pyramid of companieswith one company at the top. A consortium, established as a partnership or by a joint- ventureagreement, is a temporary and voluntary grouping of enterprises formed forthe implementation of large projects or to resolve specific issues. An association of enterprises is a voluntary group of enterpriseswith the status of a legal person. The association normally represents theeconomic interests of its members and coordinates and executes the mattersbrought to its attention by the membership.
TYPES OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
The economy can be divided into two sectors: the private sector and thepublic sector.
|The Private Sector |The Public Sector ||Private individuals and firms |Made up of central Government, local ||that |government, and businesses that are ||are owned by private individuals |owned by ||Firms in the private sector |Government; ||include: |In the last twenty years the number of||Sole Traders; | ||Private Limited Companies (Ltd); |Government-owned firms in the UK has ||Partnerships; |shrunk ||Public Limited Companies (PLC). |massively; || |Now, very few examples remain, for || |instance, || |the Post Office. |
Other Business Types.Co-operatives are owned by their staffs, who are ‘members’ of the firm.Profits are shared amongst the members.Losses too must be shared.Franchises.Many businesses today are franchises.A business idea is licensed to a franchisee.The owners of the brand receive a license fee.The franchisee gains the right to use the business brand.
Not For Profit Businesses.Many charity-based business organisations are run as ‘not for profit’operations.They typically receive donations or funds from groups or government.Any financial surplus is ploughed back into the business.The organisation does not aim to generate profits.
SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS ENTITIES IN LITHUANIA
Since the first independence days the Government of the Republic of Lithuania has pursued the economic development embracing the small and medium business development. The preparation of the Small and Medium Business Development Strategy until 2015 shows that the small and medium business development is an important component of the activities of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. For the mid-term period the following objectives have been foreseen: ➢ To ensure prioritized small and medium-sized business development; ➢ To encourage integration of the small and medium-sized business sector into the EU economies; ➢ To increase the competitive ability of small and medium- sized enterprises (SMEs) providing conditions for the implementation of innovations and utilization of new technologies; ➢ To promote international co-operation, exports increase of goods and services by SMEs; ➢ To complete the establishment of the main components of the small and medium-sized business sector development, i.e. theinstitutional, information and financial support structure and control. Having taken into consideration the European Commission Recommendationof 6 April 1996 concerning the definition of small and medium-sizedenterprises on 22 October 2002 the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuaniaadopted a new Law on Small and Medium-Sized Business which came into forceon 1 January 2003. The Law established the definition of small and medium-sized entities in compliance with the European Commission Recommendationand the forms of state support to them. The table below provides thecomparison of concept of small and medium-sized business entities effectiveprior to 31 December 2002 and from 1 January 2003.
Table 1. The comparison of concept of small and medium-sized businessentities| |Law On Small And |Law On Small and Medium-Sized || |Medium-Sized Business |Business || |Development |(effective from 01.01.2003) || |(effective until | || |31.12.2002) | ||Small and|Small and medium-sized |Small and medium-sized business ||medium-si|business entities |entities include medium-sized ||zed |include medium-sized |enterprises, small enterprises ||business |enterprises, small |(including micro-enterprises) and ||entities |enterprises and natural |natural persons eligible in || |persons having acquired |compliance with laws to engage in || |a patent (business |self-dependent commercial, || |certificate), for the |manufacturing, occupational or || |period of the patent |other similar activities, || |validity | including activities having || | |acquired a business certificate ||Medium-si|Enterprise with the |Enterprise complying with these ||zed |average annual number of|provisions: • less than 250 ||enterpris|employees on the |employees• annual revenue not ||e |pay-roll not in excess |exceeding LTL 138 million or || |of 49 |maximum balance value of || | |enterprise’s assets being LTL 93 || | |million • being self-dependent* ||Small |Enterprise with the |Enterprise complying with these ||enterpris|average annual number of|provisions: • less than 50 ||e |employees on the |employees• annual revenue not || |pay-roll not in excess |exceeding LTL 24 million or || |of 9 |maximum balance value of || | |enterprise’s assets being LTL 17 || | |million • being self-dependent* ||Micro-ent|Individual (personal) |Enterprise complying with these ||erprise |enterprise whose only |provisions: • less than 10 || |employees are the owner |employees• Annual revenue LTL 7 || |and his family members |million or maximum balance value || |(spouses, parents, |of enterprise’s assets being LTL 5|| |adoptive parents, |million • being self-dependent* || |children, adopted | || |children) | |
The role of small and medium business entities in the national economy. Small and medium business is very important for country’s grossdomestic product (GDP). The gross domestic product (GDP) is one of the mostimportant indicators based on which the economic activities’ resultsachieved nationally or in a sector are assessed. The analysis of the gross value added by types of economic activitiesproduced in the SMEs shows that the biggest gross value added share wasproduced in the SMEs engaged in services and trade. Fig. 8. The gross value added produced by SMEs, by economic activities of enterprises in 1999-2001 (%) [pic] The analysis of the gross value added produced by SMEs in 1999-2001by legal forms of enterprises makes obvious that the biggest share isproduced by private companies and public companies. In 2001 this indicatoraccounted for 68,9%. The role of individual (personal) enterprises andpartnerships is significant in the production of the gross value added. In2001 the enterprises of these legal forms produced 30,1% of the total grossvalue added produced by SMEs. The role of enterprises of other legal formsin the gross value added production by SMEs is insignificant.
Revenue. At the end of 1999 the number of SMEs accounted for 96,6% of allenterprises operating in Lithuania, however, their revenue from goods soldand services rendered accounted for only 41,3% of the total revenue of theenterprises. At the end of 2001 compared to the situation at the end of1999 having the share of SMEs reduced by 0,8% in the total number ofenterprises, the share of their revenue from goods sold and servicesrendered reduced too. At the end of 2001 the revenue of SMEs made up 31 598975 thousand LTL and accounted for 39,5% of the total revenue of theenterprises.Fig. 27. Revenue of SMEs, by types of activities in 1999-2001 (%)[pic] In 1999-2001 the biggest share of revenue in the total revenue of SMEsaccounted for the revenue of the enterprises engaged in trade though theirshare in the total revenue of SMEs decreased. In turn, within the analyzedperiod the biggest share of revenue of SMEs engaged in trade was receivedby SMEs engaged in wholesale trade: in 1999 – 56,3%, in 2000 – 58,0%, in2001 – 57,2% of the total revenue of SMEs engaged in trade. Within the analyzed period the share of revenue received byindustrial SMEs increased by 0,9% in the total revenue of SMEs. The majorshare of revenue in the industries’ sector accounted for the revenuereceived by SMEs engaged in production of foodstuffs and beverages: in 1999– 25,5%, in 2000 – 18,7%, in 2001 – 18,7% of the total revenue ofindustrial SMEs. The share of revenue of SMEs operating in the servicessector increased. The data in Fig. 27 shows that in 2001 compared to 1999the share of revenue of SMEs operating in the services sector increased by2,3%. The biggest revenue share was received by SMEs providing road andpipe transport services: in 1999 – 34,2%, in 2000 – 32,6%, in 2001 – 34,7%of the total number of SMEs providing services. Both in 1999 and 2001 individual (personal) enterprises andpartnerships accounted for the biggest share of operating SMEs: in 1999 –74,5%, in 2001 – 63%. However, the analysis of revenue SMEs by legal formsshows that in 1999-2001 the biggest share of revenue of SMEs was receivedby private companies as verified by data in Fig. 28 below.
Fig. 28. Revenue of SMEs, by legal forms of enterprises in 1999-2001 (%)[pic] Thus, the analysis of the data above shows that the SMEsconstituting a big share of all enterprises received a small share of therevenue which had a tendency to minutely decrease in 1999-2001.
Net profitsIn 1999-2001 the changes in net profits of SMEs followed the sametendencies as all enterprises nationally: in 2000 net profits of allenterprises including SMEs reduced compared to 1999 and increased again in2001. The data provided in Fig. 29 below reflect changes in net profits ofSMEs by types of activities.Fig. 29. Net profits of SMEs, by types of activities in 1999-2001 (%)[pic]
Net profitability. The indicators of net profits and revenue from goods sold andservices rendered by SMEs show net profitability of SMEs. The value of thisindicator is important for SMEs seeking benefits of financial supportthrough different international programs. The banks adopting decisionsregarding a credit to a SME also compute this indicator.Fig. 30. Net profitability of SMEs in 1999-2001 (%)[pic]
Advantages and disadvantages. Small and medium business advantages: • is founding new work places; • is strengthening national economy; • it is future big business; • commercial flexibility; • is satisfying specifically needs; • quickest reaction to new-fangled technology; • financials aspects. Small and medium business disadvantages: • is growing expenses of manufacture; • there is no money for new technology; • there is no money.
1. Business- economic activity. Kind of enterprise: industrial, commercial and financial.2. There is some types of enterprises which may be formed in Lithuania: personal enterprise, general partnership, limited partnership, private stock company (UAB), public stock company (AB), investment company, state enterprise, municipal enterprise, agricultural company, cooperative company. Types of enterprise grouping in Lithuania: concerns, consortia, associations. The economy of Great Britain can be divided into two sectors: the private sector and the public sector. The private sector include: Sole Traders, Private Limited Companies (Ltd), partnerships, Public Limited Companies (PLC).3. Small and medium business is very important in our country. Small and medium firms consist about 90% all firms. It makes about 70% gross domestic product (GDP) of Lithuania. Small and medium businesses distinguish big flexibility and quick reaction to new-fangledtechnology. So it is very important to give big support to small and medium business in Lithuania.
To authorize- to give the power or right to do something;To arise- to come into being;Currency- the money (notes and coins) of a country;To decrease- a growing less;To engage- to begin to employ;Expenses- plural money spent in carrying out a job;To foresee- to see or know about before or in advance.Guidance- advice towards doing something;Issue- a subject for discussion and argument;Indicator- a pointer, sign, which indicates something or gives informationabout something;Inherent- forming a natural or inseparable part or quality;Legislation-the act of legislating;Manufacture- the process of manufacturing;Publicity- advertising, the state of being widely known;Profit- money which is gained in business, from selling something for morethan one paid for it;To pursue- to follow especially in order to catch or capture, to chase;Revenue- money which comes to a person from any source or sources;To resolve- to make a firm decision;Standpoint- a point of view;Shareholder- a person who owns shares in a business company;To venture- to dare (to do something), to risk;To verify- to confirm the truth or correctness of something;
• Bagdanavičius J., Sankevičius P., Lukoševičius L. Ekonomikos terminai ir sąvokos (mokomasis žodynas).- VPU, 1991;
• Lukaševičius K., Martinkus B. Verslo vadyba.- K., 2001;
• Juozaitienė L., Staponkienė J. Verslo vadybos įvadas- ŠU leidykla, 2002;
• Bagdonas E., Kazlauskienė E. Verslo pradmenys, K., 2002.
• Lideika, Petrauskas, Valiūnas ir partneriai Doing business in Lithuania.