An industry is a group of businesses or corporations that produce a product or service for the profit. Because of the billions of dollars it generates, travel can certainly be categorized as an industry.
THE SEVEN COMPONENTS OF THE TRAVEL INDUSTRY
The travel industry comprises thousands of companies that produce products and services for travelers. These companies range in size from small businesses to multinational corporations. The combined efforts of all the travel enable people to travel from one location to another. Thhe companies can be organized in to seven groups according to their function.
3 components provide the most basic service-transportation. These are components that get people whenever they go:
1. Air Transportation and Services. Airplanes are very important to the traveling industry. The air transportation component includes:
· Scheduled air carriers. With approximately 250 companies it comprise the largest segment of the air transportation component. Some airlines fly-long distance international and domestic routes, while others confine their services to a particular region.
· Supplemental air carriers (charter companies). They prrovide air travel for groups at rates lower than regular fares on scheduled airlines.
· Air taxi operators (companies). They also provide transportation on a charter or contrast basis. Using smaller airplanes they fly passengers with special needs, for example who ar
· Aerial sightseeing and excursion companies.
2. Maritime Transportation and Services. Sailing is one of the oldest forms of transportation. It includes passenger
· Cruise-lines. Many passenger ship-lines survived by changing into cruise lines. Rather than focusing on transportation, cruise lines focus on relaxation. These floating hotels may offer everything you need. Cruises have become very popular for vacations.
· Passenger freighters. They are cargo ships with some first-class cabins abroad. Because their ports can change as business dictates, freighters have more flexible itineraries than do cruise ships.
· Companies that ferry passengers and cars across lakes, rivers or channels.
· Companies that provide harbor sightseeing cruises and riverboat excursions.
3. Ground Transportation and Services. Ground (surface) transportation is so basic that it is almost taken for granted. Itt includes:
· Bus (motorcoach) companies. They provides transportation between cities.
· Car rental companies.
· Passenger rail road companies. It is essential transportation in Europe and far less in demand in the USA.
· Taxicab and limousine companies. Hotels use limousines to transport quests to and from airports. Restaurants and tourists attractions have also begun to offer limousine service. Some limousines are luxury automobiles, other are vans.
· Transport workers.
Two components care for and entertain travelers:
1. The Hospitality Industry. Travelers who Don’t stay with friends and relatives usually depend on
· Accommodation (hotels, motels and others) Major hotels are just a place to stay overnight. But others are being marketed as places to spend weekend vacations.
· Resort and casinos
· Restaurants and clubs
· Convention centers and other meeting places.
2. The Tourism Industry. It is concerned with attraction and events that draw travelers to an area. Attraction may be natural or constructed. The last include historic buildings, museums, theme parks, shopping malls, recreation facilities (golf courses, tennis courts, marinas). Even such as professional games, parades, plays and festivals attract tourists.
Two components provide the means for distributing the products and services of the other components to travelers:
1. Wholesale and Distribution Companies. They buy the product of the other components. Because they buy in big quantities, they receive discounts. Then they make a profit by marking up the prices of the products and then selling them to retail agencies. There are 3 types of wholesale operations:
· Charter operators. They buy airplane seats, hotel rooms, car rentals and other products and sell them to tour operators or to the public.
· Tour operators. They assemble transportation, lodging, and sight-seeing pa
· Inbound operators. They specialize in travel packages for foreign visitors.
2. The Travel Mart (Marketplace). It refers to the many outlets at which travelers can obtain travel products such as airplane seats, hotel rooms, or car rentals. It includes:
· Retail travel agencies. The travel agents deal wit all kinds of people. They help exited travelers plan their trips, make reservations, and obtain tickets. They are located in department stores, shopping malls, or suburban and downtown business districts. They can operate independently or as a part of the chain. Some agencies specialize in a specific type of travel.
· Business travel departments (BTDs). They handle the travel arrangement of employees traveling for business purposes. Their work is similar to that done by travel agents. The main difference is that the customers are company employees only, and most travel arrangements are for business only.
· Scheduled airline ticket offices. It is used on military bases and other governmental installations (doing business as SATO).
· Directly from the producers. All travelers can make purchases at airline, bus, and railroad ticket counters.
· Travel clubs. They specialize in selling unsold travel products. To take advantage of these travel bargains, travel club members pay an annual fee and must have fl
Although the components of travel industry operate independently and frequently compete with each other, they are really part of an overall system. Travelers use more than one component than they travel. For this reason what affects one component can affect others.
The travel industry has recognized this interrelationship by putting various components together and selling them as a package. It might include one or more forms of transportation – an intermodal package. Such packages have made travel more convenient and less expensive for many people.
TYPES OF ACCOMMODATION
People seeking out attractions need to have places to eat, sleep, and purchase supplies. In contrast to the trading posts and inns of old, accommodations today are very sophisticated, extensive and diverse. The tourist can choose from luxury hotel and resort to a primitive wilderness campsite in the backcountry of a national park.
Accommodations can be categorized in a number of ways: by price, by location, by type of visitor, and by type of facility. Luxury hotels are on the at one end of the scale while budget hotels are on the other. Some properties are located within the city limits while others are within the suburbs. One facility may target business travelers while another may cater to families on vacation. Accommodations available to the international traveler can be grouped according to these categories:
1. Hotels. They dominate the accommodation sector of the tourism industry across the world. The hotel has been the centerpiece of many major cities for years. Traditionally an urban facility, hotel settings range from the largest downtowns to the most remote islands. The following discussion presents several useful and general classifications of hotel.
2. Commercial Hotels. They cater primarily to business travelers although individual tourists, tour groups, and small conference groups. Amenities may include free morning newspaper and coffee, guestroom computer terminals, services such as laundry, and valet, a coffee shop, and formal dining area. They are located in the downtown or business districts of many cities and smaller communities.
3. Airport Hotels. They are strategically located near airports. These facilities are designed to provide convenience for travelers. Services may include parking and shuttle service to and from the airport terminal. They vary in their level of service. Markets include business travelers: airline passengers with short layovers or cancelled flights; and meeting, conference, and convention groups.
4. Conference Centres. These hotels are specifically designed to provide all the service and equipment necessary for successful meetings. Most full-service conference centers offer lodging accommodations as well as meeting facilities.
5. Economy Hotels. They offer little beyond clean rooms. Amenities are few and service is limited. Food service is generally not provided, or if it is, on very limited basis. These properties target the cost-conscious traveler. Markets include families, tour groups, businesspeople, and conventioneers.
6. Suite Hotels. Accommodations there are more than just a single room and a bath. They often include a living room, a separate bedroom, and in some cases, a kitchenette. The suite has definite advantages for many travelers. The extra room offers a degree of privacy not available in a typical hotel room.
7. Residential Hotels. Guests of these hotels stay much longer, until it becomes a “home”. The amenities include the kitchen, fireplace, and separate bedrooms. They usually offer housekeeping services, a dining room, room meal service, and sometimes a cocktail lounge. Food and beverage divisions are generally small and exist more as a convenience to travelers than as a revenue center to the property. Residential hotels range from single rooms to full suites.
8. Casino Hotels. These hotels house gambling facilities. The amenities, services and attractions are designed for, and marketed to the gambling guest. These properties can be quite luxurious. To attract gambling revenues, casino hotels frequently offer top-name entertainment, extravagant shows, speciality restaurants, and charter flights.
9. Resort Hotels. The hotels cater to a special guest-the tourist on vacation. But unlike some other properties, the resort hotel is the guests planned destination. Resorts are located in particularly scenic areas such as the seashore or mountains- generally away from the clamour of large cities. They also may offer spa and health facilities. Most resorts today four-seasons operations, full service, and enriched with amenities. They also provide special activities for guests such as dancing, golf, tennis, horseback riding, nature hikes, skiing, swimming, and so forth.
10. Motels. Like hotels, motels can be full service, amenity-laden and expensive. They can also be economical. Most of them are located along major highways, toll roads-to take advantage of automobile traffic. Parking is usually free and accessible.
11. INNS. Inns have a long tradition in Europe as a place where weary travelers can rest. Many inns have only a few rooms. They generally have limited food service that is offered through a set menu. Inns seem more personal to the business or pleasure traveler because they are small and often conveniently located in major city.
A variation of the inns is pension. A pension is a large home converted into a guest house for travelers.
12. Bed and Breakfasts (B&Bs). The name derive from the fact that they provide overnight accommodations and breakfast to guests. These properties can range in size from a few guestrooms in a private room to a small building with 20 to 30 rooms. The owner is usually responsible for serving breakfast. As the number of rooms increase within a B&Bs, it becomes difficult to differentiate it from an owner-occupied inn for a very small hotel.
13. Paradors. This is old, historical buildings converted to lodging establishments by the government or by regional or national tourism offices.
14. Timeshare and Resort Condominiums. It Is when a tourist owns a suite or room within a hotel or condominium complex and uses it as needed. This same unit can also be rented to other travelers. But most guests can’t tell the difference between an owned and a rental unit.
Timesharing is a modification of condominium. Units are owned, but not completely. The owner may own one-tenth of a unit and, as a result, shares the units use and costs. The unit is shared with others throughout the year. This gives owner a unique opportunity to vacation at comparable prices at destinations around the globe. Several companies are available to help timeshare owners locate other timeshare owners interested in swapping units.
15. Camps. Camping has a long history. It refers to settings up sleeping arrangements on physical sites (camps) made available for the purpose. Millions upon millions of campsites are available to the modern tourist. Travelers can set up a tent, park a recreation vehicle, or sleep under the stars. Campsites may be provided through a private enterprise or through government resources such as parks and forests.
16. Youth Hostels. They offers overnight lodging, limited amenities and services, food services in the form of kitchen facilities.
17. Health Spas. They are specialized accommodations designed to foster good health and spirit. In some countries they represent some of the earliest lodging accommodations available to the healthconscious leisure traveler. In Europe the services and amenities have grown in sophistication.
MEAL PLANS. ROOM TYPES
Few hotels include meals in the room rate, particularly in resort areas. Meals, however, often included in the price of a package tour. Foreign hotels include different kinds of meal plans in their room rates:
· European Plan (EP): room only, no meals.
· Continental Plan (CP): continental breakfast (juice, coffee, roll or pastry).
· Modified American Plan (MAP): continental or full breakfast and dinner.
· American Plan (AP): continental or full breakfast, lunch and dinner.
The AP room rate is clearly more expensive than the EP rate.
SINGLE ROOM A room occupied by one person.
DOUBLE ROOM A room with one large bed for two persons.
TWIN ROOM A room with two single beds for two persons.
STUDIO ROOM A room with one bed and convertible sofa. Can be used as a single or as a twin.
SUITE A sitting room connected to one or more bedrooms.
JUNIOR SUITE A large room with a partition separating the bedroom furnishings from the sitting area.
PARLOR A sitting room not used as a bedroom (salon).
DUPLEX A two story suite connected by a stairway.
HOSPITALITY A room used for entertaining (cocktail parties etc.)
EXHIBITION/DISPLAY ROOM A room used for showing merchandise.
CONNECTING ROOMS Two or more rooms with private, connecting doors.
ADJOINING ROOMS Two or more rooms side by side with a connecting doors between them.
ORGANIZATION OF A HOTEL
Most hotels comprise six major departments:
Administration. Every hotel needs a manager; assistant managers, group of people to handle the business aspects of the hotel’s operations. The people who work in the administration departments include bookkeepers and other financial staff, and purchasing, sales, marketing personnel. An important function of the administration department is to interview and select the hotel’s employees.
Front office. It is the most visible department in all hotels and motels. Employees are in direct contact with the public, handling reservations, room assignments, mail, baggage, and providing information about activities in the hotel and surrounding area. A well-organized front office is essential to the smooth running of any lodging place.
It comprises two separate departments:
· The service department. Service workers include doorkeepers, bellstaff, baggage porters, and elevator operators. These are all enter-level positions. A superintendent of service is often appointed to supervise this department.
· Front desk. This position include:
ü reservations clerks-who handle advance reservations;
ü room clerks-who assign quests to their rooms and handle registration procedures;
ü the rack clerks-who keep records of room assignments;
ü mail clerks-who handle quest’ mail and telegrams;
ü information clerks-who tell guests about local places of interests.
· With the increasing automation of the registration and reservation process, a hotel may need only one or two front desk clerks to perform all these duties. The front office manager supervises all front office staff operations; he or she may be helped by an assistant front office manager. Also part of the front office is the night auditor, whose job involves updating the quests’ bills each night.
· The security department is also sometimes considered to be part of front office. A chief of security supervises a staff officers and patrol personnel. Staff members not only perform security, but may also deal with quest queries.
Housekeeping/Rooms. Guest comfort is a top priority. Most hotels employ a large housekeeping (or rooms) department staff to ensure the cleanliness and neat appearance of guest rooms and public areas.
Entry – level housekeeping position include room cleaners, seamstresses, upholsterers, linen-room attendants, laundry workers, and valets. The position of executive housekeeper is essentially administrative, although in smaller hotels, they may perform cleaning and other duties themselves. In the largest properties, assistant housekeepers and floor housekeepers are sometimes appointed to ease the executive housekeeper’s work.
Food and Beverage. This department involves the most complex organization. More than half of the hotel staff can be employed in this department. In the largest hotels it can be subdivided into three separate departments:
· Food and beverage. Entry – level positions include dishwashers, salad/sandwich makers and other kitchen helpers, dining room attendants, and servers. A chief steward is responsible for all the food served in the hotel and is in charge of general kitchen operations. He or she may be assisted by a pantry supervisor who trains and supervises a teams of cooks and chefs, which may include a roast chef, salad chef, fry cook, vegetable cook, short-order-cook, pastry cook, and butcher. Restaurant. It’s personnel include restaurant managers, assistant managers, hostesses/maitres d’hotel, servers, and dining room attendants.
· Banquet. Hotels that schedule large-scale banquets department may operate from a separate kitchen. A banquet manager oversees all banquet operations and also functions as part of the sales team. It include banquet chef, banquet servers, and banquet kitchen staff. Two positions unique to this department are those of decorator and banquet housekeeper.
A food and beverage manager oversees the work of all three departments and supervises the purchasing of food and other food service operations.
Engineering. The engineering staff have little or no contact with guests, but they play an important role in the day-to-day running of the hotel. Their responsibility is to maintain and repair all mechanical and electrical equipment.
Security. Few hotels felt the need to employ security staff until recent years, but for many large hotels it is essential. Security personnel work not only to protect hotel guests and their property, but also hotel property.