Tenses

Laikai

Present Simple – everyday/year, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, always, never, at weekends, on Mondays .
Po when, as, while, before, after, as soon as, until, if; taip pat po who, which, that pgr. sakinys būsimasis, o šalutinis būtinai esamasis.
Present Continuous (to be talking) – now, at the(this) moment; su įsiterpusiais always, constantly, for ever.
Present perfect (to have talked) – just, already, yet, lately, recently, so far, ever, never, before. Baigtam veiksmui su today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/year, kai jie reiškia nepasibaigųsį laiką. Nepasibaigusiam veiksmui su for irr since. Po it/ this/ that /is the first/the second/the best/ the worst/ the only; su how many.
Present perfect continuous (to have been talking) – for, since, recently/lately, how long.
Past simle – yesterday, last week/., a week/. ago, in 1995, in january, on sunday.
Past perfect – till, untill, as soon as, before, by (that time), when, after, for, since.

If we take a taxi, it will be faster.
If we took a taxi, it would be faster.
Present Simple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous Makes
Am/ is/ are making
Have/ haas made
Have/ has been made
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous Made
Was/ were making
Had made
Had been making
Future Simple
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Continuous Will make
Will be making
Will have made
Will have been making
If we had taken a taxi, it would have been faster.

Passive infinitive – to be

e broken
Simple present – is broken
Simple past – was broken
Simple future – will be broken
Present continuous – is being broken
Past continuous – was being broken
Future con. – ————————
Present perfect – have been broken
Past perfect – had been broken Future perfect – shall have been broken

Tense/ Verb form Active voice Passive voice

Present Simple

Present Continuous
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Future
Conditional
Modals Make/makes
Am/ is/ are making Made
Was/ were making
Have/ has made
Had made
Will make
Would make
Must make
Am/ is/ are made

Am/ is/ are being
made
Was made
Was/ were being made
Have/ has been made
Had been made
Will be made
Would be made
Must be made

Present Indefinite

PI vartojamas su laiko aplinkybėmis always, often, usually, regulary, daily, etc.

Pvz. I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends.
*Neigiamoji forma vartojama su prieveiksmiais never, seldom, rarely, sometimes. Ji reikia retai pasikartojančius veiksmus.

Pvz. We seldom meet.
*Veiksmo kaartotinum¹ taip pat galima ireikti PI forma.

Pvz. We have our dinner at 5 o’clock.
*PI formą galima vartoti bendriems teiginiams, nesiejant jų su laiku.

Pvz. Rockets fly faster than airplanes.
*Galima reikšti veiksmus arba savybes, būdingas veiksniui nuolat arba dabartiniu laikotarpiu.

Pvz. Tom speaks English well.
*Galima reikšti veiksmus arba būsenas, vykstančias kalbos momentu, ireikiant veiksma˛od˛iais, kurie nevartojami eigos laikais.

Pvz. What do you want? I don’t quite understand you.
*Be šių pagrindinių reikšmių PI vartojamas:
• Reikšti būsimiems veiksmams šalutiniuose sakiniuose po jungtukų if, till, until, unless, when, as

s soon as, before.
Pvz. I’ll wait till you finish your breakfast.
• Reikti i anksto numatytiems veiksmams artimiausioje ateityje (daugiausiai su veiksma˛od˛iais leave, start, come, return, come back, go, arrive).
Pvz. We leave next Sunday.

Paprastas Esamasis Laikas ( The Present Simple Tense )

To be

I am am I? I am not ( I‘m not)
You/we/they/are are you/we/they? You/we/they are not ( aren‘t)
He/she/it/is is he/she/it? He/she/it is not ( isn‘t)

Am I not ( aren‘t)?
Are you/we/they not ( aren‘t you/we/they)?
Is he/she/is not ( isn‘t he/she/it)?

To talk

I/you/we/they talk do I/you/we talk? I/you/we/they do not (don‘t) talk
He/she/it talks does he/she/it talk? He/she/it does not ( doesn‘t) talk

Do I/you/we/they not talk (don‘t I/yuou/we/they talk)?
Does he/she/it not talk ( doesn‘t he/she it talk)?

1. Pasikartojančiam veiksmui; dažnai su l.apl. :every ( day,year.), often, sometimes, usually, seldom, always, never, at weekwnds, on Mondays. ir kt.
o You can sometimes see the sea the sea from here.
o He never comes late.
o They get new books from the library every week.
o The postman brings letters three times a day.
o Animals find shelter when it rains.
o She is a dietitian – she helps people to choose the right food.

2. Bendroms tiesoms ir įvairiems dėsniams:
o Light travels faster than sound.
o Drop by drop, water wears away stone.
o The sun rises in the east.
o The fool wanders, the wise man travels.

3. Suplanuotiems ateities veiksmams ( ypač kalbant apie tvarkaraščius ir programas):
o The bus leaves at

t 9.00 tomorow morning.
o The news bulletin begins at 10.15.

4. Ateities veiksmams, laiko ir sąlygos šalutiniuose sakiniuose po when, as, while, before, after, as soon, until, if, po who/which and that:
o We‘ll have dinner when the quests come.
o We must get to the airport before the plane takes off.
o I‘ll make sure that he knows what you want.
o The visitors who come late will get the worst seats.

The Present Simple

Affirmative and negatyve form

I understand the signs.
You don‘t understand them.

Tanya likes watching TV.
She doesn‘t like doing homework.

Question and negatyve form

Do you see her very often?
Don‘t you see her very often?

Does John go there every week?
Doesn‘t John go there every week?

We use the Present to tlk about :
1. a regular routine or habit.
• The students do a Project every term.
2. facts which stay the same for a long time.
• She lives and works in Warshaw.
3. something that is always true.
• A red traffic light means ‘Stop‘ !

Present Simple

Use:

1.To express an action that happens again and again, that is a habit.

I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends.
2.To express a fact which is always true.

Rockets fly faster than airplanes.
Expressions: always every day usually sometimes never

The Present Perfect

Affirmative and negative form

John has lived in Aliaska since October.
He and his colleagues haven‘t left Aliaska si

ince then.

Question and negatyve form
Has he experienced such cold weather before?
Haven‘t they ever wanted to return to a warmer climate?

We use the Present Perfect:

1. to talk about something which has or hasn‘t happened before in our general experience, often with ever, never, before.
• Have you ever been to an exercise class?
• No, I‘ve never had any interest in fitness classes.

2. to talk about something which happened in the past but still has an effect in the present, often with alreafy, just, (not) yet, still.
• I still haven‘t completed the questionnaire.
• Have you finished yours yet?

3. to talk about something which is still going on now or is still true now, often with for or since.
• We‘ve been members of the health club for two montuos.

W e use for to add informatikon about the lenght of time and since to talk about the starting point of the action.
• We‘ve lived here for 3 years; we‘ve been here since 1998.

4. instead of a present tense after when and if to talk about something that might (not) be finished now or soon.
• When you‘ve finished your book, we can go for a walk.
• If you‘ve had enough to eat, I‘ll take your plate.

Present Perfect

Use:
1.It express an action that began in past and still continues.

How long have you known each other?

I have lived in kaunas for ten years
2.It expresses experience that happend at some time in one’s life.

Have you ever been to Moscow? I’ve never heard of Mr. Johnson.
3.It expresses a past action that has a present result.

I’ve lost my keys, I can’t enter the house.

I’ve already done my homework.
We often anounce news in Present Perfect

Oh I’ve cut my finger

Have you heard the president has resigned.

The Present Perfect Continuous

Affirmative and negatyve form

John has been backpaking in Europe.
They haven‘t been swimming for montuos.

Question and negatyve form

Has he been practising his skills?
Haven‘t they been learning to climb?

We use the Present Perfect Continuous:

1. for actions which have happened often over a periodo f time.
• I‘ve been swimming regulary.

2. for an action which began in the past, has been going on for some time, and is perhaps still going on. The continuous form emphasises the lenght of the action.
• The students have been learning first aid all term.

3. for recently finished actions with a result in the present.
• He‘s been running; look, he‘s out of breath.

4. with foro r since for an action which is still going on now or is still true now.
• We‘ve been taking part in outdoor activities since the starto f the course.

We use for to add informatikon about the lenght of time and since to talk about the starting point of the action.
• We‘ve been living here for three years.
• They‘ve been developing confidense since they started the study programme.

The Present Perfect Continuous or the Present Perfect Simple?

I.
The Present Perfect Continuous gives importance to an action that has been going on for a periodo f time.
• We‘ve been writing application letters for the course.

A time expresion often emphasises the lenght of the action.
• They‘ve been practising their speech all day.

II.

The present Perfect Simple gives importance to the result or completion of an action.
• We‘ve written all our aplication letters.

A time expression often says how many times something has happened.
• You‘ve practised your speach three times.

Present Perfect Continuous

Veiksmas prasidėjo praeityje, tęsėsi iki kalbos momento arva dar vis tebesitęsia.

Pvz. I’ve been waiting for him for 2 hours.
*Paprastai vartojamos aplinkybės, nurodančios veiksmo trukmź: for 2 hours, for a long time, all day. Taip pat veiksmo prad˛ia nurodoma prielinksniu since.

Pvz. How long have you been studying English? I’ve been living in Vilnius since 1995.
*Pr.PC gali būti vartojamas ir nenurodant veiksmo trukmės, jei iš konteksto aišku.

Pvz. Excuse me for dirty clothes. I’ve been working in the garden.
*Veiksmažodžiai, kurie neturi continuous formų gali būti panaudoti Present Perfect formomis.

Pvz. I’ve known Jack for 4 years.

Esamasis Atliktinis Tęstinis Laikas ( The Present Perfect Continuous Tense)

To have been talking

I/you/we/they have been talking (I/tuo/we/they‘ve been talking)
He/she/it has been talking (he/she/it‘s been talking)

Have I/you/we/they been tlking ?
Has he/she/it been talking ?

Have I/you/we/they not been talking (haven‘t I/you/we/they been talking? )
Has he/she/it been tlking (hasn‘t he/she/it been talkin? )

I/you/we/they have not been talking (I/you/we/they haven‘t been talking)
He/she/it has not been talking (he/she/it hasn‘t been talking)

Esamasis atliktinis tęstinis laikas vartojamas prasidėjusiam praeityje ir dar tebevykstančiam arbe ką tik pasibaigusiam veiksmui reikšti; paprastai su for, since, recently/ lately, how long.

• He has been waiting here for an hour.
• Ann has been swimming. That‘s why her hair is wet.
• How long has she been writing letters? She has been writing letters them since the morning.

Pastaba: su how many vartojamas esamasis atliktinis laikas.
• How many letters has she written?She has written ten letters.

Present Continuous

Vartojamas:
*Reikti veiksmui, vykstančiam kalbos momentu:

Pvz. What are you doing now?
*Reikti veiksmui, vykstančiam esamuoju laikotarpiu, bet nebūtinai kalbos momentu:

Pvz. Where are you staying?
*nek. kalboje da˛niausiai vartojamas atskiriems artimiausiai ateičiai numatytiems veiksmams reikti (ypač su veiksma˛od˛iais come, leave, stay, call).

Pvz. When are you coming to see us? She’s giving a birthday party tomorrow.
*Nuolatiniam įpročiui reikti. iuo atveju veiksma˛od˛iai eina su prieveiksmiais always, constantly, all the time. Reikia nepritarim¹:

Pvz. You’re always coming late!
*Veiksma˛od˛io to go PC junginys su kito veiksma˛od˛io infinityvu vartojamas reikti ketinimui atlikti veiksma artimiausioje ateityje.

Pvz. I’m going to present them to my little brother.

The Present Continuous

We can use the Present Continuous to talk about arreangements we have made for the future.
• He‘s studying biology at university next year.

We can use Going to:

1. to talk about our intentions.
• We‘re going to do some shopping.

2. to make predictions based on what we can see.
• I know it‘s going to snow; look at the sky!

We use Will:

1. to make a prediction.
• It will be in the shops next year.

2. to make a request.
• Will you fetch me some friut juice from the fridge?

3. To make a ‘snap‘ decision.
• I‘m really thirsty; I‘ll have a fizzy drink.

4. to make a promile.
• I‘ll look that up on the Web for you when I get home.
5. to express determination.
• We certainly won‘t stop if the experiment fails.

We use must and musn‘t to talk about:

1. a personal feeling of obligation.
• I must visit my mother; she;s not well.

2. an obligation imposed by a law or an authority.
• You musn‘t drive too fast in the park.

3. obligation from a feeling of what is right or important.
• We musn‘t stay too long; you look exhausted.
• You really must visit the National park; it‘s beautiful.

We use have to to talk about:

1. an obligation that is a rule or low. It sometimes has an additional sense of obligation because of an rrangement or necessity.
• I have to see my solicitor at six.
• Do you have to go to the chemist‘s first?

We use not allowed to talk about:

1. something that is prohibited by rules or low.
• They‘re not allowed to visit the park unaccompanied.
• You‘re not allowed to enter without a ticket.

The Present Contnuous

Affirmative and negatyve form

I‘m studying hieroglyphics.
She‘s not going to Egypt this year.

Question and negatyve form

Are you changing your course?
Isn‘t he learning to drive?

We use Present Continuous to talk about:

1 Something which is happening at the momento f speaking.
• I‘m reading about the present tense right now.
2 Something which is happening around now but not necessarily at the momento f speaking.
• I‘m studying computing this term.
• We‘re preparing a presentation in our geography classes.
3 A changing situation over a periodo f time.
• English is becoming more and more popular.

Note

There are number of werbs that we do not normally use in the Present Continuousform. The cammon ones ( often connected with feelings, thoughts and belonging) include:

Believe, belong to, dislike, hate, have, know, like, own, need, prefer, think, understand.

Adverbs of frequency

We commonly use adverbs of frequency with The Present Simple. These Include:
Always, often, usually, sometimes, rarely, never.

Watch out

When always means ‘too often‘, we use the Present Continuous:
My ssisre always using computer when I need it.

Esamasis tęstinis laikas ( The Present Continuous tense)

I am talking ( I‘m talking) am I talking?
You/we/they are talking (you/we/they‘re talking) are you/we/they talking?
He/she/it is talking (he/she/it‘s talking) is he/she/it talking?

Am I not talking ( aren‘t I talking)?
Are you/we/they not talking ( aren‘t you/we/they talking)?
Is he/she/it not talking (isn‘t he/she/it talking)?

I am not talking ( I‘m not talking)
You/we/they are not talking (you/we/they‘re not talking/aren‘t talking)
He/she/it is not talking ( he/she/it‘s not talking/ isn‘t talking)

1. Kalbamu metu vykstantiems, nebaigtiems veiksmams; dažnai su l.apl now, at this moment, at the moment:
• I am studying English at the moment.
• Tim is playing golf now.
• Look, John is bringing some lemonade.
• Is Tom working in the garden? – Yes, Tom is still working in the garden.

2. Šiuo laikotarpiu, bet nebūtinai kalbamuoju momentu vykstantiems veiksmams:
• There is war on in that country. The people there are dying.
• At present a lot of people are losing jobs.
• We are building a garage next to our house.

3. Pasikartojančiam veiksmui, kuris dažniausiai erzina kalbėtoją, su žodžiu always, nuolat vykstantiems veiksmams su žodžiais always, constantly, for ever:
• He is always slamming the door.
• She is always losing her keys.
• Scientists are always (constantly, for ever)searching for new informatikon.

4. Iš anksto suplanuotam ateities veiksmui, kuris yra susitarimo rezultatas:
• Tomorrow I am flying to Rome.Tom is meeting me at the airport.
Be going to + bendratis reiškia veikėjo apsisprendimą arba ketinimą atlikti netolimos ateities veiksmą; taip pat kalbančiojo įsitikinimą arba spėjimą, kad netolimos ateities veiksmas įvyks, remiantis konkrečia situacija.
• My Brother is going to enter the university in September.
• The government is going to announce its decision tomorrow.
• Be cereful. You are going to get into trouble.
• Look at the sky. It‘s going to be a lovely day.
Esamasis tęstinis laikas nevartojamas su veiksmažodžiais reiškiančiais pojūčius, jausmus, protinę veiklą, nuosavybę ir kt.:
See, hear, feel, smell, like,love, hate, detest, want,wish,recognise,notice,realise, know, understand, think, consider, bedieve, forget, remember, suppose, mean, seem, intend.

Tačiau kai kurie, šie veiksmažodžiai gali būti vartojami tęstine forma, kai jie turi kitą reikšmę:
• He has a car ( owns) .- He is having lunch ( eating).
• I think she has talent ( bedieve) – I am thinking about your offer.
• I consider it a very good offer (bedieve). – I am considering the offer carefully.

Esamasis atliktinis laikas ( The Present Perfect Tense )

To have talked

I/you/we/they have talked (I‘ve/you‘ve/we‘ve/they‘ve talked)
He/she/it has talked ( he‘s/she‘s/it‘s talked)

Have I/you/we/they talked ?
Has he/she/it talked ?

Have I/you/we/they talked?( haven‘t I/you/we/they talked?)
Has he/she/it not talked ?(hasn‘t he/she/it talked?)

I/you/we/they have not talked (. haven‘t talked)
He/she/it has not talked (he.hasn‘t talked)

Esamasis atliktinis laikas vartojamas reikšti:

1. Baigtam veiksmui, kurio rezultatas siejasi su dabartimi; dažnai su just, alrady, yet, lately, recently, so far, ever, never, before.

• She has never seen the sea.
• He has already had his holiday.
• Have you ever eaten mangos?
• He hasn‘t finished his homework yet.

2. baigtam veiksmui su žodžiais today, this morning, afternoon, evening, week, month, year, kai jie reiškia nepasibaigusį laiką.
• I have seen him this morning.
• I haven‘t had a holiday this year.

3. nepasibaigusiam veiksmui su žodžiais for ir since.
• I have worked in Greece for three years now.
• They have lived in this street for thelast ten years.
• I haven‘t ridden a bicycle since my childhood.

Esamasis atliktinis laikas taip pat vartojamas po ‘it/this/that is the first/the second/the best/the worst/the only‘.
• This is the worst film I have (ever)seen.
• It is the first time I have seen a rocket.
• This is the only poem he has written.

Perfect Tenses

Pagrindinė atliktinių laikų reikšmė – reikšti būtojo veiksmo ryšį su dabartimi arba parodyti, kad veiksmas įvyko prieš kurį nors praeities arba ateities momentą ar laikotarpį. Atliktiniai laikai dažnai reiškia kokio nors veiksmo rezultatą, kurį galima matyti dabartyje, praeityje arba ateityje.

Present Perfect

Present Perfect parodo veiksmo, kuris vyko praeityje ryšį su dabartimi. Būtasis veiksmas turi kokį nors rezultatą dabartyje. Jeigu būtojo veiksmo laikas nurodomas aplinkybiniais žodžiais arba kontekstu vartojamas Past Indefinite, jei laikas nenurodomas, jo negalima matyti i situacijos ir konteksto tai vartojamas Past Perfect.
Present Perfect vartojamas:
*Sakiniuose, kuriuose nėra laiko aplinkybių.

Pvz. You have done the exercise well. Tha rain has stopped, we can go.
*Sakiniuose su neapibrėžto laiko arba kartotinumo prieveiksmiais already, ever, never, often, always, seldom.

Pvz. have you ever been to Moscow? I’ve never heard of it.
*Sakiniuose su apibrėžto laiko aplinkybiniais žodžiais tais atvejais kai nurodytasis laikotarpis dar nepasibeigęs kalbos momentu: today, this morning, all day, just.

Pvz. I’ve worked hard today. I haven’t seen her today.
*Sakiniuose su laiko aplinkybėmis, nurodančiomis laikotarpį kuriuo vyko arba galėjo vykti veiksmas, pradedant kokiu nors praeities įvykiu ir iki pat esamojo momento: lately, for a long time, up to now, for the past two hours. Taip pat su aplinkybėmis, nurodančiomis kurio nors veiksmo prad˛i¹ – since.

Pvz. Have you been to the theater? I haven’t seen you for ages.

*Tais atvejais kai veiksmas reiškiamas kaip besitęsiantis per visą laikotarpį, prasidedantį kuriuo nors praeities įvykiu ir trunkantį iki pat kalbo momento, vartojamas Present Perfect Continuous.

Perfect Continuous Tenses

Reiškia veiksmus, prasidėjusius prieš kalbos momentą arba prieš kurį nors ateities/praeities momentą ir besitęsiančius iki pat kalbos momento.

Paprastasis būtasis laikas ( The Simple Past tense )

Paprastas būtasis laikas vartojamas reikšti :

1. baigtam veiksmui nesusijusiam su dabartimi; paprastai su yerterday, last week, month, a week, ago, in 1994, in Juanary, on Sunday; taip pat klausiamuosiuose sakiniuose, prasidedančiuose when, how, how long ago. Tai, kad veiksmas vyko praeityje gali būti aišku iš konteksto.
• She began learning English six years ago.
• We enjoyed ourselves at the party on Sunday.
• We spent a lot of money on our last vocation.
• The United States won it‘s independence on July 4, 1776.
• When did Tom start boxing?
• How long ago did Mike move to London?
• I met him in Dublin.

2. veiksmams, vykusiems vienas paskui kitą pasakojimuose.

• As our bus was late we did not arrive till midnight. We were much too late for dinner at the hotel and we went to bed hungry. It was awful.

3. pasikartojančiam veiksmui praeityje.

• She always stayed at home on Sundays.
• She usually washed dishes after dinner.

Used to ( šnekamojoje kalboje) ir would ( literatūrinėje kalboje )taip pat gali nurodyti praeities pasikartojančius veiksmus bei įpročius.
• She used to be interested in reading history books.
• When I was younger we would spend our holidays at the coast.

Past Indefinite

Šis laikas reiškia veiksmą, vykusį praeityje ir nesusijusį su kalbos momentu.

Pvz. I bought this book in Vilnius.
*Sakiniuose laikas dažniausiai patikslinamas aplinkybiniais žodžiais yesterday, the other night, the other day, in 1945, etc. Taip pat žodžių junginiais su prieveiksmiu ago.

Pvz. Where were you yesterday?
*Būtojo laiko rodikliais gali būti ir klausiamieji įvardžiai when, how.

Pvz. When did you began to study English?
*Galima reikšti kartotinius arba įprastinius veiksmus praeityje, nesusijusius su dabartimi.

Pvz. Last summer I often played chess.
*Galima reikšti veiksmus ir savybes, kurios buvo būdingos veiksniui praeityje.
Pvz. Jack played chess very well when he was a small boy.
*Galima naudoti netiesioginėj kalboj.

Pvz. He said he lived in Vilnius street.

The Past Simple

Affirmative and negatyve form
He played the quitar in the band.
The band didn‘t record an album.

Question and negatyve form

Did the musicians appear on TV?
Didn‘t they win an award?

Note

Some regular verbs double a single consonant before the – ed:
drop→dropped hum→hummed

Many verbs are irregular and their Past Simple forms need to be learned:
Begin→began buy→bought can→could drink→drank hear→heard win→won write→wrote

We use The Past Simple:

1 To talk about a completed action in the past, often with a time referente.
• He learned to play the quitar last year.
2 To tell people about a sequence of past events and to tell stories.
• The postman rang the bell, posted the letter and left.
3 With the Past Continuous to talk about an action which interrupted another.
• I was listening to the radio when the doorbell rang.

Watch out!

o We pronouce regular verbs ending in t or d as /id/ :
Invented ended

o We pronounce regular verbs ending with a sound other than t or d as /t/ or /d/ :
Walked /t/ turned /d/

Past Simple

Use
1. to express a finished action in the past

I bought this book in Vilnius.
2. to express actions which follow each other in the story

Shakespeare was born in England. He wrote hamlet in 1599. He died in1637.
3. to express a past situation or habit

Jack played chess very well when he was a small boy.

Past Simple time expressions
Last night

Two days ago
I did Yesterday morning
in 1985

When I was young

Past Continuous

Use
1. to express an activity in progress in the past.

When I woke up it was snowing
2.to describe a situation or activity during the period in the past

Jan looked lovely. She waswearing green dress.
3. to express an interrupted past activity
I was sweeping the dust when the vaz broke.
4. to express an ninconplete activity in the past in order to contrast with the past simple which expresses a conpleted activity.
I was reading a book during the flight
5. the past simle is usually used to express a repeated past habit or situation.

I went out with Jack
But past continuous can used if a reapeated past habit becomes a longer ‘setting’ for something

I was going out with Jack when I first met Harry

The Past Continuous

Affirmative and negatyve form

I was learning a new system of writting.
They weren‘t using a computer.

Question and negatyve form

Were you looking at the signs?
Wasn‘t she designing a website?

We use the Past Continuous:

1. to talk about something that was going on at a particular time in the past.
• At midnight I was still talking to him on the phone.
2. to describe an action which continued for some time in the past.
• My Brother was living in Paris in 1999.
3. to talk about an action in the past which was going on when another action happened or interrupted it.
• Marie was lisening to the radio when she heard the news.

Note

Many verbs are not used in the Past Continuous form; these include:
Bedieve, belong to, consist, depend, know, mean, need, prefer, seem

Some verbs not normally used in the continuous form can be used in Continuous tenses with a different meaning.
What do you think of (= is your opinion of)this music?
H eis talking about (= is imagining and planing)his interview tomorrow.

Past Continuous

Šis laikas reiškia veiksmą, vykusį kuriuo nors praeities momentu arba laikotarpiu. Veiksmo laikas paprastai nurodomas aplinkybiniais žodžiais arba šalutiniu sakiniu.

Pvz. It was snowing all dau yesterday. It was raining when I woke up.

Būtasis Tęstinis Laikas ( The Past Continuous Tense )

I/he/she/it was talking
We/you/they were talking

Was I/he/she/it talking?
Were we/you/they talking?

I/he/she/it was not talking ( wasn‘t talking)
We/you/they were not talking ( weren‘t talking)

Was I/he/she/it not talking ( wasn‘t I/he/she/it talking)?
Were we/you/they not talking ( weren‘t we/you/they talking)?

Būtasis tęstinis laikas vartojamas veiksmui arba keliems veiksmams, kurie vyko konkrečiu metu praeityje, reikšti, taip pat norint pabrėžti veiksmo trukmę.

• I was doing my homework around eleven last night.
• Was enyone watching TV when you came home last night?
• I was listening to the radio this morning while I was getting dressed.
• I was shopping for your present all day long.

Past Perfect

Tai ‘ankstesnysis būtasis laikas’. Juo reiškiamas būtasis laikas, kuris vyko ir baigėsi prieš kitą būtąjį veiksmą arba prieš kurį nors praeities momentą ar laikotarpį.

Pvz. Yesterday he told me he had seen Mike a week before.
*Pagrindiniame sakinyje dažniausiai veiksmažodis reiškia kokį nors būtąjį veiksmą ir vartojamas Past Indefinite forma., o šalutiniame sakinyje veiksmažodis reiškia veiksmą, įvykusį anksčiau u˛ pagrindinio sakinio veiksm¹ ir vartojamas Past Perfect forma.

Pvz. He thanked me for what I had done for him. He did as you had told him.
*Past Perfect gali reikšti veiksmą, pasibaigusį prieį kurį nors praeities momentą, nurodytą sakinyje.

Pvz. By 12 o’clock yesterday I had finished my work.

The Past Perfect

We use the Past Perfect to tlk about an action which happened and finished before another action in the past.

The Past Simple or the Past Perfect?

1. we use the Past Simple to tell the reader about a ‘chain‘ of events that took place in the past.

── ▪ ─────── ▪ ───────────── ▪ ─────────── NOW
We saw a shark, started swimming, and reached the beach just in time.

2. we use the Past Simple and the Past perfect together in a complex sentence. We use the Past Perfect to talk about the action which happened first, and the Past Simple to talk about the action that followed.

─ ▪ ──────────────────── ▪ ──────── NOW

lost returned

I returned to the beach later, because I‘d lost my watch.

Note

The past Perfect is the Past form of the present perfect.

Past Perfect
The Past Perfect is used to make clear that one action in the past happened before another action in the past.

He thanked me for what I had done for him.

When he came back his parents had been sleeping

Būtasis Atliktinis Laikas ( The Past Perfect Tense )

I/you/he/she/it/we/they had talked

Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they talked?

I/you/he/she/it/we/they had not talked ( hadn‘t talked)
Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they not talked?( hadn‘t I/you/he/she/it/we/they talked?)

Būtasis atliktinis laikas vartojamas reikšti veiksmui, įvykusiam anksčiau už kitą praeities veiksmą ar momentą, dažnai su till, until, as soon as, before, by( that time), whwn, after, for, since, hardly..when, skarely..when, no sooner..than.

• She thanked me for that I had done.
• After I had heard the news I hurried to see him.
• My cousin had not seen me for many years when I met him last year.
• By the end of the last year he had read four plays by Shakespeare.

Past Perfect Continuous

Reiškia eigos veiksmą, kuris prasidėjo prieš kurį nors praeities momentą ir tęsėsi ligi pat to momento.

Pvz. I was very tired when I went to bed, for I had been working all day.

Future Simple.

Will kai skubus nuosprendis, kai pranašaujame, isivaizduojame ar galvojame.
Be going to. Am, is, are +going to. Kalbama apie ateities planus ir ką mes matome.
Present Continious. am, is, are + veiksmažodis +ing Kai žinoma tiksli data.

Future Indefinite

FI reiškia vienkartinius, kartotinius arba pastovius veiksmus (būsenas), vykstančius ateityje.
*Vienkartiniai: Pvz. What will you do after the lessons? I’ll do my best to help you.
*Kartotiniai: Pvz. I’ll write to you every week.
*Galima reikšti ketinim¹. Tada naudojama to be going + infinitive.

Pvz. I’m going to write a letter to my mother. It’s going to rain.
*Galima reikšti įsitikinimą. Naudojama to be sure + infinitive.

Pvz. Ann is sure to be here.

Future Indefinite In the Past

Pvz. He said he would come soon.
Šis laikas sutinkamas pasakojimuose apie praeities įvykius, susijusius su ateitimi.

Pvz. Jack asked me if I could help him and I said I’d help him willingly. I was sure she’d be late as usually.

Future Continuous

Reiškia veiksmą, vyksiantį kuriuo nors ateities momentu. Veiksmo laikas – aplinkybiniai žodžiai arba kontekstas.

Pvz. I’ll be expecting you at 4 o’clock.
*nekamojoje kalboje FC kartais vartojamas FI reikme.

Pvz. Will you be staying for dinner?

Future Continuous in the Past

FCP vartojamas tomis pačiomis reikšmėmis kaip ir FC, bet tik papildinio šalutiniuose sakiniuose po veiksmažodžių say, tell, think.

Pvz. Don’t trouble him now. He said he’d be writing an article all day long.

Future Perfect

Reikia veiksm¹, kuris iki tam tikro momento ateityje jau bus atliktas.

Pvz. By the and of the term we shall have read 2 English books.

Future Perfect in the Past

Skirtumas nuo FP tas, kad naudojami should ir would.

Pvz. The teacher said that we should have finished that book by the end of December.

Future Perfect Continuous

Reiškia besitęsiantį būsimąjį veiksmą, kuris prasidės prieš kurį nors ateities momentą ir tęsis ligi pat to momento.

Pvz. By next year we shall have been living here for 5 years.

Future Perfect Continuous in the Past

Vartojamas netiesioginėje kalboje vietoj Future Perfect Continuous kai pagrindinio sakinio veiksmažodis-tarinys esti išreikštas būtuoju laiku.

Pvz. He said that by the next month his father would have been working at this factory for 10 years.

The Present Perfect Continuous or the Present Perfect Simple?

II.
The Present Perfect Continuous gives importance to an action that has been going on for a periodo f time.
• We‘ve been writing application letters for the course.

A time expresion often emphasises the lenght of the action.
• They‘ve been practising their speech all day.

II.

The present Perfect Simple gives importance to the result or completion of an action.
• We‘ve written all our aplication letters.

A time expression often says how many times something has happened.
• You‘ve practised your speach three times.

The Present Perfect or the Present Simple?

1. We use the Present Perfect to talk about a past experience that has or hasn‘t happened at sumetime in the past, but we are not sure when, or something that has been true from a time in the past until now.
• I‘ve been to France eight times.
• I‘ve lived in France for three years!

2. we use the Past Simple to talk about something that happened at a specific time in the past.
• I went to france in 1983.

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