Present Simple – everyday/year, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, always, never, at weekends, on Mondays …Po when, as, while, before, after, as soon as, until, if; taip pat po who, which, that pgr. sakinys būsimasis, o šalutinis būtinai esamasis.Present Continuous (to be talking) – now, at the(this) moment; su įsiterpusiais always, constantly, for ever.Present perfect (to have talked) – just, already, yet, lately, recently, so far, ever, never, before. Baigtam veiksmui su today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/year, kai jie reiškia nepasibaigųsį laiką. Nepasibaigusiam veiksmui su for ir since. Po it/ this/ that /is the first/the second/the best/ the worst/ the only; su how many.Present perfect continuous (to have been talking) – for, since, recently/lately, how long. Past simle – yesterday, last week/…, a week/… ago, in 1995, in january, on sunday.Past perfect – till, untill, as soon as, before, by (that time), when, after, for, since.
If we take a taxi, it will be faster.If we took a taxi, it would be faster. Present SimplePresent ContinuousPresent PerfectPresent Perfect Continuous MakesAm/ is/ are makingHave/ has madeHave/ has been madePast SimplePast ContinuousPast PerfectPast Perfect Continuous MadeWas/ were makingHad madeHad been makingFuture SimpleFuture ContinuousFuture PerfectFuture Perfect Continuous Will makeWill be makingWill have madeWill have been makingIf we had taken a taxi, it would have been faster.
Passive infinitive – to be brokenSimple present – is brokenSimple past – was brokenSimple future – will be brokenPresent continuous – is being brokenPast continuous – was being brokenFuture con. – ————————Present perfect – have been brokenPast perfect – had been broken Future perfect – shall have been broken
Tense/ Verb form Active voice Passive voice
Present ContinuousPast SimplePast ContinuousPresent PerfectPast PerfectFutureConditionalModals Make/makesAm/ is/ are making MadeWas/ were makingHave/ has madeHad madeWill makeWould makeMust make Am/ is/ are made
Am/ is/ are being madeWas madeWas/ were being madeHave/ has been madeHad been madeWill be madeWould be madeMust be made
PI vartojamas su laiko aplinkybėmis always, often, usually, regulary, daily, etc. Pvz. I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends.*Neigiamoji forma vartojama su prieveiksmiais never, seldom, rarely, sometimes. Ji reikia retai pasikartojančius veiksmus. Pvz. We seldom meet.*Veiksmo kartotinum¹ taip pat galima ireikti PI forma. Pvz. We have our dinner at 5 o’clock.*PI formą galima vartoti bendriems teiginiams, nesiejant jų su laiku. Pvz. Rockets fly faster than airplanes.*Galima reikšti veiksmus arba savybes, būdingas veiksniui nuolat arba dabartiniu laikotarpiu. Pvz. Tom speaks English well.*Galima reikšti veiksmus arba būsenas, vykstančias kalbos momentu, ireikiant veiksma˛od˛iais, kurie nevartojami eigos laikais. Pvz. What do you want? I don’t quite understand you.*Be šių pagrindinių reikšmių PI vartojamas:• Reikšti būsimiems veiksmams šalutiniuose sakiniuose po jungtukų if, till, until, unless, when, as soon as, before.Pvz. I’ll wait till you finish your breakfast.• Reikti i anksto numatytiems veiksmams artimiausioje ateityje (daugiausiai su veiksma˛od˛iais leave, start, come, return, come back, go, arrive).Pvz. We leave next Sunday.
Paprastas Esamasis Laikas ( The Present Simple Tense )
I am am I? I am not ( I‘m not)You/we/they/are are you/we/they? You/we/they are not ( aren‘t)He/she/it/is is he/she/it? He/she/it is not ( isn‘t)
Am I not ( aren‘t)?Are you/we/they not ( aren‘t you/we/they)?Is he/she/is not ( isn‘t he/she/it)?
I/you/we/they talk do I/you/we talk? I/you/we/they do not (don‘t) talkHe/she/it talks does he/she/it talk? He/she/it does not ( doesn‘t) talk
Do I/you/we/they not talk (don‘t I/yuou/we/they talk)?Does he/she/it not talk ( doesn‘t he/she it talk)?
1. Pasikartojančiam veiksmui; dažnai su l.apl. :every ( day,year…), often, sometimes, usually, seldom, always, never, at weekwnds, on Mondays… ir kt.o You can sometimes see the sea the sea from here.o He never comes late.o They get new books from the library every week.o The postman brings letters three times a day.o Animals find shelter when it rains.o She is a dietitian – she helps people to choose the right food.
2. Bendroms tiesoms ir įvairiems dėsniams:o Light travels faster than sound.o Drop by drop, water wears away stone.o The sun rises in the east.o The fool wanders, the wise man travels.
3. Suplanuotiems ateities veiksmams ( ypač kalbant apie tvarkaraščius ir programas):o The bus leaves at 9.00 tomorow morning.o The news bulletin begins at 10.15.
4. Ateities veiksmams, laiko ir sąlygos šalutiniuose sakiniuose po when, as, while, before, after, as soon, until, if, po who/which and that:o We‘ll have dinner when the quests come.o We must get to the airport before the plane takes off.o I‘ll make sure that he knows what you want.o The visitors who come late will get the worst seats.
The Present Simple
Affirmative and negatyve form
I understand the signs.You don‘t understand them.
Tanya likes watching TV.She doesn‘t like doing homework.
Question and negatyve form
Do you see her very often?Don‘t you see her very often?
Does John go there every week?Doesn‘t John go there every week?
We use the Present to tlk about :1. a regular routine or habit.• The students do a Project every term.2. facts which stay the same for a long time.• She lives and works in Warshaw.3. something that is always true.• A red traffic light means ‘Stop‘ !
1.To express an action that happens again and again, that is a habit. I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends.2.To express a fact which is always true. Rockets fly faster than airplanes.Expressions: always every day usually sometimes never
The Present Perfect
Affirmative and negative form
John has lived in Aliaska since October.He and his colleagues haven‘t left Aliaska since then.
Question and negatyve formHas he experienced such cold weather before?Haven‘t they ever wanted to return to a warmer climate?
We use the Present Perfect:
1. to talk about something which has or hasn‘t happened before in our general experience, often with ever, never, before.• Have you ever been to an exercise class?• No, I‘ve never had any interest in fitness classes.
2. to talk about something which happened in the past but still has an effect in the present, often with alreafy, just, (not) yet, still.• I still haven‘t completed the questionnaire.• Have you finished yours yet?
3. to talk about something which is still going on now or is still true now, often with for or since.• We‘ve been members of the health club for two montuos. W e use for to add informatikon about the lenght of time and since to talk about the starting point of the action.• We‘ve lived here for 3 years; we‘ve been here since 1998.
4. instead of a present tense after when and if to talk about something that might (not) be finished now or soon.• When you‘ve finished your book, we can go for a walk.• If you‘ve had enough to eat, I‘ll take your plate.
Use:1.It express an action that began in past and still continues. How long have you known each other? I have lived in kaunas for ten years 2.It expresses experience that happend at some time in one’s life. Have you ever been to Moscow? I’ve never heard of Mr. Johnson.3.It expresses a past action that has a present result. I’ve lost my keys, I can’t enter the house. I’ve already done my homework.We often anounce news in Present Perfect Oh I’ve cut my finger Have you heard the president has resigned.
The Present Perfect Continuous
Affirmative and negatyve form
John has been backpaking in Europe.They haven‘t been swimming for montuos.
Question and negatyve form
Has he been practising his skills?Haven‘t they been learning to climb?
We use the Present Perfect Continuous:
1. for actions which have happened often over a periodo f time.• I‘ve been swimming regulary.
2. for an action which began in the past, has been going on for some time, and is perhaps still going on. The continuous form emphasises the lenght of the action.• The students have been learning first aid all term.
3. for recently finished actions with a result in the present.• He‘s been running; look, he‘s out of breath.
4. with foro r since for an action which is still going on now or is still true now.• We‘ve been taking part in outdoor activities since the starto f the course.
We use for to add informatikon about the lenght of time and since to talk about the starting point of the action.• We‘ve been living here for three years.• They‘ve been developing confidense since they started the study programme.
The Present Perfect Continuous or the Present Perfect Simple?
I. The Present Perfect Continuous gives importance to an action that has been going on for a periodo f time.• We‘ve been writing application letters for the course.
A time expresion often emphasises the lenght of the action.• They‘ve been practising their speech all day.
The present Perfect Simple gives importance to the result or completion of an action.• We‘ve written all our aplication letters.
A time expression often says how many times something has happened.• You‘ve practised your speach three times.
Present Perfect Continuous
Veiksmas prasidėjo praeityje, tęsėsi iki kalbos momento arva dar vis tebesitęsia. Pvz. I’ve been waiting for him for 2 hours.*Paprastai vartojamos aplinkybės, nurodančios veiksmo trukmź: for 2 hours, for a long time, all day. Taip pat veiksmo prad˛ia nurodoma prielinksniu since. Pvz. How long have you been studying English? I’ve been living in Vilnius since 1995.*Pr.PC gali būti vartojamas ir nenurodant veiksmo trukmės, jei iš konteksto aišku. Pvz. Excuse me for dirty clothes.