Rusijos miestai aplink Maskva

Rusijos miestai apie maskva

Ivanovo

The first mention the name Ivanovo was in the year 1561. According to historical texts its origins are related to Ivan the Terrible. The territory was known at that time as a centre for the weaving and processing of flax in Russia. By the mid 18th century a thriving peasant population began opening linen factories. Over time the manufacturing of linen was mechanised using steam powered machinery and weaving looms. By 1860 approximately two thirds of finished fabric manufactured inn Ivanovo was machine made, and the region developed into the leading region for textile manufacturing in the country.

At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries Ivanovo was one of the centres for the revolutionary movement in Russia. In 1905 the Soviet Elective Board was created in Ivanovo, and later became the centre for political power in the former USSR.

The Ivanovo regional government as an independent administrative body was created on June 20th, 1918, but only obbtained its present borders in the post World War II period. Throughout its history Ivanovo has been an industrial oriented region. In the 1930s and 40s the textile industry developed quickly, and in the 50s and 60s machine manufacturing along wi

ith others began to grow. By the end of the 1950s and beginning of the 60″s the Ivanovo region had developed into the centre of the Upper-Volga economic unit, which encompassed all of North-Eastern Russia.

Life and activities of many outstanding public figures Russian history and culture find their connected with the Ivanovo region. Among them are Sheremetevs, poet M. Tsvetayeva, architects the Vesnin brothers, Russian dramatist A.N. Ostrovsky, famous traveller and Admiral G.I. Nevelskiy, great artist – I.I. Levitan, famous singer F.I. Shalapin, scientist N.N. Benardos, son and father Tarkovskis and many others.
Shuya

Shuya was first mentioned in 1539. By this time Shuya became significant trade City, residence of Shuyskiy Duke family. Since 1566 Shuya was a property of Ivan the Teerrible with the right to collect taxes and have own court. In the end of 16-th century Shuya has economical boom.

In the first half of the 17-th century Shuya is fighting with invaders from Poland and Lithuania. Only after victory social and economic situation started to improve. In 1629 Shuya is again reach trade and production center with good buildings and important administrative center too. Various handicrafts are being developed in the City of this period: soap-working, tannery, raw leather pr
rocessing, furriery, blacksmith’s works and so on and so forth.

Shuya had a broad geography of trade connections. One English trade company even had its own shop in the city trade center. In the17-th century icon painting started to develop in Shuya too.

In the beginning of 18-th century (1708 ) Shuya draw attention of Peter the Great. In1720 he ordered to send the group of Shuya children to study in Moscow. In1722 Peter the Great himself was in Shuya examining raw leather factories and shipping on the river of Teza. Sluices he ordered to build are still functioning and are the historic monument.

By the 18-th century handmade linen fabrics manufacturing has been developed in the City of Shuya and its suburbs. In the second half of the 19-th century Shuya was one of important economic centuries specializing on cotton and linen fabrics production.

By the end of 19-th -beginning of 20-th century Shuya is a significant center of workers movement. The first trade unions of textile workers are from Shuya.

Shuya is famous for many historical places and monuments and also for its people. One of them is famous Russian poet Konstantin Balmont.
Kineshma

The City was founded as a fo
ortress on the river of Volga where smaller rivers – Kineshemka and Kazoha – flew into it. Kineshma was first mentioned in 1429 because of tatar khan invading. Even in that time the City was already famous for its fishing. They supplied Russian tzar table with the fish. In the first half of the 16-th century small fortress got its villiage with trade and handicraft. Ivan the Terrible stopped tatar troops and took tatar capital Kazan. After that in peaceful time Kineshma reached graet economic success by the beginning of the 17-th century. They produced salt famous all over Russia. It was an expensive product at that time.

In the beginning of the 17-th century – new war: with Poland. After the invaders were thrown out of Russia, economic boom in Kineshma was the part of economic boom in whole Russia.

The City became one of the most important points on Volga river trade way.

By the 18-th century textile is the main business here.

In the second half of the 18-th century there were three main textile centers in the region – Shuya, Ivanovo and Kineshma. Textile products were mostly exported and mostly to England.

In the next 19-th century the businessmen of Kineshma co
ould not stay the competition with other manufacturers. But after rail ways came to Kineshma (1871 г.) the situation improved..

By the end of 19-th century the main production is textile. Besides, the City had 2 iron foundries, metal shops, raw leather processing, furriery, brewery, oil-cloth and lacquer production. They produced a lot of bread.

Ther are many interesting historic places in Kineshma. It is well known for famous people who either lived in or visited Kineshma, such as A.Ostrovsky and A.Potekhin, great Russian writers, A.Vasilevsky, military leader, P.Borodin, Russian composer, and others. The first Drama Theater was founded and is still working in the City of Kineshma.

At present time Kineshma is the second City in the region after Ivanovo according to its size.
Yuryevets

The year of foundation is 1225. It had an important strategic location, that is why the invaders did never leave it alone till the end of 16-th century.

Yuryevets specialization was fishing, supplying Moscow with fish and manufacturing wooden tableware.

In the 17-th century – war with Poland and Lithuania. In 1609 Yuryevets was set in fire by the citizens themselves to prevent invading.

Later on the City is developed by the type of all Cities located on the river of Volga: it is the gate for coming and going goods. In 1661 according to the order of Russian tzar Alexey new stone fortress was built here.

In the 19-th century business people brought to Yuryevets bread by cheap river way and from Yuryevets – wood and flax..

In 1870-th Yuryevets had flax processing, wood making and ship building factories.

In the City of Yuryevets there were born such famous people as architectures -brothers Vesnin and famous producer Andrey Tarkovskiy.
Ples

In 1410 there was founded a new City of Ples, important fortress for Moscow on the upper part of Volga river.

Only by the end of the 16-th century enemies stopped trying to take the City.

In a peaceful time Ples became a significant trade City with famous bread merket.

After the war with Poland in the 17-th century for long years Ples has a calm life of provincial City.

It lost its trade importance in 1870 when railway came to Kineshma.

In 19-th century Ples economy was based on the bread sale and the activity of small steam navigation company.

Famous Russian artist Levitan for many years spent his summer time in Ples making his landscapes.

Right now Ples is an important tourist place of Ivanovo Region.
Palekh

Palekh was first mentioned in the 13-th century.

In written resources of 17-th century we find that main income of Palekh inhabitants came from icon painting.

The village had a big market selling flax, butter, cattle and oats.

After the Russian revolution of 1917 the artists had to think out other forms of their art. In 1924 there was founded “Ancient painting company”, which started lacquer miniature painting. Their painting is famous all over the world.

Now Palekh has flax manufacturing factory, the art of hand made and machine made embroidery is being developed. Young people study the art of lacquer miniature in the Art School of Palekh.

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