“Bakery” means a business producing, preparing, storing, or displaying bakery products intended for sale for human consumption.
Several objective and subjective methods are being used for controlling quality of bakery products such as loaf volume, crust color, grain and texture of crumb in case of bread, and spread, raise, crispness etc, in case of biscuits and cookies. However, new technology has emerged for fast-cum-efficient and more consistent manufacture of products to improve consumer satisfaction.BAKERY REQUIREMENTS
A building used or occupied as a bakery shall be clean and properly lighted, drained, and ventilated.
A bakery shall have adequate plumbing and drainage facilities, including suitable wash sinks and restroom facilities. Restroom facilities shall be separate from the rooms in which the bakery products are produced or handled. Each wash sink area and restroom facility shall be clean, sanitary, well lit, and ventilated.
The floors, walls, and ceilings of a room in which dough is mixed or handled, pastry is prepared for baking, or bakery products or the ingredients of those products are otherwise handled or stored shall be clean, wholesome, and sanitary. Each opening into the room, including a window or door, shall be properly screened or otherwise protected to exclude flies.
A showcase, shelf, or other place from which bakery products are sold shall at all times be clean, wholesome, covered, properly ventilated, and protected from dust and flies.
A workroom may not be used for purposes other than those directly connected with the preparation, baking, storage, or handling of food. A workroom may not be used as a washing, sleeping, or living room and shall at all times be kept separate and closed from living and sleeping rooms.
Each bakery shall provide, separate from the workrooms, a dressing room for the changing and hanging of wearing apparel. Each dressing room shall be kept clean at all times.SANITARY REQUIREMENTS
A person may not sit or lie on any table, bench, trough, or shelf intended for dough or bakery products.
Animals or fowl may not be kept or allowed in any bakery or other place where bakery products are produced or stored.
A person engaged in the preparation or handling of bakery products shall wash the person’s arms and hands thoroughly before beginning the preparation, mixing, or handling of ingredients used in baking. A bakery shall provide sufficient soap, washbasins, and clean towels for that purpose.
A person may not use tobacco in any form in any room in which a bakery product is manufactured, wrapped, or prepared for sale.
A person with a communicable disease may not work in a bakery, handle any product in the bakery, or deliver a product from the bakery.WHOLESOME INGREDIENTS REQUIRED
Materials used in the production or preparation of bakery products shall be stored, handled, and maintained in a manner that protects the materials from spoiling and contamination. Materials may not be used if spoiled, contaminated, or otherwise likely to make the bakery product unwholesome or unfit as food.
The ingredients used in the production of bakery products and the sale or offering for sale of those products shall comply with the laws relating to the adulteration and misbranding of food. Ingredients may not be used that may make the bakery product injurious to health.
A vehicle, box, basket, or other receptacle in which bakery products are transported shall at all times be kept clean and free from dust, flies, or other contaminants.STORAGE RECEPTACLE REQUIREMENTS
A box or other receptacle for the storage or receipt of bakery products shall be:
(1) Constructed and placed to be free from contamination from streets, alleys, and sidewalks;
(2) Raised at least 10 inches above the level of the street or sidewalk;
(3) Clean and sanitary.
Bread may not be placed in a storage box with other food except other bakery products.
A storage box shall be equipped with a private lock and shall be kept locked except when opened to receive or remove bakery products or when being cleaned.WEIGHT STANDARDS FOR BREAD LOAVES
Loaves of bread made by persons in the business of wholesaling and retailing bread must comply with the weight standards in this section.
The standard weights for a loaf of bread are:
(1) one pound;
(2) 1-1/2 pounds; or
(3) any other multiple of one pound.
This section does not prohibit the sale of bread slices in properly labeled packages weighing eight ounces or less.
Variations in the weight standard may not exceed one ounce a pound within 24 hours after baking.BAKING POWDER
Baking powder that contains less than 10 percent of available carbon dioxide is adulterated.QUALITY OF BAKERY FLOUR
All wheat shall be tested for vomitoxin in accordance with procedures approved by Federal Grain Inspection Service. Any wheat testing higher than 2 parts per million (p.p.m) shall not be used in production of the commodity. The final product shall not contain more than 1 p.p.m of vomitoxin.
The bakery flour delivered shall meet the requirements as specified in the Commercial Items Description A-A-20126E for flour products available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/fga/aa20126e.htm, except for the following chemical and physical requirements:
Durum flour
Ingredient Minimum Maximum
Protein (Nx 5.7) 12.0% –
Ash – 0.90%
Moisture – 14.5%
Carotenoid Color (ppm) 5 –
Material through a U.S Standard No.70 Woven–Wire-Cloth-Sieve 98.0% –
Material through a U.S Standard No.100Woven–Wire-Cloth-Sieve 90.0% –

Bakers Hard Wheat Flour

Ingredient Hearth Style Bread
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum
Protein (Nx 5.7)
13.3% 14.3% 11.3% 13.0%
– 0.56% – 0.50%
Moisture – 14.1% – 14.1%
Falling Number (Range)
200 300 225 300

Bakers Soft Wheat Flour

Ingredient Bleached Unbleached
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum
Protein (Nx 5.7)
– 10.0% – 10.0%
– 0.43% – 0.43%
Moisture – 14.0% – 14.0%
Spread factor
55 70 80 100
pH level 4.3 4.7 – –

Bakery flour shall be enriched, bleached, or unbleached. The enrichment and bleaching requirements shall be those listed in the latest “Food and Drug Standards of Identity”. Bleached bakers soft wheat flour may be treated with chlorine using amounts and procedures that allow the product to attain performance specifications related to those for cake and cookie manufacture and be suitable for that use.
Bakers hard wheat bread flour shall be suitable for use in continuous and conventional baking processes or, in the case of the health style, may contain potassium bromate added in a quantity not exceeded 25 parts to each million parts of finished enriched flour to achieve maximum quality commercially acceptable hearth type bread products. BULK FLOUR SHIPMENTS
At the time of shipment, the contractor shall furnish to the destination consignee a mill laboratory analysis that the flour meets all the testing and quality requirements of the contract.
For bulk shipments by railroad car or truck, the weight of the quantity shipped shall be evidenced by an official weight certificate and included with the invoice. If official weights are not available at the plant location, the contractor shall obtain the official weight certificates at an intermediate point or at destination.WARRANTY
The bakery flour product shall have a shelf life of at least one year from the date of manufacturer. Product shall not be manufactured more then 30 days prior to shipping.KOSHER ONLY PRODUCTS
“Kosher Only” products will be identified in the solicitation. Offerors shall not bid on these products unless they are properly certified to produce kosher products. If awarded a contract, contractors shall:
(1) Comply with applicable dietary (kosher) laws as established by the “613 Council of kashruth” and
(2) Rabbinic supervisors will be sent to visit the plant to certify compliance with the applicable dietary (kosher) lows.QUALITY ASSURANCE
The contractor shall perform the product testing and quality analysis to ensure that the product meets the commodity specifications. The result shall be evidence by a Certificate of Analysis (COA). If discounts are provided in the contract and the product to be delivered by the contractor falls within the quality discount table, those factors shall be identified by an asterisk on the copies of the COA.
Contractors shall notify the Government immediately of lots that fail to meet contract requirements.QUALITY DISCOUNTS
If the product does not meet the specifications of this contract but falls within the discounts listed below, the products may be delivered to the Government, but the purchase price will be reduced in accordance with the following schedule of discounts for each 100 pounds of commodity delivered:
Bakers Hard Wheat Flour
Bread Flour
Exeed Ash Deficient protein
0.51%-0.52% $0.15 11.2%-11.1% $0.15
0.53%-0.54% $0.25 11.0%-10.9% $0.25
0.55% $0.40 10.8% $0.40
Hearth Style Flour
Exeed Ash Deficient protein
0.57%-0.58% $0.15 13.2%-13.1% $0.15
0.59%-0.60% $0.25 13.0%-12.6% $0.25
0.61% $0.40 12.5% $0.40
Exceed Falling Number Range Deficient Falling Number Range
310 units- 320 units $0.10 224 units- 217 units $0.10
321 units- 340 units $0.20 216 units- 209 units $0.20
341 units- 360 units $0.30 208 units- 201 units $0.30CONTAINER AND PACKING REQUIREMENTS
This part provides the container specifications and packing materials requirements used under this contract.CONTAINERS AND MATERIALS
The components that make up the fabricating materials of the containers and packaging materials shall be origin to extent that they are commercially available.
Constructed to meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration for sale contract with the packaged product.
The constructor shall obtain and maintain documentation from the container or packaging material manufacturer to verify that the containers and packaging materials used in this contract were in compliance with the Government’s requirement.50-POUNDS AND 100-POUNDS PAPER BAGS
50 or 100 pounds of products shall be packed in multiwall paper bags confirming to Federal Specification UU-S-48, Level C packing as amended. The use of recycled materials is not required if performance or food safety is jeopardized.
The bags shall be of a type normally used in commercial channels and constructed and closed in compliance with the applicable carrier rules and regulations.UNITIZATION REQUIREMENTS
Shipments shall comply with the following unitization requirements:
 Unless otherwise specified by the Government, all shipments of packaged products shall be unitized (palletized and stretch wrapped).
 Pallets shall be:
1. Constructed to facilitate the safe handling and transportation of the packaged products, as a unit, without loss or damage.
2. A number 2, four-way, reversible flush stringer with no broken runners or slats.
3. Suitible for use in the shipment of food products.
 Plastic stretch wrap shall be:
1. Constructed of a plastic film which is to be stretched a minimum of 50 percent beyond its original length when stretched around the palled loud.
2. Applied as tightly as possible around all tiers of the palletized shipping containers. The shipping containers shall be held firmly in place by the stretch wrap.
 Palled loads shall be:
1. Stacked in such a way as to minimize the amount that shipping containers overhang the edges of pallets.
2. Blocked and braced or other wise loaded into the conveyance in s manner that prevents shifting during transit.COMMERCIAL PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
Contractors supplying commercial brand products shall certify at the time of submission of an offer that the commercial product being delivered has a history of successful distribution and use in domestic commercial channels and is sold on the commercial market with an established level of consumer acceptance.
Container and packaging requirements are those used in the current commercial shipping practices and shall comply with:
1. Domestic origin of containers and packaging materials.
2. Unitization requirement.
3. At contractor’s option, a statement such as “Not for Retail Sale” may be printed on the principal display panel of the food label.
4. The manufacturer’s lot code/lot identification number shall be shown on the commercial bill of lading.
5. Shipping containers shall be marked to show the maximum safe stacking height. It is the responsibility of the contractor in cooperation with the shipping container manufacturers to determine the safe stacking height.
6. For identifications upon receipt at delivery warehouses, all commercial- labeled product shipping documents shall specify “FOR USDA FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMS”.MARKING REQUIREMENTS
Primary containers, corrugated fiberboard shipping containers, and paper balers shall be plainly marked in accordance with Exhibits. All markings shall be off sufficient size to stand out prominently. The markings shall be arranged substantially as shown in the exhibits and shall be in direct proportion to the available printing surface. No markings are required on plastic balers. VENDOR CODE
A vendor code, furnished by the Government, shall appear on all primary containers, corrugated fiberboard shipping containers, and paper balers. The vendor code identifies in the contractor but does not always identify the plant off origin. In addition to the vendor code, contractors have the option of printing the plant code on all containers.
The month/year of pack shall appear on all primary containers having a net weight greater than 10 pounds and shall appear on all primary containers, regardless of net weight , when transparent plastic balers are utilized.
The month/year of pack shall appear on all corrugated fiberboard shipping containers and paper balers.
The month/year of pack shall be the month/year of shipment as required under the contract.
A date fill code may be applied in addition to, but not in lieu of the month/year of pack. LOT CODE
A lot code unique to each lot shall be legibly marked on all primary containers, corrugated fiberboard shipping containers, and paper balers. Contractors may use any type of lot coding system provided a unique code is used to identify each lot under a contract. Contractors shall provide the Government’s audit personnel or the contracting officer with an explanation of the lot coding system utilized. NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION
Nutritional information shall be applied to all primary containers in accordance with the nutrition labeling regulations of the Food and Drug Administration as specified in CFR. SAFE STACKING REGULATIONS
Corrugated fiberboard shipping containers shall be marked to show the maximum safe stacking height. The should be expressed as follows:”Do not stack above_ tiers per pallet,_ pallets height.” It is the responsibility of the contractor in cooperation with the shipping container manufacturers to determine the safe stacking height. CARRIER REGULATIONS
The contactor shall place the recycle symbol and words “PLEASE RECYCLE” somewhere on the surface of each primary and shipping container which is widely recycled. By “widely recycled”, it is meant recycled in most communities. The words “PLEASE RECYCLE” are to be placed under the recycle symbol. The following packaging materials are widely recycled and should be marked with the symbol and statement in accordance with Exhibition:
1. Corrugated fiberboard (cardboard) boxes.
2. Steel (tin) cans.
3. High density polyethylene (e.g., vegetable oil and liquid shortened bottles).
Packaging materials which are not required under the contract (e.g., certain plastic pouches, bags, and stretch films) need not be marked even though they can be recycled in many commodities. OTHER MARKINGS
The contractor’s company name and/or the container manufacturer’s name may be printed on each container as small as possible, yet legibly.
No markings other than those permitted under this contract shall appear on containers unless required or approved by the Government. CONTAINERS WITH INCORRECT MARKINGS
Any labels, bags, cans, can lids, cases, or any other type of packing (heneinafter referred to as “containers”) displaying incorrect markings may be used under a Government contract to provide that the incorrect markings are applied in a permanent manner with approval of the contracting officer.
The appearance of containers in commercial or other channels either filled or unfilled bearing markings identifying the containers as part of a Government contract may cause the Government expense in determining whether commodities have been diverted from authorized use and in answering inquiries. The contractor shall take all necessary action to prevent the appearance in commercial or other channels of containers and container materials bearing any markings required under a Government contract, including those held by the contractor or others; e.g., overruns, misprints, ect. The contractor shall ensure that any container from a Government contract that appears in commercial or other channels shall have all markings required under this contract permanently obliterated.INFERENCE
It is clear that several innovations have taken place through constant and continuous research and development (R&D) in bakery ingredients, processing technology, machineries and packaging. All these are aimed at improving the quality of products and even when using relatively poor quality ingredients and reducing the cost of products. It is now left to the industry to adopt some of the technologies to suit their requirement. This will enable the industry to produce improved quality and variety products, which ultimately will help in sustained growth of the bakery industry.LITERATURE
1. USDA Commodity requirements BF8 “Bakery floor products for use in domestic programs”
2. Health and safety code “Public health provisions relating to production of baked goods”
3. www.directindustry.com