PARKETAS

INTRODUCTION

ASSORTMENT

Oak (Quercus) – a genus of the oak-tree family having about 600
species. The most common kind found in Europe is the ordinary oak (Quercus
robur), and in America – the red oak (Quercus rubra). Ordinary oaks grow
naturally in forests of Lithuania, taking 1.8 % of total forest area. The
greatest number of oak-woods is located in Middle Lithuania Lowland; their
number is slightly lesser in south-eastern part of the country, and even
more so – in the south. Oaks reach 30-40 m in height, and 1,5-2 m in
diameter. This tree lives foor 500-1,000 years, sometimes even for 1,500
years. Oaks are suitable for cutting down at the age of 120-160 years.

Oak timber has nice texture, its alburnum is narrow and yellowish, the
kernel is light or dark brown with wide (false) and narrow heart rays. Oak
timber is notable for outstanding technical characteristics; it is solid,
hard and very steadfast in air, soil and especially water. Oak parquet is
the least dependable on changes in microclimate of premises. Thanks to its
hardness, colour and texture, oak is the most poopular sort of parquet for
both classical and modern interiors.

[pic]Ash (Fraxinus) trees are widespread throughout Europe. Ordinary
ashes (Fraxinus excelsior) grow naturally in Lithuania, taking 2.7 % of
total forest area. Nearly 80 % of ash-groves are found in Middle Lithuania
Lowland, especially in its northern part (regions of

f Pakruojis, Panevėžys,
Joniškis, and Pasvalys). Ashes reach 30-35 m in height, and 60-70 cm in
diameter. This tree grows rapidly, especially at the age of 20-50 years; it
lives for 200-300 years, and are suitable for cutting down at the age of
100-120 years.

The oak has light-colored, yellowish-whitish laburnum and light
brownish kernel. Its heart rays are not very distinct; however, the tangent
section produces a very beautiful pattern. The ash timber is notable for
its good physical and mechanical characteristics. Being heavy, solid and
hard, it is also flexible and elastic; it shrinks little, and is easily
polished.

[pic]Beech (Fagus) – a genus of the beech-tree family, found in Europe,
Asia and America. In Europe, the ordinary beech (Fagus sylvatica), also
called European, is the most common sort of beech. Beeches do not grow
naturally in Lithuanian foorests; they are only grown in parks. Beeches
reach 30-40 m in height and 2 m in diameter. This tree grows rapidly until
100-150 years, after that it grows very slowly; it lives for 200-300 years.

Beech timber is white with yellowish or brownish hue that becomes more
distinct in the air; it has nice texture without kernel (however, often
beeches have seeming kernel) with distinct heart rays. Beech timber is
heavy, thick, and solid, but when drying it cracks, and warps. Being light-
colored, it is widely used in the pr

roduction of parquet, which, however,
can be unstable due to its poor moisture-resistant qualities.

– 2 –

[pic]Maple (Acer) – a genus of the maple-tree family, found in Europe,
Asia and America. The ordinary maple (Acer platanoides), also called
European, is the most commonly found maple sort in Europe. In Lithuanian
forests, maples usually form mixed stands with oaks, lime-trees, fir-trees
and asps. Maple timber make up about 0.1 % of the total growing stock in
Lithuanian forests. Owing to its extremely hard timber, sugar (or Canadian)
maple (Acer saccharum) is widely used in the production of parquet. This
sort of maple grows naturally in North America.

Maple wood has no kernel; it is yellowish, sometimes with reddish hue;
the longitudinal section reveals heart rays that impart wood with luster.
Maple timber has nice texture; it is monolithic, thick, very solid, and
hard.

[pic]Birch (Betula) – a genus of the birch-tree family. Warty birch
(Betula verrucosa) prevails among four kinds of this tree growing naturally
in Lithuania. Birch groves take 20 % of the total Lithuanian forest area.
Birches grow up to 30 m. This tree grows rapidly until the age of 50-60
years when it stops growing; it lives for 100-150 years, and is suitable
for cutting down at the age of 60-80 years.

Birch timber is whitish with yellowish or reddish hue; its rings are
indistinct. Birch timber is medium hard, th

hat is why it is not widely used
in the production of parquet.

[pic]Merbau (Intsia acuminata) – tropical deciduous tree found in
Indonesia. Its deep red timber is among the hardest ones. These qualities
make merbau parquet very often used in modern interiors, as well as in
premises visited by great numbers of people (shops, bars, etc.).

[pic]Merbau (Intsia acuminata) – tropical deciduous tree found in
Indonesia. Its deep red timber is among the hardest ones. These qualities
make merbau parquet very often used in modern interiors, as well as in
premises visited by great numbers of people (shops, bars, etc.).

– 3 –

SORTS AND DIMENSIONS

The oldest, traditional sort of parquet is made of hardwood. It is also
called single parquet. Usually the width of parquet boards is 40-70 mm,
length – 250-500 mm, thickness – 15 mm, and wearing surface – 7 mm (see
picture). Board profile is cut out to within 0.1 mm.

[pic][pic]

Board dimensions and quality determines the price of parquet. Longer
and wider boards are more expensive, while the narrower and shorter ones
cost less.

The optimum parquet humidity is 8 ± 2 %. Parquet will remain stable in
premises having normal microclimate conditions (relative air humidity – 40-
60 %, temperature – 15-25 °C). Flooring of parquet with humidity exceeding
10 % tends to shrink, which causes the appearance of cracks. Flooring of
parquet with humidity below 6 % tends to dilate, which results in the
appearance of protuberances.

Single parquet is packed in

nto leak-proof, sealed packaging of
polythene, with area from 0.6 to 1.68 m2.

In case you have chosen single parquet for your flooring, it is
necessary to contact a reliable company, which will properly carry out the
jobs of surface preparation, parquet selection, laying, polishing and
varnishing. Technologically successful performance of all these operations
is required to assure the splendid quality of single parquet.

( More about sorts and dimensions pleas read in page 9 ).

PARQUET BORDS

Parquet board is relatively new natural wood flooring of unique
construction. This product is very practical, as parquet boards are put
into shields in the plant (height 137 mm, width 205 mm, and length 2 400
mm), completely polished and varnished with five UV lacquer coats (this
lacquer is resistant to ultraviolet rays, and does not change its color
with time). All that remains is to lay parquet boards. Being very
practical, parquet boards form the greater part of natural parquet market
in Western Europe.

Parquet board is constructed of three layers of natural wood: outer –
of natural hardwood (4 mm thick), middle – of coniferous wood (8 mm thick),
and lower – of coniferous veneer (2 mm thick). Different wood layers are
glued in such a way that fibers of different layers are vertical to each
other. This reduces the mobility of outer hardwood layer to minimum.

Usually the outer layer of parquet board consists of three planks,
while the hardwood layer is made up of separate 70 mm wide and 200-450 mm
long small planks. One shield (dimensions: width – 205 mm, length – 2 400
mm) consists of three rows of small planks. This type is analogous to
parquet.

– 4 –
|[pic] |Two-plank parquet board has the same construction as |
| |three-plank parquet boards. One shield dimensions: width|
| |- 137 mm, length – 2 400 mm. |

4 mm natural wood layer makes it possible to renew parquet 2-4 times,
depending on thickness of polished surface. Depending on the intensity of
wearing out, the first renovation of a parquet board will be required after
10-15 years, and later renovations – after 6-8 years.

FLOOR BOARDS

Floor board has analogous construction to that of parquet board, but
the natural wood layer of floor board is made of a single 137 mm wide and
2,400 mm long plank. This type is analogous to floor planks.

INSTALLATION

Well-prepared ground surface is one of major requirements for good
quality laying of parquet floor. It is equally important in laying both
single parquet and parquet boards.

Proper humidity of premises and concrete ground is required to start
the preparation of ground surface.

The best material for ground surface preparation is 18-mm wide moisture-
resistant plywood or orientation shaving board (OSB). It is also possible
to use 18-mm wide low-priced shaving board, which, however, is permeable to
water and has a weaker construction. It is not recommended to use this kind
of board in new buildings, and also in case there is a zone of increased
humidity (soil, unheated cellar) under the concrete ground.

To even very rough ground surface, it is recommended to use small
square wooden beams (50×100 mm, humidity 8-10 %). Basic advantages of this
construction include faster and cheaper smoothing of ground surface, proper
floor ventilation, and possibility to use heat insulation materials.

Single parquet and parquet boards can be stuck directly onto concrete
ground provided the ground surface is totally even. Single parquet is stuck
with special glues having little water in their composition.

Single parquet and parquet boards can easily be laid on old wooden
floor on condition that it is even enough. It is necessary to reinforce and
polish the old floor.

Onto the heated floor, it is best to lay parquet boards; however, the
temperature of heated floor should not be above 27 °C.

On wooden slab surface, single parquet is glued and fastened with
nails. If the surface is made of concrete, parquet is glued only.

– 5 –

MOST POPULAR WAYS OF LAYING:

|[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |
|1. No |2. No |3. Following |4. No particular |5. In |
|particular |particular |certain order, |order, from planks|herring-bon|
|order, from |order, from |from planks of |of different |e |
|planks of |planks of the |the same length|length, making | |
|different |same length | |pairs of 2 equal | |
|length | | |ones | |

In modern interiors, parquet is usually laid following no particular
order from planks of different length (the way parquet boards are put). In
classical style interiors, herringbone pattern can be used.

 

LAYING OF PARQUET AND FLOOR BOARDS

Parquet and floor boards are laid on special sound and moisture
insulating flooring (2-5 mm thick) in drifting method. Parquet and floor
boards are glued to each other at the sides only.
|[pic] |Laying of the first row. The first row is laid at the|
| |wall (with cut facing the wall), leaving at least 1 |
| |cm gap to the wall. The gap between the wall and the |
| |parquet board is kept by pieces of wood. This row has|
| |to be laid strictly following the desired direction |
| |of parquet and keeping it parallel to the wall. |

Glue spreading. Put glue into the incision of a parquet board, 50-70 g/m2.
Better use water-resistant glue.

– 6 –
|[pic] |Tightening of ends. Having finished laying the row, |
| |use a special crowbar to tighten the ends of parquet|
| |board. |
|[pic] |Laying of the next row. Other parquet board rows are|
| |tightened by hammering on a special plastic or |
| |wooden plank. Don’t hammer on a parquet board |
| |directly. |
|[pic] |Laying of the last row. Mark the cutting line and |
| |cut the last row, leaving about 1 cm gap to the |
| |wall. Parquet boards are tightened with a special |
| |crowbar. Pieces of wood are put between the wall and|
| |parquet board. |
|[pic] |Cutting holes for pipes. A hole with diameter 20 mm |
| |larger than that of a pipe is drilled in a parquet |
| |board. Then the parquet board is laid. Later, the |
| |cut is placed back. |

– 7 –

GRINDING

Only single parquet needs grinding. Parquet and floor boards do not need
grinding or varnishing as these operations are performed in the plant.

To make parquet floor look impeccable, proper laying should be followed
by proper grinding and varnishing with quality lacquer to fully reveal the
beauty of wood.

The quality of grinding depends on the professional level as well as on
machines and materials in use. For final grinding, band grinding machines
should be used, and for intervening grinding – disk grinding machines.

To get the best possible results of grinding, the floor must be wiped
carefully before the work. Parquet boards have to be fixed, and all
protuberances or other defects have to be eliminated before grinding.

To reveal the natural beauty of wood, optimal way of grinding has to be
chosen. The height of floor projections determines the number of grinding
paths and the usage order of grinding papers. It is very important to
observe the usage order of grinding paper with increasing number of grains.
Rough grinding paper removes uneven or dirty places, and makes the surface
smooth. Further grinding removes scratches from the previous grinding. It
is not recommended to omit more than one stage of increasing grains of
grinding paper, as paper with too small grains cannot fully remove traces
of previous grinding.

In order to get even better results, it is necessary to apply extra
grinding – polishing, performed using disk polishing-machine with low
revolution (up to 200 rev./min.) and with special grinding net (grain level
– 120-150). This grinding allows to perform both grinding and polishing at
the same time.

Disk grinding-machine is also used to carry out the intervening
grinding between layers of varnish. It is necessary for better adhesion of
varnish layers.

– 8 –

PRODUCTION DIMENSIONS
|Sort of wood |Quality |Dimensions, mm |
| | |Thickness|Width|Length |
|Oak |selected (radial section) |15 |43 |400 |
| | |15 |45 |400 |
| | |15 |50 |300, 350, 400|
| | |15 |60 |360, 420 |
| | |15 |70 |400, 450, 400|
| |natural (radial and tangential |15 |43 |250, 300 |
| |section) | | | |
| | |15 |43 |350, 400 |
| | |15 |45 |400 |
| | |15 |50 |300, 350, 400|
| | |10 |60 |320, 420 |
| | |15 |60 |360, 420 |
| | |15 |70 |400, 450, 500|
| |rural (with small branches) |15 |43 |250-400 |
| | |15 |50 |350 |
| | |15 |60 |360, 420 |
| | |15 |70 |360-500 |
|Maple |selected (unicolour light) |15 |60 |360, 420 |
| | |15 |70 |400, 450, 500|
| |natural (motley) |15 |60 |360, 420 |
| | |15 |70 |400, 450, 500|
|Ash |selected (unicolour, light or |15 |50 |350, 400 |
| |dark) | | | |
| | |15 |60 |450 |
| |natural (motley) |15 |70 |500 |
| | |10 |50 |300, 350 |
| | |15 |50 |250 -400 |
| | |15 |70 | 500 |

– 9 –

VARNISHING

Only single parquet needs varnishing. Parquet and floor boards do not
need varnishing as this operation is performed in the plant.

Varnish reveals the best qualities of wooden floor; however, improper
grinding and varnishing will expose remaining projections and other
mistakes of the work.

Sometimes defects are only noticed after varnishing. It is not
recommended to apply grinding and varnishing to a small patch containing
serious defects. Newly varnished places will stand out clearly from the
rest of the floor. In case there are any defects, the whole flooring has to
be polished and varnished anew. Also, the desired results will not be
achieved if parquet is varnished in a wrong way or varnish of poor quality
is used. When choosing varnish, it is necessary to get full information
about the producer, chemical composition of varnish, coating
characteristics and so on. Today, in Europe most popular are ecologically
clean varnishes and primings, having water as their basic component.

Before varnishing, it is necessary to carefully vacuum the dust, and to
clean the floor with special antistatic.

First of all, parquet is coated with priming. Having penetrated deeper
into the wood, priming preserves technical advantages and natural color of
wood. The chemical composition of varnish should be in agreement with the
chemical composition of priming. Usually priming is used for one coating;
On the average, 1 l is enough to prime the surface of 8-10 m2. To get
better results, the priming can be polished with disk grinding-machine.

Depending on the intensity of using the floor, parquet is coated with
varnish two or three times. Usually flat flooring does not require more
than two coatings. To get better results, the floor can be repeatedly
polished with disk grinding-machine after the first coating is completely
dry (intervening grinding). The floor is then cleaned again and varnished
for the second time. On the average, 1 l is enough to varnish the surface
of 8-10 m2.

Usually, you can walk onto varnished flooring only after 24 hours,
wearing clean footwear. Furniture can be moved in after a week, while
carpets can be laid and wet cleaning done only after 2-3 weeks.

– 10 –

CARING

1. Properly stuck parquet requires minimum care. It is usually enough
to use the vacuum cleaner. If required, use wet floor cloth, and if
necessary – domestic cleaners.

2. To make flooring even more lasting and shining, use parquet
polishers and fresheners.

3. Depending on the intensity of using the parquet floor, single
parquet will need restoration after 6-8 years, while parquet boards – after
10-15 years.

Colour and texture of natural wood gives Each tree is different.
Natural wood flooring differs in its texture and colouring, which will make
your interior unique.

Wooden floor makes for a long-term investment; it does not need any
special care. Parquet will not wear out for many years.

– 11 –

VILNIUS COLLEGE OF CONSTRUCTION

ONLY FOR YOU

Lecturer:

Prepared by:

Vilnius 2001 m.

CONTENS

INTRODUCTION (ASSORTIMENT
)................... 2

PARQUET
BORDS.........................
...... 4

INSTALLATION....................... 5

MOST POPULAR WAYS OF LAYING.............. 6

LAYING OF PARQUET AND FLOOR BOARDS............ 7

GRINDING......................... 8

PRODUCTION DIMENSIONS................. 9

VARNISHING........................ 10

CARING........................... 11

CONCLUSIONS........................ 12

LIST OF LITERATURE................... 13

LIST OF LITERATURE

WEBSITE: www. parketas. lt

– 13 –

CONCLUSIONS

I prepare my project about parquet .Thesis a natural floor. Parquet we
can make from different kinds of wood like: oak, ash, beech, maple, birch,
merbau.

Wooden floor makes for a long-term investment; it does not need any
special care. Parquet will not wear out for many years.

Colour and texture of natural wood gives cosiness to your living place.

Each tree is different. Natural wood flooring differs in its texture
and colouring, which will make your interior unique.

Wooden floor makes for a long-term investment; it does not need any
special care. Parquet will not wear out for many years.

In case you have chosen single parquet for your flooring, it is
necessary to contact a reliable company, which will properly carry out the
jobs of surface preparation, parquet selection, laying, polishing and
varnishing. Technologically successful performance of all these operations
is required to assure the splendid quality of single parquet.

Parquet board is relatively new natural wood flooring of unique
construction. This product is very practical, as parquet boards are put
into shields in the plant (height 137 mm, width 205 mm, and length 2 400
mm), completely polished and varnished with five UV lacquer coats (this
lacquer is resistant to ultraviolet rays, and does not change its color
with time). All that remains is to lay parquet boards. Being very
practical, parquet boards form the greater part of natural parquet market
in Western Europe.

Parquet board is constructed of three layers of natural wood: outer –
of natural hardwood (4 mm thick), middle – of coniferous wood (8 mm thick),
and lower – of coniferous veneer (2 mm thick). Different wood layers are
glued in such a way that fibers of different layers are vertical to each
other. This reduces the mobility of outer hardwood layer to minimum.

4 mm natural wood layer makes it possible to renew parquet 2-4 times,
depending on thickness of polished surface. Depending on the intensity of
wearing out, the first renovation of a parquet board will be required after
10-15 years, and later renovations – after 6-8 years.

Floor board has analogous construction to that of parquet board, but
the natural wood layer of floor board is made of a single 137 mm wide and
2,400 mm long plank. This type is analogous to floor planks.

In modern interiors, parquet is usually laid following no particular
order from planks of different length (the way parquet boards are put). In
classical style interiors, herringbone pattern can be used.

Parquet and floor boards are laid on special sound and moisture
insulating flooring (2-5 mm thick) in drifting method. Parquet and floor
boards are glued to each other at the sides only.

To reveal the natural beauty of wood, optimal way of grinding has to be
chosen. The height of floor projections determines the number of grinding
paths and the usage order of grinding papers. It is very important to
observe the usage order of grinding paper with increasing number of grains.
Rough grinding paper removes uneven or dirty places, and makes the surface
smooth. Further grinding removes scratches from the previous grinding. It
is not recommended to omit more than one stage of increasing grains of
grinding paper, as paper with too small grains cannot fully remove traces
of previous grinding.

-12 –

Apsigynimas

My individual work consists of thirteen pages and eleven parts. First
parts are introduction, parquet boards, installation, most popular ways of
laying, laying of parquet and floor boards.

Then second parts are grinding, production dimensions, varnishing,
caring. And the last conclusions, list of literature.

I tell you about first part so this part is about assortment of wood.
Parquet we can make from different kinds of wood like: oak, ash, beech,
maple, birch, merbau. All these kinds of wood belong to deciduous trees
group. They all have good physical and mechanical properties for example
oak timber has nice texture, its alburnum is narrow and yellowish, the
kernel is light or dark brown with wide (false) and narrow heart rays. Oak
timber is notable for outstanding technical characteristics; it is solid,
hard and very steadfast in air, soil and especially water.

Beech timber is white with yellowish or brownish hue that becomes more
distinct in the air; it has nice texture without kernel (however, often
beeches have seeming kernel) with distinct heart rays. Beech timber is
heavy, thick, and solid, but when drying it cracks, and warps.

Second part is parquet boards. Parquet board is relatively new
natural wood flooring of unique construction. This product is very
practical, as parquet boards are put into shields in the plant (height 137
mm, width 205 mm, and length 2 400 mm), completely polished and varnished
with five UV lacquer coats (this lacquer is resistant to ultraviolet rays,
and does not change its color with time). All that remains is to lay
parquet boards. Being very practical, parquet boards form the greater part
of natural parquet market in Western Europe. Parquet board is constructed
of three layers of natural wood: outer – of natural hardwood (4 mm thick),
middle – of coniferous wood (8 mm thick), and lower – of coniferous veneer
(2 mm thick). Different wood layers are glued in such a way that fibers of
different layers are vertical to each other. This reduces the mobility of
outer hardwood layer to minimum.

Floor board has analogous construction to that of parquet board, but
the natural wood layer of floor board is made of a single 137 mm wide and
2,400 mm long plank. This type is analogous to floor planks.

Next part of my project is installation. About this part I tell you
very shortly because this part is technical advices orders and so on. Well-
prepared ground surface is one of major requirements for good quality lying
of parquet floor. It is equally important in laying both single parquet and
parquet boards. Single parquet and parquet boards can easily be laid on old
wooden floor on condition that it is even enough. It is necessary to
reinforce and polish the old floor.

Successive part is most popular ways of lying. So they are: 1. No
particular order, from planks of different length. 2. No particular order,
from planks of the same length. 3. Following certain order, from planks of
the same length. 4. No particular order, from planks of different length,
making pairs of 2 equal ones. 5. In herring-bone. In modern interiors,
parquet is usually laid following no particular order from planks of
different length (the way parquet boards are put). In classical style
interiors, herringbone pattern can be used.

Next part is LAYING OF PARQUET AND FLOOR BOARDS Parquet and floor
boards are laid on special sound and moisture insulating flooring (2-5 mm
thick) in drifting method. Parquet and floor boards are glued to each other
at the sides only. All laying technology consist of six parts: Lying of the
first row, glue spreading, tightening of ends, laying of next row, laying
of the last row, cutting holes for pipes.

Next is grinding, Only single parquet needs grinding. Parquet and floor
boards do not need grinding or varnishing as these operations are performed
in the plant.

To make parquet floor look impeccable, proper laying should be followed
by proper grinding and varnishing with quality lacquer to fully reveal the
beauty of wood.

To get the best possible results of grinding, the floor must be wiped
carefully before the work. Parquet boards have to be fixed, and all
protuberances or other defects have to be eliminated before grinding.

Successive part is varnishing.Only single parquet needs varnishing.
Parquet and floor boards do not need varnishing as this operation is
performed in the plant.Varnish reveals the best qualities of wooden floor;
however, improper grinding and varnishing will expose remaining projections
and other mistakes of the work.

Like sad last parts is caring, conclusions and list of literature.

1. Properly stuck parquet requires minimum care. It is usually enough
to use the vacuum cleaner. If required, use wet floor cloth, and if
necessary – domestic cleaners.

2. To make flooring even more lasting and shining, use parquet
polishers and fresheners.

3. Depending on the intensity of using the parquet floor, single
parquet will need restoration after 6-8 years, while parquet boards – after
10-15 years.

So I think what natural wooden floors like parquet is best for our home
because these floors are ecologically clean, very beautiful, with long
durability, good physical and mechanical properties. Wooden floor makes for
a long-term investment; it does not need any special care. Parquet will not
wear out for many years.

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