Ottoman, Mughal and Safavid Empires

Compare and contrast the Ottoman, Mughal and Safavid Empires. What made it possible for these empires to rise? Who were their prominent leaders? What are some examples of their cultural achievement? Which empire, in your opinion, was the most powerful and influential? What factors led to each empire’s collapse or decline?

Starting at 1450, the spiritual descendants of the Prophet Muhammad rose in the West and South Asia, which spread and controlled three vast and powerful empires: the Ottoman Empire centered in Annatolia, the Safavid Empire of Persia, and the Mughal Empire in India for several centuries. Military and religious factors gave rise to these ones of the largest, best organized and most enduring empires in the world history. However, the same factors together with economical, political, cultural and external difficulties caused the fall of these great empires.

The peak of one Islamic culture, usually associated with the Ottoman Empire by most historians, appeared in the XV century, when Turks, under Mohamed II, toook over Constantinople in 1453 and the Byzantine Empire fell. In 1514 Turks completed the conquest of Anatolia by defeating the remains of the Byzantine Empire and Safavids. And by the 1520s most Arabs were under Ottoman control. One of the most pr

rominent leaders of the Ottoman Empire appeared to be Bayezid II, who expanded the empire through territories of Egypt, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Tunisia, Algeria, Greece, Macedonia, Bosnia, Albania, and Bulgaria and threatened whole Europe, including distant Iceland. Ottoman’s success was due to the weakness and political disunity of their enemies (Habsburgs and Bourbons in Europe and division of Islamic societies in the North of Africa) to the superiority of Turkish military organization, artillery (well adopted the invention of gun powder by Chinese), tactics, and administration.
There were more great Islamic empires which rose together with Ottoman Empire, nevertheless, none of them could compare with the achievements of the Ottoman Empire. One of these Islamic civilizations was the Persian Safavid Empire, which emmerged in XIII century under Ghazan (1295- 1304), also known as Ilkhan, the descendent of Chinggis Khan. Ghazan declared Islam as the state religion, which united the country under his rule, increased literacy rate, and gave rise to on of the greatest cultures in the world. Hundreds of Chinese doctors, engineers, artists, and patternmakers came seeking opportunity in the Persian- Mongol- Turkish- capital Tabriz. The glory of Persian miniature painting, pottery, and carpets is remembered and valued till our days. Shah Abbas (1
1587- 1629), one of the greatest rulers of the Safavid Empire, built a national army composed of Armenian and Georgian recruits and enlarged the territory of the empire by capturing Baghdad, Mosul and Diabark in Mesopotamia during the XVI century and brought the empire to one of the greatest powers in the world with the great military power and advanced economic and culture. Another empire that emerged with the rise of the Islamic culture was Mughdal Empier. In 1504 Babur (1483- 1530) captured Kabul, established the kingdom of Afganistan, then defeated the sultan of Delhi at Panipat and invaded India, what laid the foundations of the Mughdal Empire. Even though the empire did not achieve the glory and power of the Ottoman Empire, by the end of the XVI century it was one of the great powers in the world with strong and leading capitalistic economy, huge land and population, tremendous wealth and supreme military power.
Even though Islamic culture spread though 3 Continents of the world and gave rise to three great Empires, which left a great remark in history of the world, the empires were not meant to continue for ever. The Empires fought against each other, were divided inside themselves and European countries an
nd Russia and brought the end to the glory of these empires. The Mughdal Empire was conquered by British in the eighteen century, because the empire could not solve domestic problems, such as the hostility between Hindus and Muslims; the Safavid Empire was concurred by Ottoman, Austrian-Hungary empires and Russia in 1547, and finally, the Ottoman Empire was forced to face the collapse after the WWI, because starting form the XVII century it gave up its economical power to European countries by letting them to lead in trade with the far East and by constant wars against its Islamic brothers form the Safavid Empire.
To conclude, the Ottoman, Mughal and Safavid Empires were ones of the greatest powers in the world form the XV century till modern times, which provided the world with great inventions, cultures, civilizations, leaders, however, domestic problems and external difficulties led to the destruction of the empires.

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