milk product

Milk and Dairy Products

Milk, yogurt and ice cream are excellent sources of calcium and protein. But remember to check the label to see how much fat each product contains. The amount of fat affects the number of calories in each product.
• Milk and milk products are a source of protein, calcium, zinc and magnesium, vitamin B12 and riboflavin.
• Vitamins A and D are found in whole milk and its products
• Milk and milk products are the major source of calcium in the UK, coontributing 43% of calcium intake in adults.
In the UK, cows’ milk is the type of milk most commonly consumed. Other types that are also used are ewes’ and goats’ milk. Most milk undergoes some form of heat processing such as pasteurisation, sterilisation or ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment. This is to ensure that any harmful micro-organisms are destroyed before the milk is consumed and to improve keeping qualities. The Food Standards Agency recommends that children, pregnant women, older people and those whho are unwell avoid unpasteurised milk and milk products. The Food Standards Agency also advises that pregnant women avoid soft mould ripened cheese, e.g. Brie, Camembert, and blue veined cheeses.
Milk has been derived from many types of mammals and pu

ut to different uses over the centuries. This has resulted in the development of a number of milk products. These include butter, cheese, cream, yogurt and similar to sour cream .

Types
Milk is an emulsion, i.e. a suspension of tiny fat droplets in water. The fat droplets are coated with a thin layer of protein which helps maintain the suspension. The water also contains protein, sugar (lactose), mineral salts and water-soluble vitamins. Skimmed milk has had all the fat removed; semi-skimmed milk retains less than half of the fat of whole milk (1.7% compared with 3.9%). Some 1% fat milks are also now available:
Express Pasteurised Semi-Skimmed Milk
This milk has a fat content of 1.7%. Whilst most of the fat has been removed it still contains alll of the minerals and virtually all of the vitamins of whole milk. Sales of semi-skimmed milk have increased greatly over recent years and it is now the preferred type of milk by consumers.
Express Pasteurised Whole Milk
The glass bottle has a silver foil top. This is the most traditional type of milk. The fat content is less than 4% and the milk has the `full taste` flavour.
Express Pasteurised Skimmed Milk
Nearly all the fat has been removed from skimmed milk. The process of

f skimming the fat does remove vitamins A and D but the milk still contains all the other nutrients which Express whole milk contains plus an increased level of calcium.
Express Homogenised, Pasteurised Whole Milk
In homogenised milk the fat globules are broken up into a uniform small size so they remain evenly distributed throughout the milk. This type of milk is popular for customers wishing to make cappuccino type coffee, as this milk will froth easily.
Fermented milk is produced from milk fermented in the presence of bacteria and sometimes yeast. Fermented milk in the UK is commonly consumed in the form of a probiotic milk drink.
Cream is made by separating the fat and solids from milk. It is a fat-in-water emulsion. When whipping or double cream is whipped it changes from a liquid to a foam. This is due to the partial denaturation of the proteins, which stabilise the mixture by trapping air. The composition of the different types of cream is controlled by law.
Cheese can be classified in a number of ways, for example by the place where it is produced or the method of production. Generally it is composed of milk solids, including some water and other ingredients. An
n enzyme called rennin is used to clot the milk and produce the milk solids (casein curd) and liquid (whey), which is drained off. The different kinds of cheese (e.g. hard cheese such as cheddar, mould-ripened cheeses such as Brie, fresh cheeses such as curd cheese) result from different methods of production and raw ingredients.
Yogurt is milk which has been coagulated and soured by lactic acid. The lactic acid is produced by the addition of harmless bacteria. Bio yogurts contain live bacteria (or cultures).
Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion made from cream. Its composition is controlled by law; butter must contain at least 80%, but no more than 90% milk fat, no more than 2% dry non-fat milk material and no more than 16% water.

CHARACTERISTICS
Milk: When milk is heated a skin may develop on its surface. This is due to the coagulation of proteins. To avoid this, the milk should be agitated (i.e. whisked).
Cheese: Cheese may become tough and rubbery due to over-cooking. The protein shrinks and squeezes out fat and water. This is known as syneresis. If cheese is added to sauces it must be grated or cut into small pieces and added at the end of the cooking process. This is so that it

t can melt quickly, without leaving lumps.
Butter: Butter can be used for a variety of functions, including:
NUTRITION
Milk and milk products (cheese and yogurt) are important sources of protein, B vitamins such as riboflavin and B12, and minerals such as calcium, zinc and magnesium. Vitamin A and small amounts of vitamin D are found in whole milk products.
Data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 19-64 years show that milk and milk products:
o Are the major source of calcium in the diet, providing 43% of calcium intake
o Are the major source of riboflavin in the diet, providing 33% of riboflavin intake
o Are the major source of iodine in the diet, providing 35% of iodine intake in men and 42% in women
o Provide 27% of vitamin A intake
o Provide 11% of magnesium intake
o Provide 13% of potassium intake.
Milk and milk products also contain fat. The NDNS also shows that milk and milk products contribute 19% of total fat intake and 24% of saturates intake in the UK. The amount of fat varies depending on the type of milk product.
Fat can be removed from milk to produce different types of milk. Milk is available as whole milk, semi-skimmed milk or skimmed milk. The fat content of these varies:
o Whole milk contains 3.9g fat per 100ml,
o Semi-skimmed milk provides 1.7g fat per 100ml
o Skimmed milk provides 0.2g fat per 100ml
o 1% milk, a blend of skimmed and semi-skimmed milk has recently become available and contains 1g fat/100ml or less.
Reduced fat cheeses and low fat yogurts are also widely available. Examples of lower fat cheeses include cottage cheese, Edam cheese and reduced fat hard cheeses. The Calorie and fat content per 100g of examples are shown below:
o Whole milk yogurt typically provides 79kcal and 3.0g of fat per 100g
o Low fat yogurt typically provides 56kcal and 1.0g of fat per 100g
o Greek yogurt typically provides 115kcal and 10.2g of fat per 100g

o Cheddar cheese typically provides 416kcal and 34.9g of fat per 100g
o Half fat Cheddar cheese typically provides 273kcal and 15.8g of fat per 100g
o Edam cheese typically provides 341kcal and 26.0g of fat per 100g
o Camembert cheese typically provides 290kcal and 22.7g of fat per 100g
o Cottage cheese typically provides 101kcal and 4.3g of fat per 100g

STORAGE
Most milk and milk products should be stored in a refrigerator to slow down the growth of micro-organisms, e.g. mould on cheese. Milk, cheese and yogurt should be stored and used by the date specified on the packaging. Once opened, the same also applies to UHT milks and ambient yogurts.

Vocabulary

Excellent  puikus, labai geras; aukštos kokybės
Riboflavin  n riboflavinas (vitaminas B2)
Adults suaugėlis, subrendėlis; pilnametis
commonly bendrai
droplents  lašelis
Pasteurised pasterizuoti
Homogenised homogenizuoti
Globules rutulėlis, rutuliukas; lašelis
Easily lengvai, nesunkiai
Whipping pliekimas, plakimas, pyla
Probiotic  dorumas, sąžiningumas
Denaturation denatūralizuoti, atimti pilietybę
Stabilize stabilizuoti
Rubbery  gumiškas, kaip guma; elastingas
Syneresis . sinerezė
Zinc cinkas
Typically tipiškai
Packaging pakavimas
Once (vieną) kartą, vienąkart
Ambient  supantis, aplinkos, esantis aplinkui

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