Is a comprehensive term embracing television, radio, motion pictures, and large-circulation newspapers and magazines. It refers to much more than the journalistic aspects of the instruments of popular communication. The mass media often function as the locus of social control and the source of popular culture. They help create historical events, teach values, and by virtue of the huge commercial enterprises they represent, affect the viability of free societies.
There are five major fields of journalism: newspapers, news services, peeriodicals, radio and television. Radio and television perform information only briefly, but quickly. Newspapers include full reports on different topics. News agencies provide them with the latest information.
News agencies are local, national, international, or technical organizations that gathers and distributes news, selling theyr services to newspapers, periodicals, and broadcasters; reports are also available as part of some on-line computer services. The major news organizations in the U.S. are: the Associated Press (AP), founded in 1892 as the Associated Press of Illlinois, which adopted its present name in 1900; the United Press Association, called the United Press (UP), founded in 1892, which became an affiliate of the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain; and the International News Service (INS), founded by W.R. Hearst in 1906; in 1958 INS wa
Newspaper is a publication issued periodically, usually daily or weekly, to present information about current events. The Roman Acta diurna (c.59 B.C.), posted daily in public places, was the first recorded newspaper . The invention and spread of printing in the 15th cent. was the major factor in the early deevelopment of the newspaper. The first daily paper in England was the Daily Courant (1702). English newspapers began to reach the masses in the 19th cent. Important English newspapers of today are The Times of London (founded in 1785) and the Manchester Guardian. One of the oldest continental newspapers, Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, appeared in Germany in 1609; the Nieuwe Tijdingen was published in Antwerp in 1616; and the first French newspaper, the Gazette, was founded in 1631. Important newspapers of the world today include Fr
Newspapers cover more stories than any ather news media does. They also cover stories in great detail. However, the newspapers present information later then radio or TV. The great advantage of newspapers over radio and TV is that they can report stories in depth. Readers can skip items that doesn’t interest them. Newspapers also can print certain material that appeals to only a small percentage of readers.
Periodicals are publications issued regularly, distinguished from the newspaper in format, in that its pages are smaller and usually bound, and in that it is published weekly, monthly, or quarterly, rather than daily. Periodicals range from technical and scholarly journals to illustrated magazines for mass circulation. The French Journal des scavans (1665-1791) is considered the first periodical, whereas the English monthly Gentleman’s Magazine (1731-1868) was the first to use the word magazine in the sense of a periodical for entertainment. Famous American periodicals include Godey’s La
The first regularly scheduled radio broadcasts in the U.S. began in 1920. The sale of advertising began in 1922, establishing commercial broadcasting as an industry. A coast-to-coast hookup began early in 1924, and expansion of both audience and transmission facilities continued rapidly. Radio is generally the first of news media to report a local story or a news service bulletin. A radio announcer can interrupt a programme with a news flash as soon as the report comes in. Most stations present regular news bulletins every half-hour or hour.The national radio broadcast major news events. However, most radio news bulletins do not report the news in detail. In a five minute broadcast the stories average less then 30 seconds each. Radio also provide weather forecasts and traffic information.
Experiments in broadcasting television began in the 1920s but were interrupted by World War II. By 1992 the U.S. had 1,505 television stations, and cable television systems in the U.S. served over 56 million households. Television signals are also now transmitted from satellites direct to household satellite dishes.
Television is the main source of news for many households around the world. TV does what none of the other media can: it brings the sight and sounds of some important news events by means of filmed, taped or live reports. Like regular radio news bulletins, daily TV news programmes provide only brief accounts of relatively new stories. But the visual aspect of TV news story can often help viewers understand the story. In addition to daily news reports, television covers special news events. Coverage of such an event may replace many hours of regular TV shows. Television also broadcasts in-depth programmes that help explain a story or subject. Such programmes, which run from half an hour to three hours, include docummentaries and interview programmes. Most docummentaries are filmed or taped. They may perform such subjects as crime, foreign policy, or race relations. Interview programmes, which are usually broadcast live, may consist of a panel of journalists who ask questions of a major figure in the news.
The importance of mass media and journalism has greatly increased in recent years. In democratic countries, people depend on the news media for the fair and truthful reporting of current events. Freedom of the press encourages the exchange of ideas among citizens. In governmet-controlled countries, however, the news media serve as an instrument of the state. The struggle against censorship began in England in the 16th-17th cent. In the American colonies it began in 1734. Only 20% of the world’s people live in countries that have a free press. But in government-controlled countries journalists can still broadcast or write only what national leaders allow. Media forms public opinion now. A lot of politicians strive to possess mass media. Media carries great possibilities for society, but they are not only good ones. Nobody should forget, that media- is the fourth power.