Eucation system

Education in Lithuania

All children in Lithuania must between ages of 5 – 18 attend school. 10-year education is compulsory. The school year begins in 1st September and ends in the middle of June or 1st July. The school year is divided into 3 term or into 2 semestres. School usually begins at 8am and ends at 2.15pm. In Lithuania children go to school five days a week. There is no schools on Saturdays and Sundays.

At first the most of children go to nursey-school. At five alll children go to primary schooll. About 11 years old they go to elementry school. In the end, that is in the tenth form they must take 2 exams (lithuania and math). After that they can go to vocational schools or stay at secondary/gymnasium school. In both case after two years they must take 2 course credit tests in foreign and native language and at least 4 examinations for the school-leaving certificate. The only diference is that in vocational school you also get and seecondary education and the qualification. When you have school-leaving sertificate, you may try to enter to universcity or college. In the universcities are 3 level education: after 4-5 yaers bachelor’s degree, later master’s degree and last is doctorate.

Education in the USA

In the Un

nited States school is compulsory from the age of six to the age of sixteen, but education is free until the age of eighteen. Each state administers its education and there is no national curriculum. This means that the schools in richer states are better than those of poorer areas. No religious education is taught in schools as, traditionally, church and state are separate entities. The majority (about 90%) of all American children attend public (state) schools.

Some children go to Nursey School from the age of three and to Kindergarten from five to six years of age.

Education in the USA comprises three levels: elementary, secondary and higher education. Parents may to choose whether to seng their chilcren to their local public sccool, or to a private school where fees are charged. The shool year is usually nine months, from early September to mid-June.

The main purpose of the elementary school is the general intellectual and social development of the child from 6 to 12 years of age.

At the secondary school all pupils are required to take basic subjects which include English, social studies, and physical education. During the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades te pupils begin to plan their careers and need to se
elect other subjects that will be useful in their chosen work. At this period guidance is very important. It continues thoughout the senior high school years and into college, particularly in the junior college or first two years of the four- year college.

In addition to the basic subjects, high schools usually offer three programs – academic,vocational and general – which the pupils choose according to their abilities and their future career.

The academic program is designed to prepare students for college. It includes such subjects as mathematics, sience and foreign languages.

The vocational program may give training in four fields: agricultural education, distributive education, home economic education and trade and industrial education. Such training prepares students either for employment or for further training in the various fields.

The fird program, a general program, combines features of the academic and vocational types. Its introductory courses give a general understanding of the various trades and industrial arts but do not train students for immediate employment or for furthe vocational education. Those who do not plan to go to college or to enter a trade immediately, but who just want a high school diploma, often take the general program. An American univercity is usually composed of two parts –
an undergraduate or profesional schools.

The undergraduate college is a four-year institution of higher education which admits students from secondary scools and leads to a bachelor’s degree. Thus young men and women, generally 18 to 22 years ald attend classes at undergraduate college for four years. The four-year college is called an undergraduate college because its students, who are also referred to as udergraduates, have not taken their first degree yet. In four years, if the students successfully complete the requirements, they receive a bachelor’s degree in arts or sciences. Then they may leave the university, or go to the advaced professional schools such as the school of medicine, law, business, engineering, etc. and now they are referred to as graduate students. Professional schools lead to a master’s degree. Usually in two or three years, and then, to a doctor’s degree.

Admission to a university is based mainly on academic achievement in the high school graduation class. But the entrance requirements depend on the prestige of the university, the quality of education and research and the qauality of the teachers and researchers. The variation among American college is even greater than among high schools. Those who want to enter the first-class state universities like th
he University of California and the University of Wisconsin are faced with a hard competition.

Higher education in the United States has also evoled a unique institution, the two- year junior college. Junior colleges are locally controlled and do not belong to a university. They have a dual role. They offer studies leading to technical and semi-profesional occupations, or they offer studies which will prepare students to enter a four-year college at a university where the entransce requirements are rather high.

Education in Great Britain

All children in Britain must between the ages of 5 and 16 attend school. So they have a minimum of compusory education. Some 9 milion children attend Britain’s state and private schools. About 93 per cents of pupils receive free educaton financed from public funds, while the others attend independent schools financed from fees paid by parents.

At five all children go to infant school and stay there till they are eleven. Then they go to junior school. Sometimes these two schools are in the same building. Here pupils learn reading, writing and arithmetic. They also sing, draw and do physical exercises. Boys and girls are taught together in most primary schools.

The usually age for transfer from primary to secondary schools is 11. About nine tenths of the state secondary school population atend comprehensive schools. These schools take children of all abilities or most of the children in a district. Most other children attend grammar or secondary modern schools to which they are selected after an examination at the age of 11.

Any pupil may leave school at sixteen without any examination, but an increasing number of boys and girls are taking the Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) examinations or the General Certificate of Education (GCE). CSE examinations are usually taken after five years of secondary education. The CSE is intended for those pupils who are less academically able. A pupil may take GCE in some subjects and CSE in others.

The GCE Advanced (A) Level is normally taken after two more years of study in the sixh form. For those who want to go on into higher education the A Level GCE examination is very important, for it is on the results of this examination that the universities and polytechnics choose their students.

In Britain the school year is divided into three terms (thirteen weeks each). It begins in September and ends in July. Each term has a short holiday (oneweek) in the middle. The timetable goes from 9 am to 4 pm with a lunch break of about 1 ½ hours. Many pupils have lunch at school.

Word Transciption Meaning

Nurserey-school
Vocational
College
Compulsory
Primary
Bachelor’s
Master’s
Administer
Curricula
Taught-teach
Entity
Kindergarten
Comprise
Purpose
Intelectual
Require
Guidance
Thoughtout
Particulary
Academic
Combine
Introductory
Trades
Undergraduate
Lead
Requirements
Admission
Are faced
Evole
Dual
Senior
Junior
Sophomore
Freshman
Grade
Per cents
Transfer
Comprehensive school
General Sertificate of Education
Advance
Timetable

Vaikų darželis
Profesinis
Kolegija
Privalomas
Pradinis
Bakalauro
Magistro
Valdyti
Mokymo planas
Mokyti
Esmė, būtis
Vaikų darželis
Talpinti
Tikslas
Protinis
Įsakyti, reikalauti
Vadovavimas
Tačiau
Ypač
Universitetinis
Derinti, kombinuoti
Įžanginis
Amatas
Paskutinio kurso studentas
Skatinti
Reikalavimas, poreikis
Stojimo mokestis
Susiduria
Išskleisti
Dvejopas
Ketvirtakursis
Trečiakursis
Antrakursis
Pirmakusis
Klasė
Procentai
Perkelti
Vidurinė mokykla
Atestatas
Paaukštintas
Pamokų tvarkaraštis

Questions :

1) What is compulsory education in theUnited States?
2) Which subjects are basic at the secondary school?
3) American students can recive a bachelor’s degree after.
4) What are the programs that high Britain schoos ofer in addition to the basic subjets?
5) When Lithuanian pupis start going to school?

Exercise :

Complite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

1. Many young people do not want to study beyond the age of 16. Interested
Many young people are not interested in studying beyond the age of 16.

2. It wasn’t my intention to worry you. Mean
I ............you.

3. Their parents wouldn’t allow them to go to the party. Let
Their parents .......... to the party.
4. I don’t object to studying during the holidays. Mind
I ...........during the holidays.

5. It took us ages to get to the airport. Spent
We ........the airport.

6. I would prefer not to go to the concert. Rather
I ...........to the concert.

7. I don’t think you should go out tonight. Go
You’d better.........tonight/

8. Getting the right grades to go to university was not easy for him. Hard
It was............the right grades to go to university/

9. Please don’t let me forget to post this letter. Remind
Please ............this letter.

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