ES privalumai ir trūkumai

1. The short history of European union 2
2. EU – Lithuania relationship 3
3. The advantages of EU 4
4. The disadvantages of EU 5
5. Literature 7
6. Vocabulary 8
European integration has delivered half a century of stability,
peace and economic prosperity. It has helped to raise standards of living,
built and internal market, launched the euro and strengthened the Union’s
voice in the world.
The European Union (EU) was set up after the 2nd World War. The
process of European integration was launched on 9 May 1950 when France
officially proposed to create “the first concrete foundation of a European
federation “. Six countries (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxemburg and
Netherlands) joined from the very beginning. T
Today, after four waves of accessions (1973: Denmark, Ireland and the
United Kingdom; 1981: Greece; 1986:Spain and Portugal; 1995: Austria,
Finland and Sweden) the EU has 15 Member States and is preparing for the
accession of 13 eastern and southern European countries. In the nearest
future we hope Lithuania will join this union, too.
The EU is based on the rule of law and democracy. It is neither a
new State replacing existing ones nor it is comparable to other
international organizations. Its Member States delegate sovereignty to
common institutions representing the interests of the Union as a whole on
questions of joint interest. All decisions and procedures are derived from
the basic treaties ratified by the Member States.
Principle objectives of the Union are:
• Establish European citizenship (Fundamental rights; Freedom of
movement; Civil and political rights);
• Ensure freedom, security and justice (Cooperation in the field
of Justice and Home Affairs);
• Promote economic and social progress (Single market; Euro, the
common currency; Job creation; Regional development;
Environmental protection);
• Assert Europe’s role in the world (Common foreign and security;
The EU in the world).
The EU is run by five institutions, each playing a specific role:
• European Parliament (elected by the peoples of the Member
• Council of the Union (composed of the governments of the Member
• European Commission (driving force and executive body)
• Court of Justice (compliance with the law);
• Court of Auditors (sound and lawful management of EU budget).
Official relationship and cooperation between Lithuania and European
Community started on 27 August 1991 when the European Community decided to
recognize the independence of Lithuania.
On 11 May 1992, Lithuania and the European Community signed the
Agreement on Trade and Commercial and Economic Cooperation, which came into
force on 1 February 1993, and adopted the Declaration on a Political
Dialogue between EC and the Republic of Lithuania.
On 21 – 22 June 1993, the European Summit Meeting was held in
Copenhagen where the EC for the first time clearly formulated its position
on the membership of the Central and East European countries in the EU.
However, this term was applied to the countries, which had signed Europe
Agreements. The Baltic States were mentioned in a separate paragraph. There
the European Commission was obligated to present proposals on the
development of trade agreements with the Baltic States that were in effect
at that time into Free Trade Agreements.
On 18 July 1994, a Free Trade Agreement between the EU and Lithuania
was signed. At the end of the same year, i.e. on 16 December 1994,
negotiations on the Europe Agreement started. The said negotiations came to
an end in April. The Europe Agreement was signed on 12 June 1995.
On 8 December 1995, the Government of the Republic of Lithuania
submitted an official membership application. In the Opinion of the
Commission announced in July 1995 a conclusion was drawn that the current
level of readiness for the EU membership allowed to maintain that in five
years only the following five associate Central and East European countries
would be ready for the EU membership: the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,
Poland and Slovenia.
Lithuania was invited to start negotiations in 1999 together with
other countries belonging to the so–called Group Two of the Candidate
Countries. Such a decision was recommended by the European Commission in
its 1999 Regular Report on the progress made by the Candidate Countries. In
December 1999, the European Council approved of this recommendation and
decided about the start of the negotiations. On 15 February 2000, Lithuania
started negotiations for the EU membership.
What are the negotiations about?
The negotiations determine the conditions under which Lithuania will
join the EU. On joining the Union, Lithuania is expected to accept the
“acquis” , i.e. the detailed laws and rules adopted on the basis of the EU
founding treaties, mainly the treaties of Rome, Mastricht and Amsterdam.

Politically EU membership will mean the increase of stability of
Lithuania and it beyond a doubt will be felt in economy. Besides trade can
successfully develop only in that case if there is clear and varying steady
law basis. The foreign investments will always bypass that state which
can’t stand the political and economical pressure of internal and external
powers. That is why the integration to EU and EU membership is the most
real opportunity for state to successfully develop and streamline its
EU membership will give the real leverages which allow Lithuania to
run foreign policy and not stay in the backwoods of the world. After
Lithuania join in EU she will become a state which participates in
establishment of prospective Europe. Lithuanian’s participating in European
Commission, Council of the Union, European Parliament and other
institutions will vouchsafe such our “being” in Europe that Lithuania
hadn’t since the late Middle Ages.
EU membership will strengthen Lithuanian’s cultural dependence on
Europe. This cultural dependence signifies a trust among citizens, national
economy and other countries and accordingly is essential condition of
security and even the health of the economy.
The takeover of EU privilege and EU membership consolidates modern
and effective regulatory structure of economy and other branches of policy,
besides it will improve on Lithuanian’s law system very much.
EU membership is related with enlarged opportunities. First of all
that enlarged opportunities are for active and mobile set of society. The
student body will be able to study in the foreign universities and the
magistral staff and professoriate will be able to lecture there. For the
art and culture people the integration will mean enlarged opportunities in
the programmes which are designed for EU culture.
Businessmen will be able to sell their production or purvey
facilities not only for three million their countrymen, but also for
several hundred million European habitants. Besides there will be less
snags for trade in the EU market.
EU membership will benefit farmers who purpot to EU support. This
means the further investments in economy, creation of new workplaces,
opportunity to start a new activity and sell one’s production to several
hundred million European consumers.
For village’s and little town’s habitants the EU membership means
the creation of new workplaces, the vouchsafe of better life conditions,
the decrease of unemployment, opportunity to develop one’s trade. This way
economical and social development differences between Lithuanian regions
will decrease. According to expert calculation Lithuania joined the EU
would annually get the support (400-600 million Lt.) from EU structural
funds to solve economical and social problems.
In the matter of allocation (which Lithuania will get from EU
budget), the first year Lithuania should get about 1.7 billion Lt. and the
subscriptions to EU budget would amount about 640 million Lt., i.e. almost
three times off. Considering that all Lithuanian budget of 2001 is about
7.4 billion Lt., this support would be really touchable. 4-5 years after
Lithuanian entry to EU the investments from the EU budget will reach about
3.3-3.7 billion Lt., i.e. 2.8-3.3 billion Lt. clear investments. Sure the
essential condition to get that allocation is financial interest of
Lithuania. To put it simply the EU will finance about two thirds of new
road or bridge and Lithuania will finance the last one.
The improvement of life quality is conditioned by strict anti-
pollution standards, the requirements of goods and facilities quality and
attention attracted to consumer’s protection. We can hardily state that
only because integration to EU Lithuanian’s habitants will be able to drink
clearer water and breathe clearer air in the instant, not after five years.
In summary we can state that the prime advantage of EU membership is
the new opportunities. And will we use them or not depend only on us.

To unambiguously name the subsequences of EU membership just like
positive or negative is impossible. They are closely interdependent and for
example the transference of EU law deed has both advantages and
disadvantages (it depends on what interest groups or state institutions it
will touch, when will it happen, etc.).
But still we can state that expenditures of integration is
manifesting or will show up in the short run. These expenditures will fall
on special business and social groups. Though we must not directly refer
them as disadvantages (this probably is investments into future or
endeavour to use the benefit of integration as soon as possible), but
several danger signals we can note.
I have mentioned before that integration is also the improvement of
life quality: clearer water, fresher air, better quality goods, safer and
better workplaces. Everything, however, costs and eventually all
expenditures are transferenced to the ultimate consumer of goods and
facilities, i.e. to us. Consequently, integration and EU membership is
related with movement and, in other words, upward movement. Usually such
upward movement is compensated by the rise of wages, but society,
undoubtedly, follows that movement more strictly than rise of salaries.
The negative effect of integration should be felt in companies of
alimentary recast, butcheries (because of higher veterinary and
phytosanitation standards), industrial and service companies (because of
requirement to invest in the new technologies, necessity to afford more
information to state institutions), state institutions (because of
requirement to change the procedure, to retrain as concerns increase of
workload and, in a number of cases, a decimation of their functions).
Integration and preparation to EU membership can be more painful for
small business and small farmers (because of increased competition, higher
quality standards, increase of expenditures and opportunities of their
General import duty standard will lightly increase – increase 90.2
million Lt., decrease 10.8 million Lt. Therefore consumers and importers
will feel a negative effect. On the other hand, the protection of some
local producers will enlarge. Trading with Russia the duties of elements of
nuclear fuel, natural gas, several chemical goods, manure, cars will
increase or spring up, but duty of petrol will decrease.
Looking into possible direct effect of EU is set that the consumers
who prefer cheap and mean quality goods and Lithuanian companies which
can’t finance products and technological modernization will suffer the
most. If products don’t suit the EU standards, they will be forbidden to
Integration is closely related with shake–up and modernization of
Lithuanian’s economy. That’s why results of shake-up – retrainity,
necessity to change a workplace – can awhile strengthen and enlarge.
On the other hand we can’t these temporal negative effects impute to
EU integration. Anyhow Lithuania must reform its economy and this process
could be much more painful and last longer without support of EU.



1. Deliver [δ??λ?ϖ?] įteikti, pateikti
2. Prosperity [πρ??σπερ?τ?] (su)klestėjimas
3. Raise [ρε?ζ] (pa)kelti; iškelti
4. Market [?μα:κ?τ] rinka
5. Launch [λ?:ντ?] išleisti
6. Propose [πρ??π?υζ] (pa)siūlyti; pateikti
7. Foundation [φαυν?δε??ν] pamatas, pagrindas
8. Accession [?κ?σε?ν] prieaugis, padidėjimas
9. Base [βε?σ] pagrindas, pamatas
10. Comparable [?κ?μπ?ρ?βλ] panašus
11. Common [?κ?μ?ν] bendras
12. Represent [?ρεπρ??ζεντ] atstovauti
13. Derive [δ??ρα?ϖ] gauti; įgyti
14. Treaty [?τρι:τ?] sutartis; susitarimas
15. Objective [?β?δ?εκτ?ϖ] tikslas; siekis
16. Establish [??στ?βλ??] (į)steigti, (į)kurti
17. Citizenship [?σ?τ?ζν??π] pilietybė
18. Ensure [?ν??υ?] laiduoti, garantuoti
19. Promote [πρ??μ?υτ] skatinti
20. Single market [?σ??γλ] [?μα:κ?τ] bendra rinka
21. Assert [??σ?:τ] tvirtinti, pareikšti
22. Council [?καυνσλ] taryba
23. Force [φ?:σ] galia, jėga
24. Management [?μ?ν?δ?μ?ντ] vadovavimas, valdymas
25. Adopt [??δ?πτ priimti
26. Negotiation [ν??γ?υ???ε??ν] derybos
27. Government [?γ?ϖνμ?ντ] vyriausybė; valdžia
28. Submit [σ?β?μ?τ] pateikti, atiduoti
29. Application [??πλ??κε??ν] prašymas
30. Current [?κ?ρ?ντ] dabartinis
31. Maintain [με?ν?τε?ν] išlaikyti
32. Approve [??πρυ:ϖ] pritarti
33. Trade [τρε?δ] verslas
34. Varying [?ϖ??ρ??] daugiau ar mažiau
35. Streamline [?στρι:μλα?ν] modernizuoti, racionalizuoti
36. Leverage [?λι:ϖ?ρ?δ?] svertas
37. Participate [πα:?τ?σ?πε?τ] dalyvauti
38. Prospective [πρ??σπεκτ?ϖ] ateities
39. Vouchsafe [ϖαυτ??σε?φ] užtikrinti, garantuoti
40. Strengthen [?στρε??ν] (su)stiprinti
41. Signify [?σ?γν?φα?] turėti reikšmę
42. Accordingly [??κ?:δ??λ?] atitinkamai
43. Privilege [?πρ?ϖ?λ?δ?] teisė
44. Takeover [?τε?κ??υϖ?] perėmimas
45. Consolidate [κ?ν?σ?λ?δε?τ] (su)tvirtinti
46. Branch [βρα:ντ?] sritis, šaka
47. Regulatory [?ρεγϕυλε?τρ?] reguliavimo
48. Improve [?μ?πρυ:ϖ] (pa)gerinti, (pa)tobulinti
49. Set [σετ] sluoksnis
50. The magistral staff [μ??δ??στρ?λ] dėstytojai
51. Professoriate [?πρ?φ??σ?:ρ??τ] profesūra
52. Lecture [?λεκτ??] dėstyti
53. Designed [δ??ζαινδ] skirtas
54. Purvey [π??ϖε?] tiekti
55. Facility [φ??σ?λ?τ?] paslaugos
56. Countryman [?κ?ντρ?μ?ν] tautietis
57. Habitant [?η?β?τ?ντ] gyventojas
58. Snag [σν?γ] kliūtis
59. Purport [?π?:π?τ] pretenduoti
60. Support [σ??π?:τ] parama
61. Further [?φ?:??] papildomas
62. Eventually [??ϖεντ?υ?λ?] galiausiai
63. Ultimate [??λτ?μ?τ] galutinis
64. Consequently [?κ?νσ?κω?ντλ?] vadinasi
65. Wage [ωε?δ?] darbo užmokestis
66. Recast [?ρι:?κα:στ] perdirbimas
67. Requirement [ρ??κωα??μ?ντ] poreikis, reikalavimas
68. Procedure [πρ??σι:δ??] darbo tvarka
69. Retrain [?ρι:?τρε?ν] per(si)kvalifikuoti
70. Afford [??φ?:δ] teikti
71. Workload [?ω?:κλ?υδ] darbo krūvis
72. Decimation [?δεσ??με??ν] (su)mažinimas
73. Competition [?κ?μπ??τ??ν] konkurencija
74. Lightly [?λα?τλ?] truputį
75. Import duty [??μπ?:τ] importo muitas
76. Manure [μ??νϕυ?] trąšos
77. Spring [σπρ??] atsirasti
78. Look [λυκ] τιρτι
79. Suit [συ:τ] atitikti
80. Forbidden [φ??β?δν] draudžiamas
81. Fund [φ?νδ] fondas
82. Allocation [??λ??κε??ν] lėšos
83. Subscription [σ?β?σκρ?π?ν] įmoka
84. Considering [κ?ν?σ?δ?ρ??] turint omenyje
85. Entry [?εντρ?] įstojimas
86. Interest [??ντρ?στ] dalyvavimas
87. Amount [??μαυντ] sudaryti
88. Improvement [?μ?πρυ:ϖμ?ντ] pagerėjimas
89. Hardily [?ηα:δ?λ?] drąsiai
90. In the instant [??νστ?ντ] tuoj
91. Prime [πρα?μ] pagrindinis
92. Subsequence [?σ?βσ?κω?νσ] pasekmė
93. Unambiguous [??ν?μ?β?γϕυ?σ] vienareikšmis
94. Interdependent [??ντ?δ??πενδ?ντ] tarpusavyje susiję
95. Transference [?τρ?νσφ?ρ?νσ] perkėlimas
96. Deed [δι:δ] aktas
97. Expenditure [?κ?σπενδ?τ??] išlaidos
98. Manifest [?μ?ν?φεστ] pasireikšti
99. Refer [ρ??φ?:] vadinti
100. Endeavour [?ν?δεϖ?] siekimas
101. Shake-up [??ε?κ?π] restruktūrizacija
102. Awhile [??ωα?λ] kurį laiką
103. Temporal [?τεμπ?ρ?λ] laikinas
104. Impute [?μ?πϕυ:τ] priskirti