child protection

Name: Renata Singh

Course title: Early Childhood Care and Education

(Level 6)

Module title: Childhood Social, Legal and Health Studies

(Level 6/6N1945)

Tutor: Maura Shine

Brief Number: 1

Assignment: Child Protection

PPS: 2737301Q


Table of Contents

Introduction 3

Outline two pieces of legislation/policy aimed at safeguarding children 5

Case Study 7

Identify Luke’s Needs in terms of linking it to P.I.L.E.S 8

Evaluate the case study, making reference to any concerns you may have that relate to child protection 11

Describe ways of empowering Luke..............................13

Detail the appropriate action plan required on foot of any concerns reegarding child protection issues with in the case study..............................14

Describe thoroughly the actions required for Luke in a a) Short Term, b) Medium Term and c) Long Term..............................16

Conclusion and recommendations..............................17



I am Renata Singh. I am studying in Moate Business College. I am doing Childhood Social, Legal and Health studies module. I will do Comparative Research on issued situation. In my work I am going to include Children First and Our Duty to Care. I will outline two pieces of legislation/policy aimed too safeguarding children. I will try to identify Luke’s Needs in terms of linking it to PILES. Also I will describe ways of empowering Luke. Will describe thoroughly the actions required for Luke in a Short term, Medium Term and Lo

ong Term. At the end of my assignment I will complete a sample report form on Child Protection.

Our Duty to Care is guidance to good practice for voluntary and community sector, organisations that provide services for children. It offers guidance of child welfare. It also gives information on how to recognise signs of child abuse and the correct steps to take within organisations if it is suspected, witnessed or disclosed. The process of reporting suspected or actual child abuse to the health board is described step by step, and guidance is given on how to handle sensitive areas. Participation in voluntary and community organisations offers children the opportunity to benefit, socially, educationally and recreationally. In some instances, it can compensate for deeprivation, loss or stress being experienced by them and enhance the quality of their lives. People who work in these settings are particularly well placed to support children who are going through bad times, or identifying children who have been or are at risk of being harmed. Our Duty to Care is designed to enable organisations to provide children care and protect them, from all forms of harm.

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Children First: National Guidance for the Protection and Welfare of Children [2011] provides th

he national guidance for the protection and welfare of children in Ireland. The guidance is directed to parents, professionals, organisations and the general public to identify and report child abuse and welfare concerns. It states what organisations and public need to do to keep children safe, and what different bodies need to do is they are concerned about children abuse. Everybody has to care about children and everyone should be alert to the possibility that children with whom they are in contact may be being abused or be at risk of abuse. It is intended to help people to recognize and report child abuse. This National guidance entails liability to HSE Children and Family services and An Garda Siochana when they are alerted about child abuse.

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Outline two pieces of legislation/policy aimed at safeguarding children

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international agreement (contract), establishing a civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. This International legislation consolidates the fundamental rights of the child.

• Survival right. Every child has right for life, for food, shelter, medical care;

• Development right. Right for education, leisure, play, cultural activities, access to information;

• Protection right. It means that every child has right to

o be protected from all forms off abuse, neglect and exploitation;

• Participation right. Children have right to have and to express their opinion.

A child means a person who is under 18 years. It is the only international human rights treaty in the world covering civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. It lays out in detail what is required for each child that childhood is safe and happy.

This is the most comprehensive document on children’s rights. And it is mainly the world ratified human rights agreement in history. This document establishes the specific rights of the child in international law, defining the universal principles and standards on the status and treatment of children around the world.

All UN member states (except the US and Somalia) officially approved the Convention on the Rights of the Child.


Child Care Act, 1991 The purpose of this Act is to up-date the law in relation to the care of children who have been assaulted, ill-treated, neglected or sexually abused or who are at risk. The main provision of act is

to place of statutory duty on health board to promote the welfare of children who are not receiving adequate care and protection ;

to strengthen the power of health board to pr

rovide child care and family support;

to introduce the arrangement of the supervision and inspection of preschool service.

(Children First, National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children, September 1999, Stationary Office, Dublin)

Case Study

Brief 1: Child Protection

Case Study: “Luke’

Melissa lived in a part of Dublin that was notorious for its high crime rates and massive drug

abuse. At a very young age she fell subject to these crimes and started to abuse drugs. She

began fighting constantly with her mother and stopped attending school. By the age of 15 she

was highly addicted to heroin and was sexually active with her drug abuser peers.

At 16 Melissa became pregnant. She decided to stop using drugs and received help from her

local Methadone clinic. Her relationship with her mother began to improve and Melissa

began planning a new future. She gave birth to a baby boy (Luke). As a result of her

addiction Luke was born premature and underweight. Melissa’s mother took care of Luke

from the moment he arrived home. However, soon after the birth of Luke Melissa began

using drugs again. This time she moved away from home leaving Luke with her mother.

-Melissa returned home quite often but only to steal from her mother and her visits always

ended in a fight. Luke became fearful of Melissa and hid every time she visited. When Luke

was 7 years old his grandmother became i1l. Melissa seized the opportunity to move back

home. She encouraged Luke to steal from neighbours, verbally and physically abusing him.

Luke’s teacher noticed a change in Luke’s behaviour. He had become quiet and began to

isolate himself from his school friends. Melissa convinced his teachers that his behaviour was

due to his grandmother becoming ill and so there was no further investigation.

Luke’s grandmother died later that year and Melissa became his sole guardian. Her boyfriend

and friends moved in and they also began shouting and hitting Luke. There were late nights

parties and drugs and alcohol were to be found everywhere in the flat. Luke still attended

school; however signs of neglect became more noticeable. Luke had lost weight and his

hygiene was non-existent. He became violent towards his peers and teachers. Once a studious

andjnthusiastic boy, Luke had become a totally different child.

Identify Luke’s Needs in terms of linking it to P.I.L.E.S

There are five areas of development that children undergo as they grow to be young adult. These steps appear in a rather predictable sequence, one after other. These areas of child development are:






Physical development is the process which starts from child’s birth and continues through all life, concentrating on gross and fine motor skills and as well as sexual maturity. Physical development includes developing control over the body, particularly muscles and physical coordination.


In given Luke’s study case, he was born premature, low birth weight. He suffered from poor diet, poor hygiene. The physical abuse where not absent too. His mother and her friends were hitting Luke.

Actions to help Luke: He needs to join breakfast club at school. Luke needs to go to doctor for medical check-up. Any concerns have to be reported to designated person.

Intellectual development is how individuals learn to thing and reason of themselves in a relation with world around them. Intellectual development begins shortly after birth when babies begin to use their brain to play, respond to caregivers, and familiarize themselves with objects and other people in the attempt to learn about the world around them. Intellectual development continuous through all children’s life, as he goes to school form intellectual relationship with others and learn new skills.


It is known that Luke was studious and enthusiastic boy while he lived with grandmother. But after her death he became a totally different child. He didn’t have any educational toys, equipment, nobody read books for him. Mother wasn’t interesting in her child, he was left on his own with homework, there was late nigh parties in their house, child didn’t have proper night sleep that affected his concentration skills a lot.

Actions to help Luke: Boy has to join homework club, get books from teacher, needs stimulation, needs good sleep, and if possible would be beneficial to get some extra classes from his teachers.

Linguistic development is a process by which children learn to express themselves in words and to understand other people’s verbal, nonverbal language.


Luke was exposed to bad language. He became quite, didn’t have language to express himself, he was exposed to violent outburst. Nobody read books for him. He didn’t have anybody at home to talk to or to listen to him.

Actions to help Luke: Luke needs speech/language therapy. Need to join library, to read more books, to join group activities, play therapy and anger management.

Emotional development is the emergence of child’s experience, expression, understanding, and regulation of emotions from child’s birth till late adulthood. It also comprises how growth and changes in these processes concerning occurs.


Bowlby attachment theory

J.Bowlby explains as follows: Humans baby is the most helpless of all brood, so he has congenital mechanism that helps to bond to the mother in order to survive. Sight fixation, crying, motion tracking, social smile is instinctive attachment factors that help to keep in touch with mother.

Attachment is important factor for child’s survival and development. High sensitivity to child’s needs and ability to meet his needs is very important to form sense of attachment.

Lack of trust in other people, rebellion against adult’s control, predisposition to aggression can occur if attachment process is destroyed. Possible sadness and feeling of inadequacy, feeling of confusion. These attachment problems and emotional sequences later become social problems. Child can have social adaptation problems.


Granny’s death on its own was very stressful.

After that Luke was exposed to negative attitude, fighting, neglect, violence. He was feeling sad, fair, anger. He didn’t feel love from his mother.

Actions to help Luke: He needs counselling, psychologist help. Need somebody to be

” Big brother”, somebody to show him good example

Social development includes learning the values, knowledges and skills that enable children to relate to others effectively and to contribute in positive ways to family, school and community. This kind of learning is passed on to children directly by those who care for and teach them, as well as indirectly through social relationship within the family or with friends, and through children’s participation in culture around them.


Child was afraid of his own mother. Grandmother was the only person Luke had attachment with, but after her death he felt very lonely, insecure. Boy became violent towards his friends and teachers. Teacher noticed that boy had become quiet and began to isolate himself from his school friends. It was nobody to show good example for Luke. His mother encouraged Luke to steal from neighbour, showing him bad example .Mother didn’t have any values, so boy couldn’t learn anything good from her.

Actions to help Luke: Luke needs foster care, needs order, counselling, play therapy, anger management

Evaluate the case study, making reference to any concerns you may have that relate to child protection

Luke didn’t have the best start of his live, due to his mother addiction to drugs he was born premature, low birth weight. After his birth mother left him with grandmother. At age of 7 grandmother became ill and Luke’s mother came back home. But child was exposed to neglect and abuse.

There are 4 types of child abuse: physical, emotional, sexual abuse and neglect.

Physical abuse is any form of non-accidental injury or injury which results from wilful or neglectful failure to protect child.

(Children First, National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children, September 1999, Stationary Office, Dublin)

In given Luke study case it is said that boy was exposed to physical abuse as his mother and her friends were used to hit Luke.

Emotional abuse is normally to be found in the relationship between a care giver and a child rather than in a specific event or pattern of events. It occurs when child’s need for affection, approval, consistency and security is not met.

(Children First, National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children, September 1999, Stationary Office, Dublin)

Luke was emotionally abused as his mother and her friends were shouting at him. Fights and bad language was very common in their house.

Sexual abuse occurs when child is used by another person for his gratification or sexual purpose.

(Children First, National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children, September 1999, Stationary Office, Dublin)

Sexual abuse is not mentioned in the given Luke’s case, but it could be big risk for it, because the doors of their house was widely open for disreputable people, and children as Luke are more vulnerable.

Neglect can be defined in terms of an omission, where the child suffers significant harm or impairment of development by being deprived of food, cloths, warmth, hygiene, intellectual stimulation, supervision and safety, attachment to and affection from adults, medical care.

(Children First, National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children, September 1999, Stationary Office, Dublin)

Luke was also exposed to neglect. As he suffered from bad diet, poor hygiene.

Describe ways of empowering Luke

All children have right to be loved, valued and respected. Unfortunately Luke didn’t get any of these feelings at home. To help him to develop he needs safety, love structure, self-esteem, needs somebody to talk to and to listen to him. To grow full-fledged member of society he needs a good example, somebody he could trust, could lean on.

In my opinion to empower Luke he needs to meet counselling. He needs somebody to talk to, encourage him, to praise him, to help him to build self-esteem.

Second step what Luke could do is to join sport, or any other activity club. That would help him to make new friends, to get some cooping, communication skills. Possibly couch could become his inspirer, good example. If Luke would become very interesting in his activity, if he would achieve good result, he would get other friends respect; at the same he could increase self-esteem. He would concentrate on his activity, he would spend less time at home, and the same time he would have less time to learn bad things at home.

Detail the appropriate action plan required on foot of any concerns regarding child protection issues with in the case study

If child abuse is suspected or alleged, the following steps should be taken by member of the public or professionals who come into contact with children. A report should be made to the health board in person, by phone or in writing. Each health board area has a social worker on duty for a certain number of hours each day. The duty social worker is available to meet with, or talk on the phone, to persons wishing to report child protection concerns.

It is always helpful if person wishing to report child abuse concerns personally contacts the duty social worker. In that case the social worker will be able to gather as much information as possible about the child and his parents/carers.

In the event of emergency, or the non-availability of health board staff, the report should be made to An Garda Siochana. This may be done at any Garda Station. Child should not be left in a dangerous situation until health board intervention is pending.

The ability of the health board or An Garda Siochana to assess suspicions or allegations of child abuse will depend on the amount and quality of information provided to them by person reporting their concerns. As much as possible of the following details should be given in the Standard Reporting form or by telephone.

Accurate identifying information as far as it is known ( name, address and age of the child and all children in the family as well as the parents/carers names and addresses;

Name and address of the person claimed to be causing harm to the child;

A full account of what constitutes the grounds of concern about the welfare and protection of the child;

Source of any information which is being discussed with the health board;

Dates when the concern arose, or a particular incident occurred;

Circumstances in which the concern arose, or particular incident occurred;

Any explanation offered to account for the risk, injury or concern;

The child own statement if relevant;

Any other information about difficulties which the family may be experiencing;

Any factors which may be considered supportive protective of the family;

Name of child school;

Name of child’s and family’s general practitioner;

The reporters own involvement with the child and parents;

Details of any action already taken about the risk or concern;

Name and addresses of any agencies or key persons involved with the parents;

Identity of reporter including name, address, telephone number, occupation, and relationship with the family.

(Children First, National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children, September 1999, Stationary Office, Dublin)

Describe thoroughly the actions required for Luke in a a) Short Term, b) Medium Term and c) Long Term

Short term. Luke’s mother, as she is lack of social skills, she need to be offered a social workers help. She needs somebody to help her to get parenting skills. First thing what can be done for Luke would be appointment with General practitioner, dentist. General practitioner should do general check-up, he should check if Luke’s weight and height appropriates his age children data. Blood test must be done too. If results wouldn’t be within the normal range, nutritionist appointment could be made as well. It is recommended that children would do dental check-up twice a year. But there is a reasonable ground for suspecting that Luke’s mother never brought him to dentist. X-ray could be done to check if there are any broken bones, as from given Luke’s case we know that his mother and her friends were hitting Luke.

Medium term. If Luke’s mother is not showing any improvement, if she is not changing her life style, she should be given a warning. Luke could need psychologist’s help, who could listen to Luke who could help him to get more confident, more self-esteem. As he doesn’t know how to talk, how to express him, speech/language therapy would be very beneficial for Luke. I am sure Luke would benefit from play therapy. Sometimes it is very difficult to talk about you problems, so play therapy would help Luke to open himself. It would let dedicate person to understand him better.

Long term. If Luke’s mother haven’t shown any improvement in certain time, if Luke’s care is not improved, strict actions have to be taken. Luke needs to get foster care. New family capable to provide full-fledged care and Luke’s development have to be found. Luke still will need to visit psychologist on regular basis.


Conclusion and recommendations

In my assignment I have done comparative research on Luke’s situation. I have included Children First and Our Duty to Care. I have identified Luke’s needs in terms of linking it to PILES. I have written the plan required for Luke in short, medium and long term. I have described the way how to empower Luke. At the end of assignment I have included the Standard report form on Child’s Protection.

In conclusion I want to say that from the Luke’s case it is obvious that Luke’s development is impaired. He doesn’t have appropriate environment for his development.

To conclude I want emphasize that everybody have to be alert about children’s protection and possible child’s abuse. Everybody have to take responsibility for what is happening with children around them. It is always better to make false alert rather than close your eyes and pretend not to see anything.



(Children First, National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children, September 1999, Stationary Office, Dublin)


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