Anglų laikai

TENSES

INDEFINITE
Present Indefinite – veiksmas, priskiriamas esamajam laikui, bet paprastai nevykstantis kalbos momentu.
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma Pabrėžtinė teigiamoji forma
I askYou askHe (she, it) asks We askYou askThey ask I do not (don’t) askYou do not (don’t) askHe (she, it) does not (doesn’t) ask We do not (don’t) askYou do not (don’t) askThey do not (don’t) ask Do I ask?Do you ask?Does he (she, it) ask? Do we ask?Do you ask?Do they ask? I do askYou do askHe (she) does ask We do askYou do askThey do ask

Vartojamas:
1) Reikšti įprastiems, pasikartojantiems ar nuuolat vykstantiems veiksmams dabartyje (always, often, usually, regularly, daily, every day, never, seldom, rarely, sometimes):

Nick always helps his comrades in their studies.
What time do you get up?
We seldom meet.
We have our dinner at 5 o’clock

2) reikšti bendriems teiginiams, nesiejant jų su laiku:

Rockets fly faster thab airplanes.
The earth goes round the sun in 24 hours.
3) Reikšti veiksmams arba savybėms, būdingiems veiksniui nuolat arba dabartiniu laikotarpiu:

Tom speaks English well.
His sister Mary plays the piano and sings.
I’m a schoolgirl.
Where do you live?
Jane’s mother works on a daairy farm.
My little brother already goes to school.

4) Reikšti veiksmams (arba būsenoms), vykstantiems kalbos momentu, jeigu jie reiškiami veiksmažodžiais, kurie nevartojami eigos laikais (want, like, belong, know, suppose, need, love, see, realise, mean, prefer, hate, hear, believe, understand, remember, forget, seem, so

ound, appear, smell, taste, wish, own, think (when the meaning is “believe”), have (when it is used for actions or the meaning is “possess”):
What do you want?
I don’t quite understand you.
5) Reikšti būsimiems (numatomiems) veiksmams arba būsenoms šalutiniuose laiko ir sąlygos aplinkybių sakiniuose po jungtukų if, unless, till, until, when, as soon as, before (atitinkamuose lietuviškuose sakiniuose vartojamas būsimasis laikas):
I’ll wait till you finish your breakfast.
What shall we do if it rains tomorrow?
Come and see me when you are passing my way.
Come next week unless you are very busy.
Let’s wait until the rain stops.
I’ll join you as soon as I can.
Pastaba.Šalutiniuose papildinio sakiniuose po jungtukų if, when vartojamas Future Indefinite Tense:
Ask him ih he will go wiith us.
I don’t know when he will return.
6) Reikšti iš anksto numatytiems veiksmams, kurie įvyks artimiausioje ateityje (daugiausia su veiksmažodžiais to leave, to start, to come, to return, to come back, to go, to arrive):
We leave next Saturday.
The train starts at 3.45 a. m

Past Indefinite – veiksmas (būsena), vykęs kuriuo nors laikotarpiu praeityje ir nesusijęs su kalbos momentu.
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma Pabrėžtinė teigiamoji forma
I askedYou askedHe (she, it) asked We askedYou askedThey asked I did not (didn’t) askYou did not (didn’t) askHe (she, it

t) did not (didn’t) ask We didn’t askYou didn’t askThey did not (didn’t) ask Did I ask?Did you ask?Did he (she, it) ask? Did we ask?Did you ask?Did they ask? I did askYou did askHe (she) did ask We did askYou did askThey did ask

Vartojamas:

1) Reikšti atskiriems faktams (veiksmams, būsenoms), įvykusiems praeityje ir nesusijusiems su dabartimi (kartais patikslinama aplinkybiniais žodžiais yesterday, last night, last week, last month, last year, last summer, the other day, in 1945, five minutes ago, būtojo laiko rodikliu gali būti klausiamieji įvardžiai how ir when):
I bought this book in London.
I knocked at the door, but no one answered.
How did you sleep? – I slept like a baby.
I’m sorry I was out when you called.
Where were you yesterday?
The great Russian poet Pushkin was bors in 1799.
When did you begin to study English?
How did it happen?
2) Reikšti kartotiniams arba įprastiems veiksmams, vykusiems praeityje ir nesusijusiems su dabartimi:

Last summer I often played chess.
When he was ill we went to see him every other day.
Pastaba. Reikšti kartotiniams veiksmams, vykusiems praeityje, vartojama taip pat konstrukcija used + infinityvas:

We used to see each other very often when I lived in Kaunas.

Taip pat reikšti įprastiniam arba tęstiniam veiksmui ar būsenai praeityje (paprastai tolimoje):

I used to know her very well when sh

he was still in her teens.
3) Reikšti veiksmams ar savybėms, kurios buvo būdingos veiksniui praeityje:
Jack played chess very well when he was a small boy.
4) Netiesioginės kalbos šalutiniuose papildinio sakiniuose, kai pagrindinio sakinio veiksmažodis vartojamas Past Indefinite laiku:
He said he lived in Parko street.

Future Indefinite – vienkartiniai, kartotini ar pastovūs veiksmai (būsenos), vyksiantys ateityje.
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I shall/will (I’ll) askYou will (you’ll) askHe (she, it) will ask We will (we’ll) askYou will (you’ll) askThey’ll ask I shall/will not (shan’t/won’t) askYou will not (won’t) askHe (she, it) will not (won’t) ask We shall/will not (shan’t/won’t) askYou will not (won’t) askThey will not (won’t) ask Shall I ask?Will you ask?Will he (she, it) ask? Shall we ask?Will you ask?Will they ask?

Vartojamas:
1) Vienkartiniai veiksmai, būsenos:

What will you do after the lessons?
Will you wait for me? I sahn’t be long.
I’ll do my best to help you.
So, you’ll ring me up at five, will you?
Pastovūs ir kartotiniai veiksmai (būsenos):
I’ll write to you every week.
Pastabos. 1. Klausiamojoje vienaskaitos 1-ojo asmens formoje veiksmažodis shall paprastai turi modalinę reikšmę; klausiantysi teiraujasis, ko pašnekovas nori:
Shall I go on reading?

Shall I translate the sentences into Lithuania?

2. Veiksmažodis will dažnai turi modalinį pažado, ketinimo, mandagaus prašymo atspalvį:

If you’ll wait a moment, I’ll be back in a minute.
I won’t fo

orget what you’ve done for me.
2) Šnekamojoje kalboje numatomiems būsimiems veiksmams reikšti vartojamos šios konstrukcijos:
To be going + infinityvas reikšti ketinimui (kalbant apie asmenis) arba galimybei (kalbant apie įvykius):
I’m going to write a letter to my mother.
The task is going to be more difficult than I expected.
To be sure (certain) + infinityvas reikšti įsitikinimui, kad būsimasis veiksmas įvyks:
Ann is sure to be there.
It’s certain to rain.

Future Indefinite in the Past – veiksmas ar būsena, vykstantis, tebesitęsiantis kalbos momentu arba esamuoju laikotarpiu.
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I should/would askYou would askHe (she, it) would ask We would askYou would askThey would ask I shouldn’t askYou wouldn’t askHe (she, it) wouldn’t ask We shouldn’t askYou wouldn’t askThey wouldn’t ask Should/would I ask?Would you ask?Would he (she, it) ask? Should we ask?Would you ask?Would they ask?
Vartojamas:
1) Pasakojimuose apie praeities įvykius, kai netiesiogine kalba esti atpasakojami kokio nors asmens žodžiai arba mintys, susiję su ateitimi:
He told me he would never repeat the same mistake.
I was sure she’d be late as usual.

CONTINUOUS
Present continuous – veiksmas (būsena), vykstantis, tebesitęsiantis kalbos momentu arba esamuoju laikotarpiu.
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I am (I’m) askingYou are (you’re) askingHe (she, it) is (he’s) asking We are (we’re) askingYou are askingThey are (they’re) asking I am not askingYou are not (aren’t) askingHe (she, it) is not (isn’t) asking We are not askingYou aren’t askingThey are not asking Am I asking?Are you asking?Is he (she, it) asking? Are we asking?Are you asking?Are they asking?

Vartojamas:
1) Reikšti veiksmui, vykstančiam kalbos momentu:

What are you doing now?
Don’t you see I’m writing a lettrer?
2) Reikšti veiksmui (būsenai), vykstančiam esamuoju laikotarpiu, bet nebūtinai kalbos momentu:

Where are you staying now?
I hope you are enjoying your vacation?
I’m reading an intresting book.
They are building a lot of new buildings in our district.
3) Šnekamojoje kalboje atskiriems artimiausiai ateičiai numatytiems veiksmams reikšti (ypač su veiksmažodžiais to come, to leave, to stay, to call ir išsireiškimais to have guests, to give a party ir pan.):

When are you coming to see us?
She is giving a birthday party tomorrow.
We are going to the cinema this afternoon.
He’s calling on me tonight.
4) Nuolatiniam įpročiui arba polinkiui reikšti (su prieveiksmiais always, constantly, all the time) ir reiškia nepritarimą, nekantrumą:

You’re always coming late!
He’s constantly getting into trouble.
5) Veiksmažodžio to go Present Continuous junginys su kito veiksmažodžio infinityvu vartojamas reikšti ketinimui atlikti veiksmą artimiausioje ateityje:
I’m going to present my old toys to my little brother.

Past Continuous
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I was askingYou were askingHe (she, it) was asking We were askingYou were askingThey were asking I was not (wasn’t) askingYou were not (weren’t) askingHe (she, it) was not (wasn’t) asking We were not askingYou were not askingThey were not (weren’t) asking Was I asking?Were you asking?Was he (she, it) asking? Were we asking?Were you asking?Were they asking?

Vartojamas:

veiksmui, vykusiam kuriuo nors praeities momentu arba laikotarpiu reikšti. Veiksmo laikas paprastai nurodomas aplinkybiniais žodžiais arba šalutiniais sakiniais:
It was snowing all day yesterday.
What were you doing when I rang you up yesterday?
I wasn’t expecting you quite so early.
The light went out while we were having supper.

Future Continuous
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I shall/will be askingYou will be askingHe (she, it) will be asking We shall/will be askingYou will be askingThey will be asking I shall/will not (shan’t/won’t) (I’ll not) be asking You will not (won’t) be askingHe (she, it) will not (won’t) be asking We shall/will not (shan’t/won’t) be askingYou will not (won’t) be askingThey will not (won’t) be asking Shall/will I be asking?Will you be asking?Will he (she, it) be asking? Shall/will we be asking?Will you be asking?Will they be asking?

Vartojamas:

Veiksmui, vyksiančiam kuriuo nors ateities momentu arba laikotarpiu išreikšti. Veiksmo laiką gali nurodyti aplinkybiniai žodžiai arba kontekstas. Iškyrus kai kuriuos nusitovėjusius išsireiškimus su veiksmažodžiais to expect, to stay, to see ir kt., šis laikas vartojamas labai retai:

I’ll be expecting you at 4 o’clock sharp.

When my train arrives, my parents will be waiting on the platform.
It’s no use trying to see our teacher at 10. He will be giving a lesson at that time.

Šnekamojoje kalboje Future Continuous kartais vartojamas Future Indefinite reikšme:

Will you be staying for dinner?

I’ll be seeing him this afternoon.

Future Continuous in the Past
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I should/would be askingYou would be askingHe (she, it) would be asking We should/would be askingYou would be askingThey would be asking I should/would not be asking You would not be askingHe (she, it) would not be asking We should/would not be askingYou would not be askingThey would not be asking Should/would I be asking?Would you be asking?Would he (she, it) be asking? Should/would we be asking?Would you be asking?Would they be asking?

Vartojimas:
I didn’t call on you yesterday evening because I thought you’d be working at your composition.
Don’t trouble him now! He said he’d be writing an article all day long.

PERFECT
Present perfect – parodo veiksmo, kuris įvyko praeityje ryšį su dabartimi, t. y. kalbos momentu. Šis ryšys paprastai pasireiškia tuo, kad būtasis veiksmas turi kokį nors reziltatą dabartyje.
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I have (I’ve) askedYou have (you’ve) askedHe (she, it) has (he’s) asked. We have (we’ve) askedYou have (you’ve) askedThey have (they’ve) asked I have not (haven’t/I’ve not) askedYou have not (haven’t/you’ve not) askedHe (she, it) has not (hasn’t/he’s not) asked We have not askedYou have not skedThey have not asked Have I askedHave you asked?Has he (she, it) asked? Have we asked?Have you asked?Have they asked?

Vartojamas:
1) Sakinuose, kuriuose nėra laiko aplinkybių:

Has the bell gone?
What mark have you got for dictation?
I’m glad you’ve dropped in.
I’ve heard so much about it.
You haven’t changed at all.
Look, what nice flowers Kate has brought.
2) Sakiniuose su neapibrėžto laiko ar kartotinumo prieveiksmiais ar aplinkybinėmis frazėmis already, ever, never, yet, often, always, seldom, rarely, several times ir pan.:
Have you ever been to London?
We’ll have to wait for Tom, he hasn’t yet finished his task.
You’ve always been lazy, Nick. Now it’s time for you to get down to work in earnest.
I’ve never seen such a wonderful film.
3) Sakiniuose su apibrėžto laiko aplinkibiniais žodžiais ir prieveiksmiais tais atvejais, kai nurodytasis laikotarpis dar nėra pasibaigęs kalbos momentu: today, this morning, this week, all day, just:

I’ve worked hard all day today.
I haven’t seen her today.
4) Sakiniuose su laiko aplinkybėmis, nurodančiomis laikotarpį, kuriuo vyko ar galėjo vykti veiksmas, pradedant kokiu nors praeities momentu ir iki pat esamojo momento: lately, for a long time, how long, so far, up to now, up to the present, for the past two hours (days, months, years), for three hours (days, months, years) ir kt., arba su aplinkybėmis, nurodančiomis tiktai tokio laikotarpio pradžią (paprastai su jungtuku since):

Have you been to the theatre lately?
I haven’t seen you for ages.
We haven’t met since January, have we?
So much has happened since I saw you last.
Where have you been all this time?
5) Ypatingą funkciją Present Perfect atlieka šalutiniuose laiko ir sąlygos aplinkybių sakiniuose po jungtukų if, when, till, untill, unless, as soon as, after, before. Čia Present Perfect reiškia veiksmą, kuris baigsis tam tikru ateities momentu (turi Future Perfect reikšmę):
You’ll think otherwise after (when) you’ve seen the film yourself.
You mustn’t leave before you’ve put everything in order.

Past Perfect
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I had askedYou had askedHe (she, it) had asked We had askedYou had askedThey had asked I had not askedYou had not askedHe (she, it) had not asked We had not askedYou had not askedThey had not asked Had I askedHad you asked?Had he (she, it) asked? Had we asked?Had you asked?Had they asked?

Vartojimas:
Veiksmas, kuris įvyko ir baigėsi prieš kitą būtąjį veiksmą arba prieš kurį nors praeities momentą ar laikotarpį:
Yesterday he told me that he had seen Mike a week before.
He thanked me for what I have done for him.
He did as you had told him.
Jane told her friends that she had decided to become an actress.
Jane had scarcely put her head on the pillow when she fell asleep.
By noon the young tourists had climbed the mountain.
By twelve o’clock yesterday I had finished all my work.

Future Perfect
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I shall/will have askedYou will have askedHe (she, it) will have asked. We shall/will have askedYou will have askedThey’ll have asked I shall not have askedYou will not have askedHe (she, it) will not have asked We shall/will not have askedYou will not have askedThey will not have asked Shall I have askedWill you have asked?Will he (she, it) have asked? Shall we have asked?Will you have asked?Will they have asked?

Vartojamas:
Reikšti veiksmui, kuris iki tam tikro momento arba veiksmo ateityje jau bus atliktas, pasibaigęs:

By the end of the term we shall have read two English books.

Come tomorrow evening; by that time I’ll have finished my work.

Future Perfect in the Past
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I should/would have askedYou would have askedHe (she, it) would have asked. We should/would have askedYou would have askedThey would have asked I should/would not have askedYou would not have askedHe (she, it) would not have asked We should/would not have askedYou would not have askedThey would not have asked Should/would I have askedWould you have asked?Would he (she, it) have asked? Should/would we have asked?Would you have asked?Would they have asked?

Vartojamas:
Tais pačiais atvejais kaip ir Future Perfect, bet tik netiesioginėje kalboje, po veiksmažodžių say, think, tell, write, pavartotų būtuoju laiku:

He said he would have done his task by two o’clock.

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Present Perfect Continuous
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I have been askingYou have been askingHe (she, it) has been asking We have been askingYou have been askingThey have been asking I have not been askingYou have not been askingHe (she, it) has not been asking We have not been askingYou have not been askingThey have not been asking Have I been asking?Have you been asking?Have he (she, it) been asking? Have we been asking?Have you been asking?Have they been asking?

Vartojamas:
Veiksmui, būsenai, kuri rasidėjo praeityje ir tęsėsi tam tikrą laikotarpį iki kalbos momento ir (arba) vis dar tebesitęsia kalbos momentu, arba pasibaigė prieš pat jį:

I’ve been waiting for him (for) two hours.
Sakiniuose su Present Perfect Continuous paprastai vartojamos laiko palinkybės, nurodančios veiksmažodžio reiškiamo laiko ar būsenos trukmę arba pradžios momentą (for two hours (aweek, three months, ten years), for a long time, all day, all day long, how long; since
1950, since 8 o’clock, since I came here):
How long have you been studying English?

I’m tired, I’ve been working in the garden all day long.
I’ve been living in London since 1985.
It’s been raining since early morning.
What have you been doing since I saw you last?
Present Perfect Continuous gali būti vartojamas ir nenurodant veiksmo trukmės, jeigu iš konteksto aišku, kad veiksmas prasidėjo praeityje ir tęsėsi (tęsiasi) iki dabar:

Please, excuse my dirty clothes, I’ve been tidying the room.
Veiksmažodžių, kurie neturi Continuous formų, Present Perfect Continuous reikšme vartojamos Present Perfect formos:
How long have you been here?
I’ve known Jack for five years.

Past Perfect Continuous
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I had been askingYou had been askingHe (she, it) had been asking We had been askingYou had been askingThey had been asking I had not been askingYou had not been askingHe (she, it) had not been asking We had not been askingYou had not been askingThey had not been asking Had I been asking?Had you been asking?Had he (she, it) been asking? Had we been asking?Had you been asking?Had they been asking?

Vartojamas:
Eigos veiksmui, kuris prasidėjo prieš kurį nors praeities momentą ir tęsėsi ligi pat to momento, reikšti:

I was very tired when I went to bed for I had been working hard all day.

The news didn’t surprise me for I’d been expecting it for some time past.

Future Perfect Continuous
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I shall/will have been askingYou will have been askingHe (she, it) will have been asking We shall/will have been askingYou will have been askingThey will have been asking I shall/will have not been askingYou will nothave been askingHe (she, it) will not have been asking We shall/will have not been askingYou will not have been askingThey will not have been asking Shall/will I have been asking?Will you have been asking?Will he (she, it) have been asking? Shall/will we have been asking?Will you have been asking?Will they have been asking?

Vartojamas:
Reikšti besitęsiančiam būsimajam veiksmui, kuris prasidės prieš kurį nors ateities momentą arba laikotarpį ir tęsis ligi pat to momento (laikotarpio):

By next year we shall have been living in this town for five years.

When Ann gets her diploma she will have been studying at the University for five years.

Future in the Past Perfect Continuous
Teigiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma
I should/would have been askingYou would have been askingHe (she, it) would have been asking We should/would have been askingYou would have been askingThey would have been asking I should/would have not been askingYou would nothave been askingHe (she, it) would not have been asking We should/would have not been askingYou would not have been askingThey would not have been asking Should/would I have been asking?Would you have been asking?Would he (she, it) have been asking? Should/would we have been asking?Would you have been asking?Would they have been asking?

Vartojamas:
Netiesioginėje kalboje vietoj future Perfect Continuous, kai pagrindinio sakinio veiksmažodis-tarinys esti išreikštas būtuoju laiku:

He said that by next April his father would have been working at the factory for ten years.

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