It is very important to know about advertising in economic environment. It is very necessary if we want to do business, because the advertising is the best way to show our product to people.

Our topic objective: to describe advertising.

1. to describe a concept of advertising;
2. to speak about types of advertising;
3. to speak about advertising media: above-the-line;
4. to speak about advertising media: below-the-line.

Method: literature analysis.


Advertising is providing information, calling attention to, and making known something that you want to sell orr promote. Advertising is a message designed to promote or sell a product, a service, or an idea. Advertising reaches people through varied types of mass communication. In everyday life, people come into contact with many different kinds of advertising. Printed ads are found in newspapers and magazines. Poster ads are placed in buses, subways, and trains. Neon signs are scattered along downtown streets. Billboards dot the landscape along our highways. Commercials interrupt radio and television programming.

In many businesses, saales volume depends on the amount of advertising done. Manufacturers try to persuade people to buy their products. Business firms use advertising to promote an “image” for their company. Businesses use advertising to gain new customers and increase sales.



It is possible to identify seven main categories of advertising, namely:
1. consumer;
2. business- to-business;
3. trade;
4. retail;
5. financial;
6. direct response;
7. recruitment.

Consumer advertising. There are two kinds of goods bought by the general public, consumer goods and consumer durables, which together with consumer services are advertised through media addressed to the appropriate social grades.
Business- to- business advertising. The purpose of business advertising is to promote non-consumer goods and services. These may include raw materials, components and accessories; plant and machinery; services such as insurance; office equipment and supplies.
Trade advertising. Trade advertising is addressed to distributors, chiefly wholesalers, agents, importers/exporters, and numerous kinds of retailers, large and small. Goods are advertised for resale. The purpose of trade press advertising is to inform merchants and traders about goods available ffor resale, whether it remind them about well-established brands, introduces new lines or, as is often the case, announces special efforts to help retailers sell goods. For example, price reductions, better trade terms, new packages, consumer advertising campaigns or sales promotion schemes.
Retail advertising. Here we have a form of advertising which lies between trade and consumer advertising. The most obvious examples are those for department stores and supermarkets, but it can include the advertising conducted by any supplier including a pe

etrol station, restaurant or insurance broker. The purpose of retail advertising is:
• to sell the establishment, attract customers to the premises and, in the case of s shop, increase what is known as “store traffic”, that is the number of people passing through the shop.
• to sell goods which are exclusive to the store.
• to sell the stock in the shop, perhaps promoting items which are seasonal, or presenting a representative selection, or making special offers. The latter could be regular policy, or could be organised as shopping events such as winter or summer sales.
Financial advertising. It is probably difficult to put a limit on what can be under this heading, but speaking financial advertising includes that for banks, savings, insurance and investments. In addition to advertising addressed to customers or clients it can also include company reports, prospectuses for new share issues, records of investments in securities and other financial announcements. The objective of financial advertising may be to borrow or lend money, conduct all insurance, sell shares, unit trusts, bonds and pension funds or report financial results.
Recruitment advertising. This form of advertising aims to recruit staff and may consist of run-on classified advertisements or displayed classified. Recruitment advertising is mainly of
f two kinds: that inserted by employers whether identified or using box numbers, and that placed by employment or recruitment agencies which have been commissioned to fill vacancies. Except for the occasional recruitment advertisement on radio and television, the media are mainly made up of the following categories of press:
• national newspapers.
• trade, technical and professional journals.
• regional press.
• free publications.


• The press
• Radio
• Television
• Cinema
• Outdoor and transportation

The press. The power and dominance of the press is explained by some of the following special characteristics: in-depth coverage and permanence; variety of subjects covered; mobility; results assessable; statistics available; improved printing. There are so many different kind of newspapers, magazines and other publications that a detailed analysis is necessary in order to appreciate their range and variety and to understand the different terms used. Categories of press: national newspapers; regional newspapers ;free newspapers; consumer magazines; special interest magazines; trade journals; technical journals; professional journals; directories and yearbooks. The mobile phone may be advertised in press. Advantages of the press:
• the press is one of the cheapest means of reaching a large number of unknown or unidentified prospective buyers, whether in town, region, county or even overseas.
• advertisements can be inserted quickly, compared with the time required for making co

ommercials for television or designing and printing posters.
• press advertising can be target at certain people by using the newspapers or magazines read by them.
• press advertising can be re-read and retained.
• some publishers encourage enquiries by use of reader-service coupons or cards which make it unnecessary to clip advertisements and write to advertisers individually.
Disadvantages of the press:
• short life
• poorly printed
• passive medium
• static medium
• badly presented
• the mistake is sometimes made

Radio. In such world-wide terms, the nature and value of the medium can be summarised as follows:
• cheapness
• penetration
• transmission times
• human voice and music
• does not require sole attention
• companionship
Television. Advantages of television: realism; receptive audiences; repetition; zoning and networking; appeal to retailers; linked with other media. The mobile phone may be advertised in television, because it can be shown to people.
Cinema. Advantages: captive audience; longer video; larger screen; no interruption of programme; zoning; entertainment atmosphere.
Disadvantages: like broadcast media, it is a transient medium and it relies on remembering the message, and this may depend on how often the commercial is seen.
Outdoor and transportation. The characteristics of the outdoor medium may be summarised as follows: size and dominance; colour; brief copy; zoning. Disadvantages: the weaknesses of outdoor advertising are the inability to use much copy, possible damage by vandals or the weather, the lack of concentration on the message by passers-by, and the time it takes to design, print and exhibit posters.
Transportation characteristics: variety of sites and sizes; selectivity; short-term campaigns; a mobile medium. Disadvantages: on above ground and underground railway stations it is necessary to display sufficient posters for people to notice them, and the same applies to roof cards since they appear in separate compartments of the train. An advertisement rate may appear to be modest, but it will be expensive in the advertisement appears in empty compartments or on deserted platforms.


• aerial advertising
• calendars
• flags
• paper-clips
• book advertising
• badges
• stickers
• body media
Aerial advertising. While this may be regarded as “outdoor” advertising, it is not usually classed as above-the-line. It is medium which exploits elements of drama and surprise, involving curiosity. The following are examples of this medium:
• sky writing
• sky shouting
• sky banners
• lighted aircraft, airships, balloons
• projected advertisements
Calendars: Some advertisers may reproduce individual calendars, while others take advantages of stock calendars on which they can have their name and business details overprinted. Calendars take the following forms: pictorial, block, digital, scroll, quarterly.
Flags. This is medium which is particularly popular in certain countries like Germany. On a lesser scale are the smaller flags projected from shops and kiosks advertising. There are also company which adorn and identify factories and other company premises.
Badges. The badge bearing a logo has many promotional uses; for example, establishing personal, corporate and product identify.
Stickers. These have a variety of uses such as on shop windows, car windows or for application to stationery. A variation on this is the transfer.
Body media. This is perhaps an astonishing medium. People, especially teenagers, are willing to buy and wear clothing advertising radio stations, drinks and other commercial interests. Specialist firm provide a comprehensive range of promotional leisure clothing such as: t-shirts, caps, sweatshirts, umbrellas, ties, rally jackets and so on. This way is very good to advertise the mobile phone, it can be shown.


1. Advertising is providing information, calling attention to, and making known something that you want to sell or promote. In many businesses, sales volume depends on the amount of advertising done.
2. Types of advertisement: consumer; business- to-business; trade; retail; financial; direct response; recruitment.
3. Advertising media: above-the-line: the press, radio, television, cinema, outdoor and transportation.
4. Advertising media: below-the-line: aerial advertising, calendars, flags, paper-clips, book advertising, badges, stickers, body media.


1. Frank Jefkins, Daniel Yadin. Advertising. – FT, 2000;

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