Acid rain

Today I’m going to talk about: Acid rain

I’ve divided my presentation into two parts:

First I’d like to introduce of acid rain and second I’ll say same
effects of acid rain.

So, let’s start with introduce

Acid Rain, form of air pollution in which airborne acids produced by
electric utility plants and other sources fall to Earth in distant regions.
The corrosive nature of acid rain causes widespread damage to the
environment. The problem begins with the production of sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen oxides from the burning of foossil fuels, such as coal, natural
gas, and oil, and from certain kinds of manufacturing. Sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen oxides react with water and other chemicals in the air to form
sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and other pollutants. These acid pollutants
reach high into the atmosphere, travel with the wind for hundreds of miles,
and eventually return to the ground by way of rain, snow, or fog, and as
invisible “dry” forms.

Finally let’s consider: with effects of acid rain

Acidic substances have pH numbers from 1 to 6—the loower the pH number,
the stronger, or more corrosive, the substance.

A Soil. In soil, acid rain dissolves and washes away nutrients needed
by plants. It can also dissolve toxic substances, such as aluminum and
mercury, which are naturally present in some soils, freeing th

hese toxins to
pollute water or to poison plants that absorb them. Some soils are quite
alkaline and can neutralize acid deposition indefinitely; others,
especially thin mountain soils derived from granite or gneiss, buffer acid
only briefly.

B Trees Forest Damaged by Acid Rain Forests, lakes, ponds, and other
terrestrial and aquatic environments throughout the world are being
severely damaged by the effects of acid rain. Acid rain is caused by the
combination of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen compounds with water in the
atmosphere. In addition to chemically burning the leaves of plants, acid
rain poisons lake water, killing most, if not all, the aquatic inhabitants.

C Agriculture Most farm crops are less affected by acid rain than are
forests. The deep soils of many farm regions, such as those in the
Midwestern Unnited States, can absorb and neutralize large amounts of acid.
Mountain farms are more at risk—the thin soils in these higher elevations
cannot neutralize so much acid. Farmers can prevent acid rain damage by
monitoring the condition of the soil and, when necessary, adding crushed
limestone to the soil to neutralize acid. If excessive amounts of nutrients
have been leached out of the soil, farmers can replace them by adding
nutrient-rich fertilizer.

D Plants and Animals The effects of acid rain on wildlife can be far-
reaching. If a
population of one plant or animal is adversely affected by
acid rain, animals that feed on that organism may also suffer. Ultimately,
an entire ecosystem may become endangered. Some species that live in water
are very sensitive to acidity, some less so. Freshwater clams and mayfly
young, for instance, begin dying when the water pH reaches 6.0. Frogs can
generally survive more acidic water, but if their supply of mayflies is
destroyed by acid rain, frog populations may also decline. Fish eggs of
most species stop hatching at a pH of 5.0. Below a pH of 4.5, water is
nearly sterile, unable to support any wildlife.

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