SIngapore

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION
GENERAL INFORMATION
PEOPLE
GOVERNMENT
ECONOMY
CONCLUSIONS
SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Singapore founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world’s most prosperous countries, with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world’s busiest) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
Singapore is a city-country, locating in the south of Malaya. It borders Malaysia in the north and Indonesia in thhe south. Its occupies the key way between the Pacific and the Indian Ocean. Singapore has 641 square kilometers area whose 91.6% is Singapore Island. It has several official languages: English, Chinese, Malaysian and Tamil. The islands are composed of lowlands with highest elevation 166 meters. It belongs to the maritime climate of Torrid Zone with average 24~27℃ and average 2,400 mm rainfall per year.
Because of its phenomenal economic growth since independence in 1965 and the continued robustness of its economy, Singapore is often referred too by economists as one of Asia’s “Four Tigers,” along with Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan. In 1999 the gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at U.S.$85 billion, or $21,810 per capita, among the highest per capita GDPs in the world. Th

he economy centers around services, notably financial and business services.
Singapore, one of the great trading entrepōts of the British empire, has experienced remarkable economic growth and diversification since 1960. In addition to enhancing its position as a world trade centre, it has developed powerful financial and industrial sectors. Singapore has the most advanced economy in Southeast Asia and is often mentioned along with other rapidly industrializing countries in Asia, notably South Korea and Taiwan. Singapore’s economy always has differed from those of the other Southeast Asian countries in that it never has been primarily dependent on the production and export of commodities.
Singapore is blessed with a highly developed and successful free-market economy, a remarkably open and corruption-free business environment, sttable prices, and the fifth highest per capita GDP in the world. Exports, particularly in electronics and chemicals, and services are the main drivers of the economy. Mainly because of robust exports, especially electronic goods, the economy grew 10.1% in 2000. Forecasters, however, are projecting only 4%-6% growth in 2001 largely because of weaker global demand, especially in the US. The government promotes high levels of savings and investment through a mandatory savings scheme and spends heavily in education and technology. It also owns go
overnment-linked companies (GLCs) – particularly in manufacturing – that operate as commercial entities. As Singapore looks to a future increasingly marked by globalization, the country is positioning itself as the region’s financial and high-tech hub.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Capital Singapore
Total area of Singapore: total: 692.7 sq km water: 10 sq km land: 682.7 sq km
Land boundaries: 0 km.
Coastline: 193 km
Climate tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons – Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon from June to September; inter-monsoon – frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms.
Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports
Land use: arable land: 1.64%, permanent crops: 0%, other: 98.36% (1998 est.)
Environment – current issues: industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment – international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements.
Geography – note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

PEOPLE

Population: 4,452,732 (July 2002 est.)
Population density (per km sq) 6,428.1
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.6% (male 404,212; female 378,660)

15-64 years: 75.3% (male 1,630,696; female 1,724,532)

65 years and over: 7.1% (male 137,512; female 177,120) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.46% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 12.78 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 4.28 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.29 years

female: 83.47 years (2002 est.)

male: 77.34 years
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS 4

4,000 (1999 est.)
Religions Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.5%

male: 97%

female: 89.8% (1999)
Languages: Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official)

GOVERNMENT

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Singapore

conventional short form: Singapore
Government type: parliamentary republic
Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)
Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction.
International organization participation: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

ECONOMY

Economy – overview:
Singapore, a highly developed and successful free-market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics and manufacturing, and was hard hit in 2001 by the global recession and the slump in

n the technology sector. In 2001, GDP contracted by 2.2%. The economy is expected to recover in 2002 in response to improvements in the US economy, and GDP growth for 2002 is projected to be 3% to 4%. In the longer term the government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the external business cycle than the current export-led model, but is unlikely to abandon efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia’s financial and high-tech hub.
Manufacturing is the main industry in Singapore, containing petroleum refining, petroleum chemistry, ship repairing, electronic equipment, textile, transportation equipment. Its products occupies 50% of foreign reserve. In 1993, manufacturing was 28.8% of GDP, with $19.15 billion production value. Commerce was 17.8%, among which wholesale and retail had $12.75 billion. Transportation and communication was 12.1%, with $10.43 billion volume.

Tourism is another source of Singapore’s foreign exchange. Every year, more than 5 million persons visit Singapore. Tourists were 6.43 million person-times in 1993 with $2.51 billion revenues.

Singapore’s economy heavily depends on other countries and therefore, external business is the capital part of its national economy. From January to November 1994, real export volume of Singapore was $134.04 billion, including food, beverage, tobacco for $5.44 billion, natural rubber for $0.74 billion, petroleum and petroleum products for $12.71 billion, animals and vegetable oils for $0.51 billion, chemical products for $7.67 billion, textile for $1.98 billion, metal products for $3.86 billion, machinery and transportation equipment for $85.57 billion, garments for $2.1 billion, and science instruments for $3.77 billion. Real import volume in this period was $142.40 billion, containing food, beverage and tobacco for $6.63 billion, natural rubber for $0.46 billion, petroleum products for $12.69 billion, animals and vegetable oils for $0.56 billion, chemical products for $9.21 billion, textile for $2.82 billion, nonmetal products for $2.06 billion, iron and steel for $2.94 billion, nonferrous metal for $2.22 billion, metal products for $2.45 billion, machinery and transportation equipment for $80.51 billion, garments for $2.57 billion, science instrument for $5.57 billion.

Gross domestic product (GDP, by exchange rate) $85.7 billion.
Gross domestic product per capita (GDP, by exchange rate) $19,246
GDP: purchasing power parity – $106.3 billion (2001 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $24,700 (2001 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: -2.2% (2001 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: NEGL%

industry: 33%

services: 67% (2001 est.)

Inflation Rate: 1.0 % (2002 est.)

Money Supply: 36 billion (comprising currency in active circulation and demand deposits of private sector)

Official Foreign Reserves: $140 billion

Commercial Banks: 6 local and 121 foreign banks
Labor force – by occupation: financial, business, and other services 35%, manufacturing 21%, construction 13%, transportation and communication 9%, other 22%
Unemployment rate 4.7% (2001 est.)
Budget: revenues: $27.9 billion

expenditures: $19.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.4 billion
Industries: electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, biotechnology
Electricity – production: 27.9 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

other: 0% (2000)

nuclear: 0%
Electricity – consumption: 25.947 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture: The agriculture sector in Singapore contributes zero percent of the GDP and employs an estimated 0.2 percent of labor, as stated in the GDP/Employment by Sector of Origin table. The primary food crops produced are coconuts. The primary meat products are beef and veal, chicken, duck, lamb and pork. The largest (in value terms) agricultural exports in 1998 were cigarettes, fish, distilled alcoholic beverages, pepper and prepared food. The total value of agricultural exports in 1998 was $4,017.6 million, while the total value of agricultural imports in 1998 was $4,806.4 million.
Agriculture – products: rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish.
Exports: $122 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports – commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics), consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels
Exports – partners: Malaysia 18%, US 17%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 7.5%, Taiwan 6%, Thailand 4.3%, China 4%, South Korea 3.6%, Germany 3%, Netherlands 3% (2000)
Imports: $116 billion (2001 est.)
Imports – commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports – partners: Japan 17%, Malaysia 17%, US 15%, China 5%, Taiwan 4.4%, Thailand 4.3%, South Korea 3.6%, Saudi Arabia 3% (2000)
Trade balance : positive – $6 billion
Export in 2002 $223.9 billion
Imports in 2002 $208.3 billion
Trade balance in 2002 $15,6 billion
Debt – external: $8.3 billion (2001 est.)
Currency: Singapore dollar (SGD)
Exchange rates Singapore dollars per US dollar – 1.8388 (January 2002), 1.7917 (2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997)

COMMUNICATIONS

Telephones – main lines in use: 1.95 million (2000)
Total no. of mobile phone users: 3,005,775 (72.8%)

Total no. of pager subscribers: 307,200 (7.4%)
Radios: 2.6 million (2000)
Televisions: 1.33 million (1997)
Internet users: 2.31 million (2002)

TRANSPORTATION

Railways: total: 38.6 km

narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge

note: there is also a 83 km mass transit system with 48 stations
Highways: total: 3,150 km

paved: 3,066 km (including 150 km of expressways)

unpaved: 84 km (2000)
Total no. of vehicles in Singapore: 704,768 (of which 405,797 are cars & rental cars)
Airports: 9 (2001)
Ports and harbors: Singapore
Merchant marine total: 876 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,686,612 GRT/32,647,743 DWT
ships by type: bulk 131, cargo 100, chemical tanker 81, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 6, container 168, liquefied gas 35, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 287, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 32
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 7, Belgium 6, China 12, Denmark 27, Germany 17, Greece 4, Hong Kong 44, Indonesia 8, Japan 52, Malaysia 4, Monaco 22, Netherlands 2, Norway 42, Philippines 6, Russia 3, Slovenia 1, South Korea 10, Sweden 13, Switzerland 7, Taiwan 46, Tanzania 2, Thailand 22, United Arab Emirates 4, United Kingdom 14, United States 1 (2002 est.)

MILITARY

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People’s Defense Force, Police Force
Military expenditures – dollar figure: $4.47 billion (FY01/02 est.)

Disputes – international: Singapore and Malaysia are considering taking the unresolved dispute over Pulau Batu Putih (Pedra Branca Island) to ICJ; Malaysia concerned over Singapore’s land reclamation works on Johor, which affects the maritime boundary, shipping lanes, and water ecology in the Tebrau Reach

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

www.cia.gov
www.mapzones.com
www.china-pecc.com
http://sg.biz.yahoo.com
http://web.hhs.se

Singapore

Total area of Singapore: 692.7 sq km
Population: 4,452,732
Capital: Singapore
Gross domestic product (GDP, by exchange rate) $85.7 billion
GDP: purchasing power parity – $106.3 billion (2001 est.)
Gross domestic product per capita (GDP, by exchange rate) $19,246
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $24,700 (2001 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: -2.2% (2001 est.)
Inflation Rate: 1.0 % (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.7% (2001 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: financial, business, and other services 35%, manufacturing 21%, construction 13%, transportation and communication 9%, other 22%
Budget: revenues: $27.9 billion

expenditures: $19.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.4 billion
Exports: $223.9 billion (2002)
Exports – commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics), consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels
Exports – partners: Malaysia 18%, US 17%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 7.5%, Taiwan 6%, Thailand 4.3%, China 4%, South Korea 3.6%, Germany 3%, Netherlands 3% (2000)
Imports: $208.3 billion (2002)
Imports – commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs Imports – partners: Saudi Arabia 25%, US 9%, Italy 7%, Russia 4% (2000 est.)
Trade balance : positive – $15,6 billion (2002)
Currency: Singapore dollar (SGD)
Internet users: 2.31 million (2002)
Railways: total: 38.6 km
Highways: total: 3,150 km
Airports: 9 (2001)
Telephones – main lines in use: 1.95 million (2000)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 3,005,775 (72.8%)

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