australijos faunos ir floros specifika

VILNIAUS JĖZUITŲ GIMNAZIJA

Lukas Žilinskas, 7c klasės moksleivis

AUSTRALIJOS FAUNOS IR FLOROS SPECIFIKA

Vilnius
2006 – 2007

Turinys
1.ĮVADAS........................3
1.1. Darbo tikslai ir uždaviniai...............3
2.AUSTRALIA......................4
3.THE GREAT BARRIER REEF.................. ..5
4.AUSTRALIAN FAUNA........................6
4.1. Red kangaroo..........................7
4.2. Lumholtz Tree kangaroo..................... 8
4.3. Koala.............................. .9
4.4. Platypus..............................10
4.5. Wombat...........................12
4.6. Tasmanian Devil.......................13
4.7. Box Jellyfish...........................14
4.8. Emu..............................15
4.9. Piping Shrike...........................16
4.10. Cassowary............................17
4.11. The Black Swan.........................18
4.12. Kookaburra............................18
4.13. Lyrebird.............................19
4.14. White cockatoo........................20
4.15. Echidna..............................21
4.16. Dingo..............................22
4.17. Bandicoot.............................23
4.18. Bilby..............................24
4.19. King parrot.......................... 25
4.20. Wedge – tailed Eagle......................26
3.21. Long – Footed Potoroo....................27
5.AUSTRALIAN FLAURA.........................28
5.1. Acacias..............................28
5.2. Bottle Brush...........................29
4.3. Wax Flower............................30
5.4. Sturts Desert Pea.........................30
5.5. Warath..............................31
6.IŠVADOS..............................32
6.1. Santrauka............................32
6.2. Darbo rezultatai.................... .33
7.LITERATŪRA.....................33

1. ĮVADAS
Australija – paradoksų žemė. Norėta kuo daugiau sužinoti apie unikalų žemyną – valstybę, kurios fauna ir flora yra išskirtinė dėl geografinės padėties – vandens kliūtis trukdė augalams ir gyvūnams iš kitų žemynų patekti į Australiją ir todėl čia susiformavo unikali, kitur paasaulyje nesutinkama augalija ir gyvūnija.
Dar vienas ypatumas – tai gamtinės sąlygos, kurios lemia Australijos gamtos išsiskirstymą :
1.Drėgnieji atogrąžų miškai su eukaliptais, palmėmis ir bambukais.
2.Savanos su aukšta žole ir akacijomis.
3.Dykumos, kurios sudaro didžiąją Australijos dalį.

1.1. Darbo tikslai ir uždaviniai

Darbo tikslas – surinkti medžiagą apie Australijos faunos ir floros specifiką.
Darbo uždaviniai:
1.Sužinoti Australijos žemyno atsiradimo istoriją, apie jos gamtines zonas, geografiją.
2.Surinkti kuo daugiau informacijos apie Australijos faunos specifiką.
3.Sužinoti apie Australijos florą, jos išskirtinumą.

2. Australia

Australia is an island that is also a continent. It consists of two land maasses: the mainland and Tasmania. In area it is the 6th largest country and the smallest continent. Its area is 7,682,300 square km. It is about the size of the mainland states of the United States, excluding Alaska, and approximately 24 times th

he size of the British Isles.
Australia is one of the oldest continents, the effects of over 250 million years of erosion have turned it into a flat, low lying and stable land mass. It has a wide variety of landforms. Much of the flat inland is desert. At one time this was a fertile area with many lakes and marshes. Some of these old lakes survive today as salt lakes like Lake Eyre in South Australia, with the lowest elevation of 16 metres below sea level (it occasionally fills with water). The highest peak is Mt Kosciusko, in New South Wales, which is 2228 metres above sea level.
Whilst Australia is often thought of as a dry thinly populated land, this is only trrue of the inland (or outback) areas. The eastern coast is more heavily populated. The huge interior is hot and dry with vast expanses of sandy desert or stone plains giving way to shrub savannah or mallee scrub. The main mountains are along the eastern coast, known as the Great Dividing Range, which has an average altitude of less than 910 metres above sea level. In coastal regions the environments range from tropical rain forest in the north, to pastoral lands an
nd forest in the east and the south-east, to alpine country in the Snowy Mountains and central Tasmania. The highest peak is Mt Kosciusko in the Australian Alps, and is 2,228 metres.
Australia’s deserts are as vast as the Sahara, the snowfields huge and picturesque. Our surfing beaches are among the best in the world.
Australia is a land of unique flora and fauna.

3. GREAT BARRIER REEF

A living wonder. It was World Heritage listed in 1981. The largest complex of coral reefs and islands in the world, consisting of more than 2900 individual reefs and about 900 islands. It runs a distance of 2500km down the coast of Queensland. Its total area is about 344,000 sq. km. It is the biggest marine park in the world. Its distance from the shore ranges from about 15km to 200km. It has an area larger than the United Kingdom and is longer than the west coast of the USA. It is visible from space.
The Reef contains more than 340 identified varieties of coral, colourful anemones, sea urchins and sea slugs. There are dolphins, turtles, sea snakes, fish, shellfish of all kinds, ranging from great clams to tiny cowries. It is the breeding ground for a number of rare and endangered animals. It

t is home to the threatened dugong. Humpback whales come on annual pilgrimages from Antarctica during winter. Multitudes of seabirds nest on the islands during spring and summer.
There are not many sharks around the Great Barrier Reef because they prefer the open sea. The ones commonly encountered are the white tip reef, very timid, and black tip reef sharks. They are easily identified by their markings and are often found on the ocean floor. The sharks found on the reef are fish eaters and pose no threat to visitors, unless harassed, when they may attack out of fear.
Coral reefs are colonies of billions of tiny jelly-like individual creatures that have joined together to form colonies which have been built up slowly over thousands of years. Coral is the hard outer skeleton which protects the soft bodies of the tiny animals. There are many hundreds of species and each has a different growth pattern, from mounds, sheets, fans, branches and antlers. Some are fast growing, some slower. Coral feeds mostly on plankton. It is the living coral that gives the reef its colourful appearance. The skeletal coral is white. Shallow warm water is the ideal environment, with lots of water movement, pl
lenty of light, salty water and low in nutrients.

4. AUSTRALIAN FAUNA
Because Australia is an island, and has been for millions of years, its wildlife has been able to evolve independently.
The animals of Australia are particularly interesting because many of them are distinctly primitive. There are groups of animals whose relatives have long since disappeared from other parts of the world. Many of the animals found in this country are unique.
Australia is home to a variety of native mammals both on land and in the surrounding oceans. They consist of marsupials, monotremes and placental mammals. The largest number of the mammals, almost half, are the marsupials, which include the Kangaroo, Koala and Wombat. The word marsupial is derived from the Latin marsupium, which means pouch. The pouch gives protection to the very young animal and contains the teats from which it feeds. Nourished on its mother’s milk, it grows in the pouch to a well-developed stage before it leaves the pouch. The only other country where marsupials are still found is America, and only a few species remain.
The next group of mammals are the monotremes, the only egg-laying mammals in the world. They have one opening which serves for reproduction and for the elimination of waste products. This group is represented by the Platypus and the Echidna. The other native land mammals are the bats, rats, mice and the Dingo. Australia’s bird species include the Emu and Kookaburra.

4.1. RED KANGAROO

The red kangaroo is the giant of the Australian kangaroos. It is widespread over the mainland. It lives on grasses, and often lives in quite big mobs. It can leap up to five metres long in a jump and so is quite fast over short distances to escape danger.
When adult males are breeding they will often fight each other, face to face, boxing with their front paws and then giving gigantic double kicks with their back legs.
Because of the climate extremes in Australia, the kangaroos have adapted to the break or bust cycles. In droughts many kangaroos will die because there is no feed at all. But in a good season the female can have three young one with her: one as an embryo just starting off and not yet born, one in the pouch who draws a special milk supply from the mother , and another just out who gets milk from a different nipple. So suddenly there can be a population explosion.
Farmers vary in their attitudes from the ferocious “Kill them” to “let’s learn to live them”. They annoy farmers by eating sparse grass and by jumping through fences damaging them.

4.2. LUMHOLTZ TREE KANGAROO

The Lumholtz Tree Kangaroo is found only in Queensland. They are small animals, with rounded ears and a masked dark fur face, with a long tail used for balance. The Tree Kangaroo is a nocturnal animal, and they stay in trees for the majority of their life. They do venture to the ground to find another tree to inhabit. The Tree Kangaroo can leap up to 15 metres to another tree.
The Tree Kangaroo feeds on leaves, fruits and other such food sources. They have the ability to jump from tree to tree, and stick to trees very well with the help of their cushioned feet.

4.3. KOALA

The Koala is one of Australia’s best known animals. It is an icon represented when promoting Australia to the tourist industry, and in general people adore these cuddly creatures. There are two species, the Southern Koalas and the Northern Koalas.
Koalas are often referred to as a Koala bear. However they are not a bear. The name Koala comes from an Aboriginal word. It means “no drink”, as Koalas get enough fluids through the eucalyptus leaves they feed on. Koalas are found all over east Australia, mainly in the south east.
The male Koalas are larger than the females. Southern koalas are larger than Northern koalas. They have a grey soft furred coat, with a white chest. A flat nose and big ears, and clawed feet for climbing. They are very placid animals, and do not move around much, they are only active for about 2 hours of the day.
The old Australian joke of “Koalas: Eats Roots & Leaves” is not quite correct. Koalas feed on eucalyptus leaves, which they have a variety of twelve different species to choose from. This is basically the only thing they do eat, although there are a few exceptions.

4.4. PLATYPUS

The platypus is found in eastern Australia. They live aside freshwater rivers or lakes, and create burrows for shelter and protection. They are active mainly at nighttime hours, and use their webbed feet for swimming. When swimming the platypus has its eyes shut. They swim underwater for 2 minutes, before returning to the surface for oxygen. They can however stay underwater for up to 10 minutes, and due to their natural buoyancy, they need to be underneath another object to do this.
The Platypus has a wooly furred coat and range from 30cm to 45cm in length and the tail about 10 to 15 cm. The wooly furred coat actually has three different layers. The first layer keeps the animal warm, by trapping air, the second layer which provides an insulating coat for the animal, and lastly the third layer of long flat hairs to detect objects close by. These creatures weight on average between 1 to 2.4 kilograms. They have an average lifespan of 12 years.
This lifespan may be shortly diminished, as the platypuses biggest threats are snakes, goannas, rats and foxes. Another big threat to the platypus is man, via waterway pollution or land clearing.
Platypuses feed on insect larvae, worms or other freshwater insects. They do so mainly at night, by the use of their bill. They turn up mud on the bottom of the lake or river, and with the help of their electroreceptors located on the bill, find many insects and freshwater insects. They store their findings in special pouches behind their bill, and are consumed upon returning to the surface.
Platypuses can consume their own body weight in food in a 24 hour period.
If you thought this was a cute and cuddly Australian animal, well, you are only half correct. The male platypus have a hollow spur about 15 milimetres in length on the inside of both hind legs. This in turn is connected to a venom gland, and the platypus uses this spur to defend itself against predators.
The male platypus has venom strong enough to can kill a small dog, or cause excruciating pain among humans.
Since only the male platypus has this venomous spur, and the gland peaks during mating season, many suggest it is normally used in aggressive encounters between other male platypus.
A baby platypus is not called a puggle, which seems to be a common misconception. There is no official name for a baby platypus, but a common suggested name is “platypup”.

4.5. WOMBAT

The northern hairy-nosed wombat is classified as critically endangered and is one of the rarest animals in the world. There is currently only one small population of this species located in the Epping Forrest National Park in central Queensland, the small population in itself is the greatest threat of extinction. The population decline can be largely attributed to loss of habitat to cattle. Northern hairy-nosed wombats are protected in the Epping National Park from their main predator, the dingo. There is a fence to prevent the dingos from eating the wombats as they did in early 2001 (which eliminated 10% of the northern hairy-nosed wombat population). In 1971 the Epping National Forrest was established as a safe heaven for the northern hairy-nosed wombats.
Presently, the habitat of the northern hairy-nosed wombat consists of eucalypt woodland, several patches of scrub on deep soil, and flat grasslands. The northern hairy-nosed wombat prefers deep, sandy soil as it is ideal for digging burrows. This species is not very social but will live in large clusters of burrows; there have been records of to wombats in the same burrow. Northern hair-nosed wombats will burrow near a tree when ever possible. This species is nocturnal; however it is notable that the climate at Epping National Park the weather is very hot. The wombats spend their days in burrows as a retreat from the heat and coming out in the cool night. On winter days some northern hairy-nosed wombats can be seen basking in the sun.
Northern hairy-nosed wombats are about 1000 mm long with a tail that measures around 25 mm. Average weight is 30 kg, making this species the largest burrowing herbivore in the world. Brownish grey soft, silky fur covers the northern hairy-nosed wombat. Its head is wide with pointed ears. Northern hairy-nosed wombats have long claws and strong legs which aide the animal in digging burrows.
The northern hairy-nosed wombat enjoys eating various grasses; two hours per night in the summer are spent eating and six hours per night in the winter. Most likely the fluctuation is related to the heat. This species requires very little water.

4.6. TASMANIAN DEVIL

The Devil is the only carnivorous marsupial left since the other thyalcine or Tasmanian tiger became extinct in 1936. The Devil is alive and well in Tasmania and will still raid farms to kill and make off with hens. It is a fierce looking little creature, solidly built and with white bars across its dark body.
They are active at night and this leads to some road kill.
Over the last few years there has been some more detailed research into their habits, and their territorial systems.

4.7. BOX JELLYFISH

The Box Jellyfish (also known as a Sea Wasp) is a very dangerous creature to inhabit Australian waters. The Jellyfish has extreme toxins present on its tentacles, which when in contact with a human, can stop cardio-respiratory functions in as little as three minutes.
This jellyfish is responsible for more deaths in Australian than Snakes, Sharks and Salt Water Crocodiles.
The creature has a square body and inhabits the north east areas of Australia. The tentacles may reach up to 80 cm. in length. It is found along the coast of the Great Barrier Reef.
This deadly species of jellyfish is related to another deadly jellyfish, the irukandji jellyfish.

4.8. EMU

The Emu is a large flightless bird. They stand to be 1.5 to 2 metres tall, and on average weight 36 kilograms. They have 3 toes and long legs which allows them to run extremely fast. In this species, the female is larger than the male.
Emu’s feed on grass, leaves and small insects. They live all over Australia in grasslands.
The female lays up to 20 eggs, which are large and are soft dark green in colour. These eggs are often prized not only by humans for decoration pieces, but by animals as a food source. The male incubates the eggs for a period of 7-8 weeks, and does not leave the nest for this period. When the eggs hatch, the male emu looks after the hatchlings for another six months.
The Emu is the world’s third largest bird. The Ostrich and the Cassowary take the top positions.

4.9. PIPING SHRIKE

The Piping Shrike has been the official badge of the South Australian Government since 1901. The state emblem generates pride and affection. Governor Tennyson in his dispatch to the Secretary of State for the Colonies said ‘I herewith forward a flag with the new device upon it – the South Australian Shrike in the rising sun of the Commonwealth and hope that as it is a fine design and one which has been favourably received here ..’. (PC008, June 2003)

The piping shrike is also known as the white-backed magpie. Magpies can roughly be divided into white-backed and black-backed. The white-backed magpie is largely confined to western and southern Australia. (Kaplan, 2004).
There are at least four different subspecies of Australian magpie:
The Black-backed Magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen tibicen) found in Queensland and New South Wales, right across the Top End and most of arid Western Australia. In the future the black-backed race may be further split into four separate races, as there are regional differences between them.
At least two of the races were originally classified as separate species, but they are cross-fertile and hybridise readily. Where their territories cross, hybrid grey or striped-backed magpies are quite common.
Magpies mate across the year, but generally in winter. Nesting takes place in winter and spring is the season when the babies are looked after. By late summer the babies either make their own clan or separate from their parents whilst staying in the same clan.

4.10. CASSOWARY

This large flightless bird is confined to the jungle areas of North Queensland.
They are not as tall as an emu but carry more bulk.
Cassowaries carry a reputation for being bad tempered and dangerous. Powerful kicks have killed children. They are good swimmers and used to swim the two miles to Hinchinbrook Island.
The nests are very well hidden among leaves usually at the base of trees in dense scrub or jungle. The eggs are green and usually there are between three and six eggs in a clutch. The male like the emu helps with the chicks.

4.11. BLACK SWAN

Although found in many parts of the country, the Black Swan has become associated with Western Australia and is the emblem of that State.
One of the most graceful of aquatic birds, it has glossy black plumage set off by a bright red beak and white wing – quills.
Both the male and female build the nest and share the care of the young. Unlike many swans, they usually nest in colonies.

4.12. KOOKABURRA

The largest of the kingfishers.
It has a diet of insects, small reptiles, crabs, rats, mice, as well as gifts of meat from the kitchen. It does have nest-robbing habits.
It nests in termites’ nests in trees, or in hollow trees, and lays two to four white eggs.

4.13. LYREBIRD

Lyrebirds can best be described as plain brown birds about the size of a bantam but with long tails. Their most striking feature is the beautiful tail of the male which, when spread out in display, resembles the shape of the old-fashioned musical instrument, the lyre. It is also known to imitate the calls of other birds.
The wings of the lyrebird are short and rounded and it does not fly well, preferring to escape danger by running through the undergrowth. If feeding on a slope, it can flap and glide out of harm’s way.
It feeds on insects, worms, snails and little sand hoppers that are found amongst fallen leaves and rotting logs on the forest floor.

4.14. WHITE COCKATOO

Also known as the sulphur-crested cockatoo, because of its lemon-coloured crest, it is one of Australia’s best-known birds. In captivity it is a proficient talker and a popular pet.
They live in great flocks and rise like a white cloud from the ground. When feeding, they use their powerful beaks to dig out roots, bulbs and seeds.
They usually nest in holes in trees but sometimes in cavities in cliffs. They lay two white eggs.

4.15. ECHIDNA

The Echidna (or affectionately known as the Spiny Anteater) is a primitive mammal. It lives in both Australia and New Guinea.
It is a solitary animal that burrows. When it is attacked, the echidna will burrow into the ground or curl itself into a ball using its spines as a method of defense against the predator. The echidna’s spines cover the top of its body. Echidna’s have long sharp claws on their feet, and are approximately 35-50 cms long with a 10cm long tail. Their nose is very sensitive, they use this to find food, then they use their long sticky tongue to catch ants, worms and other such insects. Echidna’s weigh on average between 2 to 7 kilograms.
Female echidna’s lay a single egg in their pouch. After ten days, the egg hatches and a puggle (baby echidna) is born.

4.16. DINGO

The Dingo is Australia’s wild dog. It is found in Australia, in all states but Tasmania. They are found throughout the mainland of Australia, close to a source of water. The Dingo is a medium sized dog, with a bushy tail, and red to yellow coat. Dingos do not bark, but they do howl. It is not a native animal to Australia, and it is unsure how it arrived on our land, but the current theories are:
Dingos were brought to Australia 15,000 years ago by Koori people.
They are meat eaters, and try to feed mainly on this. If unavailable, dingos have been known to eat reptiles, and any food source it can find. When food is scarce, dingos group together to feed on larger animals such as kangaroos. Dingos usually stay and hunt in family groups or solitare.
Dingos mate once a year, and the female dingo (bitch) gives birth to up to eight puppies. The puppies are weened for two months. After the pups are about four months old, they then begin hunting small game such as rabbits.

4.17. BANDICOOT

The golden bandicoot was taken off the list of endangered species and is currently classified as “vulnerable”. The largest population of golden bandicoots is located on Barrow Island primarily because there are no cats or foxes that prey on the species. There are very small populations in the Northern Territory and Western Australia. Birds are the primary threat to this species. Golden bandicoots also have to compete with rabbits for food.
A golden bandicoot will nest in the hollow of a tree or on the ground; the nest is made of various plant materials. The preferred climate of this species appears to be similar to that of a rainforest. When the temperature rises the golden bandicoot will leave its nest and burrow in some sandy soil in an attempt to keep cool.
The golden bandicoot averages about 350 mm from head to tail making it the smallest of the short nosed bandicoots. The back of a golden bandicoot is covered in golden fur (with some black streaks) that fades into a light rust color on the sides/face which then fades into a pale amber on the underbelly. The feet are the same color as the underbelly and have sharp claws. There are black eyes on the face as well as a long, flat, pointed nose.
Golden bandicoots are omnivores and enjoy eating succulents (where they get a significant amount of water), insects, plant bulbs, and reptiles (small). Food is found when the animal digs small conical holes in the ground at night, as it is nocturnal. A delicacy for the golden bandicoot would be turtle eggs it digs up when turtles are nesting.
Interestingly, the species was referred to as “old people’s food” by the aborigines because golden bandicoots are quite slow.

4.18. BILBY

The bilby has achieved a lot of publicity in Australia in recent years. It has become a symbol of Easter instead of the rabbit which is a serious pest in Australia. The rabbit was introduced to Australia near Geelong in 18 xx. and has caused untold damage to the whole continent as it cleared away the native grasses, shrubs and trees, robbing the native animals and birds of shelter and food. So the bilby which is like a tiny kangaroo has become an national Easter emblem and you can buy chocolate bilbies instead of chocolate bunnies.
It lives in the outback of Australia but has also been threatened by foxes. These pests were brought to Australia by Europeans so that wealthy people could go hunting. Little did they realise the damage that would be caused.

4.19. King Parrot

King Parrot’s can also sometimes be known as Southern King Parrots or a King Lory. These colourful birds inhabit mainly forested areas, but will often live close to suburban areas as a source of food.
The parrots are usually around 40 to 45 cm. in length (which includes a 20 cm. tail). The male king parrot sports a brilliant red breast and head, black tail and dark green body. The female has a dullish green head and body with a dullish red underbelly. They are found along the coastal areas of Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. A King Parrot will feed on fruits, seeds or small insects. Birds close to suburban areas may feed on food crumbs and scraps.
It is important not to feed King Parrots any leftovers, as their diet is much different to that of humans.
King Parrots living close to suburbia have become quite domesticated, and whilst being cautious, are not afraid of human contact. King Parrots will often perch on an outstretched arm to feed on bird seed from an open palm.
King Parrots will often travel together in small parties. King Parrots are large birds and in our opinion, not suitable for captivity. However, these birds are often kept as pets in Australia in less than ample enclosures.

4.20. WEDGE – TAILED EAGLE

The Wedge-tailed Eagle is a beautiful Australian eagle, and is also one of the largest eagles in the World. They are large creatures weighing an average of 4 kg, with an average wing span of 2.5 metres. They are a dark brown/black feathered bird, however the young eagles are a lighter brown colour.
They feed on animals such as rabbits, with their immensely sharp vision, they can easily spot a rabbit from high in the air. They get into a dive and fly extremely fast at their prey, on most occasions killing it instantly. They also feed on dead animals, such as roadkill. The Wedge-tailed eagle nest can be up to 3 metres deep and 2 metres wide. They like to build a nest in the most elevated position that is available in there territory.
The Wedge-tailed Eagle is Australia’s largest bird of prey. The Wedge-tailed Eagle is the fauna emblem of Australia’s Northern Territory.

4.21. LONG – FOOTED POTOROO

Long-footed potoroos are also known as “rat kangaroos”. There are currently only three known populations of this species in Australia; New South Wales, east Gippsland, and the Great Dividing Range. The long-footed potoroo was recently discovered in 1968; in 1978 the long-footed potoroo was recognized as a species. Long-footed potoroos are and endangered species due to an increase of predators and a loss of habitat to human development.
The long-footed potoroo is quite flexible about its habitat; the only necessities appear to be an open forest where food can be easily found and a gully with thick vegetation. Nests made of grass are built in the gully. This species is nocturnal and prefers to live alone.
The body coloration is a dull brown with a grey underbelly. The hind feet are large (hence the name ‘long-footed’) and are peach in color, the same peach color is also present on the front paws, the end of the nose, and the inner ear. Average measurements for the long-footed potoroo are as follows: head and body- 400 mm, tail- 320 mm, hind feet- 110 mm, and weight- 2kg.
Young become independent around 4 months old, until then they follow their mother around. There are records of captive long-footed potoroos living over 13 years, the life span of a wild long-footed potoroo is not known.

5. AUSTRALIAN FLORA

Australia has been isolated for thousands of years and thus plants have been able to develop independently to suit the often harsh natural conditions. Due to the wide range of different environments and plant communities, the native flora of Australia is the most diverse and varied in the world, growing in tropical, rainforest, stony inland deserts, alpine meadows and sandy heathlands. It has been estimated there are about 20,000 to 25,000 different plants native to Australia.

5.1. ACACIAS

Australia’s official national floral emblem, featured on the coat-of-arms. Possibly the best known amongst the Australian plants. With 600 or more kinds of wattles, they can be found in every part of the country, from well-watered areas to the arid Centre to the cold mountain regions. They are usually the first to appear after bush-fires. They can be found growing in the most remote areas, from low, spreading shrubs to large, upright growing trees. The individual flowers are always very small and massed together in pom-pom heads or rod-like spikes.
The largest acacias is the Blackwood Wattle, which is found within the eastern and southern parts of Australia. The most common Arcacias is the Golden Wattle, which is found in the South Eastern parts of Australia, as well as the hotter and drier climates. It is also the floral emblem of Australia. Inland the most common acacias is the Mulga Wattle, which has a harder wood then many of the other species. It was also used to make tools and weaponry by the Aboriginal people.

5.2. BOTTLE BRUSH

The largest family of flowering plants with over 1000 varieties, the Myrtaceae (myrtles). Possibly the best known and widely grown of Australian shrubs. Hardy with tough leaves, often with paper bark, Flowers produced in dense spikes at the end of the branches. The stamens are the most conspicuous part of the flower and are in colours of green, yellow, white and various shades of red and violet. Varying in size from 5 feet shrubs to small trees.

5.3. WAX FLOWER

Shown here is the Long-leaf Wax Flower (Eristemon myoporoides). There are about forty species of waxflowers, having five petals and five sepals. The petals spread in a star-like pattern and they are usually a shade of pink to almost white. They grow along the east coast of Australia.

5.4. STURTS DESERT PEA

The Sturts Desert Pea is a trailing plant, a creeping annual, with bright red flowers, up to 10cm long, carried in clusters on short erect stems. Stalks and leaves are clad in silky grey hairs.
It is also the floral emblem of South Australia.

5.5. WARATAH

Found mainly on the coastal plains and tablelands of the State of New South Wales. There are four kinds of waratah, one of which grows into a tree.
These shrubs and trees have tough, dark green leaves, often toothed edged. The waratah is really hundreds of individual flowers crowded together into a dense head. The bright crimson petals are really modified leaves called bracts. They flower from September to November in rocky and sandy soils from the Blue Mountains of New South Wales to the north in Queensland.
And it is the floral emblem of New South Wales.

6. Išvados

1.Australija tai valstybė – žemynas, esantis į šiaurės vakarus nuo Naujosios Zelandijos ir į pietus nuo Indonezijos. Australija – pats sausringiausias iš apgyvendintų kontinentų.

2.Australijai būdingi 80% gyvūnų ir augalų, kurių nerandama kituose žemynuose: sterbliniai gyvūnai, voverė skraiduolė, strutis Emu ir kt. Augalai: eukaliptai, sumedėję paparčiai ir kt.

6.1. Santrauka

Australija – mažiausias ir gana nuošalus žemynas. Tik Šiaurės vakarų kryptimi nusidriekia didesnės ir mažesnės salos. Australija – plokščiausias, žemiausias ir sausringiausias iš gyvenamų žemynų, kuriame tėra viena valstybė. Todėl, kad Australija atsiskyrusi nuo kitų žemynų, čia susiformavo savita, kitur pasaulyje nesutinkama augalija ir gyvūnija. Australijoje nėra aukštų kalnų, ledynų, veikiančių ugnikalnių. Beveik pusę teritorijos užima dykumos ir pusdykumės.
Išskirtinę Australijos augaliją ir gyvūniją lėmė ne tik gamtos sąlygos, bet ir žemyno raidos istorija. Daugiau kaip prieš 100 mln. metų Australija priklausė dideliam Gondvanos žemynui. Bet viena pirmųjų atskilo nuo jo. Atsiradusi vandens kliūtis nutraukė augalijos ir gyvūnijos ryšius su kitomis sausumos dalimis. Australijos gyvasis pasaulis vystėsi izoliuotai nuo kitų žemynų. Iki šiol čia esama daug augalų ir gyvūnų, būdingų tik Australijai.
Šiaurės ir šiaurės rytų Australijoje vyrauja drėgnas ir karštas klimatas, auga amžinai žaliuojantys atogrąžų miškai. Paplitę eukaliptai, palmės, bambukai, araukarijas, lianos, mediniai paparčiai.

Australija – pats sausringiausias iš apgyvendintų kontinentų. Didžioji dalis vakarų ir centrinės Australijos yra negyvenama, ją užima dykumos ir pusdykumės – apie 40% teritorijos užima smėlio kopos. Tik pietryčių ir pietvakarių pakraščiai turi nuosaikų klimatą ir vidutiniškai derlingas žemes. Šiaurinėje šalies dalyje yra tropinis klimatas: dalis – tropiniai miškai, dalis savaninio tipo, dalis dykuminio tipo.
Apie 80% augalų rūšių ir didžioji dalis gyvūnų sutinkama tik šiame žemyne. Australija – sterblinių gyvūnų pasaulis. Čia gyvena apie 100 jų rūšių: kengūros, koalos, oposumai, voverės skraiduolės ir kt. Taip pat Australijai būdingi ir ančiasnapiai bei koalos. O būdingiausi Australijos medžiai yra eukaliptai. Pasaulyje yra apie 600 skirtingų jų rūšių ir beveik visos kilusios iš Australijos. Dar Australijai būdinga krūmokšnių ir žemaūgių medžių sąžalynai vadinami skrebais. Australija – paradoksų žemė

6.2. Darbo rezultatai

1.Parašytas išsamus projektas apie Australijos faunos ir floros specifiką.
2.Daug sužinota apie Australijos žemyną, klimatą, augaliją bei gyvūniją.
3.Patobulėjo anglų kalbos žinios.

7. Literatūra

1. www.wikipedia.org
2. www.aussie-info.com
3. www.australianfauna.com
4. www.australia.com
5. www.anbg.gov.au
6. www.australianexplorer.com

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