1.PLAN . 2. pages .

2.TEACHING . 3-7.pages .

3.LITERATURE LIST . 8. pages.




3.WASHINGTON . 6-7 pages.


The Vikings visited the continent of North America about a thousand years ago ,but they did not try to settle the land .
According to the writtensagas , Bjarni Herjolfsson was the first European to see the coast of North America and teel the story of his life there .
He was going from Iceland to Greenland but lost his way and went to Am merica instead.

The century of the great geographical discoveries came five hundred years later .In 1492, Spain sent Christopher Columbus to discover a sea route to India.He knew that the world was round and he could rech India by sailing west . With three small ships he sailed for three months and in October 12,1492 he saw land . he thought it was India and gave the name “Indians” to the red-skin people who lived there. But it was an island not far away f from the coast of North America. Columbus died believing that he had found the Far East and never understood that he had discovered a new continent.

Many other brave seamen went out to the new continent. In 1499-1500, Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian s

seaman, reached the coast of South America and explored the Bay of Rio de Janeiro, or River of January. He named the place after the month in which he and his men had found the bay. In one of his letters to his friends Amerigo wrote that he had discovered a new world. The new world was named after him—America, the land of Amerigo .

The great powers of that time –Spain, France and England—sent their people to colonize the new world .The Spanish came there to look for gold, silver and other metals. The French began a trade in animal skins with the Indians. The English came to live and to work there.


The UnitedStates of America is a federal r republic consisting of 50 states. Each state has its own government and constitution and is joined to the other by a federal government. Each state has its own capital . In some states it is the biggest city, for instance , Boston in Massachusetts,but in most states the capital is a smaller place, for instance, Sacramento in California or Albany in NewYork. Washington is the federal capital of the United States of America.

The territory of the United States is nearly the same as t

the area of Europe. It extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. In the north it has a long border with Canada, and in the southwest it is separated from Mexico by the Rio Grande River. Alaska, which became the 49th state in 1959, is separated from the continentalus US by Canada . Hawaii, which became the 50th state in the same year , is half-way between America and Asia.

Half of the area of the United States lies in the large basin between the Appalachian Highlands in the east and the Rocky Mountains in the west. About a third of the country in the west is dominated by high mountains(part of the Cordilleras).Here is the highest peak in the continental US, Mountain Whitney(4,418m).

The rivers flowing into the Atlantic are short .The main river entering the Gulf of Mexico is the Mississippi, the biggest river in the USA. Its most important tributaries are :
the Missouri, the ohio and the Arkansas.

The five Great Lakes –Ontario, Erie, Huron,Michigan and Superior– are on the Canadian border .All of them are navigable. The River Niagara, flowing from Lake Erie into
Lake Ontario, is famous for the Niagara Falls.


The United States is rich in m

mineral recources .Petroleum is found in the states of Texas , Louisiana, Oklahoma and California. Natural gas is foun in the same areas as petroleum. The northern part of the the country is rich in coal and iron ore .

The Atlantic coast is relatively cold in winter. Summers are hot and very humid . The MiddleWest has greater contrast in temperatures, winters are colder and lorger,while smmers are hot and dry .The Pacific coast has a milder climate than the Atlantic coast.Along the coast south of San Francisco, the winters are mild with some rain, the summers are hot ,sunny and dry .

In 1993, the population of the United States was over 256 million. 76 per cent of the inhabitants live in urban areas. About 13 per cent of the USA population are non- white. Most of them are black. The American Indians make up about 0.8 per cent of the whole populatiuon,i. E . less than 2 milion. In the United States of America there are many cities which have a population over a million.


The capital of the United States is Washington. Its full name is Washington D.C.(District of Columbia). The District of Columbia is between the states of Virginia and Maryland, on the Potomac River not fa

ar from the Atlantic coast. It does not belong to any state.The state of Washington is on the west coast.

George Washington, the first President of the United States, chose the place for the capital, but he never lived there.The government moved there after his death, in 1800. At first it was little more than a small village .Even today Washington is not a large city . Such cities as New York ,Chicago,Los Angeles, Detroit and some others are much larger than Washington.

Washington is like no other city of the US .Its only industry is government.About three-quarters of the adult population in Washington, D.C ., directly or indirectly serve the administrative machine.

The largest and tallest among the buildings is the Capital, the home of the US Congress. The building got its name from the temple in Rome.The Capitol can be seen from a distance . There are no skyscrapers inWashington because no other building must be taller than the Capitol.

The Library of Congress has more than 13 million books in various languages and more than 19million manuscripts. Two copies of every American book, newspaper or magazine are sent to the Library.

The US President lives and works in the White House. Itis a two- storeyed building . In 1814 , it was burnt down and yhen it was whitewashed. Since that time the residence of the US presidents has always been painted white .

On the hill behind White House you can see the Washington Monument,which looks like a very big pencil .It is about 160m high and from its top the whole panorama of the District of Columbia can be seen.

The Jefferson Memorial was built in memory of the third US President who also the author of the Declaration of Independence. The memorial is surrounded by cherry- trees. Several thousands of these cherry –trees were given to Washington in 1912 by the city of Tokyo. When they are in blossom,it is the most wonderful season in Washington.

The Lincoln Memorial looks like a big temple in Greek style with 36 columns to represent the states in the Union at Lincoln”s death.

Many tourists visit the Arlington National Cemetery where President John Kennedy was buried. In it are also buried the bodies of American soldiers from every war since the Civil War.

Tourists usually see only the centre of the US capital. Over 70per cent of Washington’s population are black . They live in the ghettoes which are in another place.



My Sixth Reader . Publish KAUNAS “ŠVIESA” 1995.

Compiling Lionginas Pažūsis. Illustrator Jūragis Burkšaitis

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