London

LONDON

London is the place where the historic past and the vibrant present come alive. A blend of history, ground-breaking architecture and culture has created an amazing and constantly evolving city.
Not surprisingly the capital has become a mecca for visitors and a great place to live. There really is something to appeal to everyone and whatever your interests may be, the city has it covered.
With countless museums, galleries and entertainment options throughout the city there has never been a be etter time to come and find out just how much it has to offer.

HISTORY
Roman London
The Romans arrived in 43 AD and established ‘Londinium’ as a permanent military camp, although their principle settlement was in modern day Colchester. In 60 AD, after a failed uprising by the Iceni tribe under Boudica, Londinium was burned to the ground, only to emerge as the new commercial and administrative capital of Britannia.
The Saxons and the Danes
By the fourth century the Roman Empire wa as failing and in 410 the Romans officially abandoned the city, leaving Londinium to the mercy of Saxon invaders. In 841 and 851 the Danish Vikings attacked and in 1016 the Danish leader Canute became King of all England. London was designated the capital, a

position that it has held ever since. The brief Danish rule ended with the accession of Edward the Confessor (1042-66) whose reign saw the geographical separation of power in the capital, with royal government based in Westminster and commerce centred upstream in the City of London.
1066 to the Black Death
Edward appointed Harold, Earl of Wessex, as his successor. Harold was defeated by William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Over the next few centuries, the City waged a continuous struggle with the monarchy for a degree of self-government which culminated in the Magna Carta of 1215. London was granted the right to elect its own Lord Mayor. In 1348 the city was hit by the Europe-wide bubonic plague, the Bl lack Death. This disease, carried by black rats, wiped out half of the capital’s population in two years.
Tudor London
It was under the Tudor royal family that London began to prosper and the population increased dramatically, trebling in size during the course of the century. The most crucial development of the sixteenth century was the English Reformation, the separation of the English Church from Rome. Despite huge religious strife between Catholicism and Protestantism, the Tudor economy remained in good he
ealth. In the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) London also witnessed a specifically English Renaissance, especially in the field of literature, which reached its apogee in the brilliant careers of Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson and William Shakespeare.
Stuart London
In 1603, James VI of Scotland became James I of England (1603-25), uniting the two crowns and initiating the Stuart dynasty. The infamous Gunpowder Plot by Guy Fawkes and a group of Catholic conspirators failed in 1605 when they attempted to blow up the king at the State Opening of Parliament. Under Charles I (1625-49) the animosity between Crown and Parliament culminated in full-blown Civil War. After a series of defeats, Charles surrendered to the Scots and was eventually tried and executed in 1649. London then became a Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell, and found itself in the grip of the Puritans’ zealous law, until Charles II (1660-85) announced the Restoration of the Monarchy. The good times came to an abrupt end with the onset of the Great Plague of 1665 which claimed 100,000 lives. In 1666, London had to contend with The Great Fire when 80% of the city was destroyed and more than 100,000 people were left homeless. The Great Rebuilding, as it was known, was one of London’s most remarkable achievements, an
nd it extinguished virtually all traces of the medieval city.
Georgian London
London’s expansion continued with the accession of George I (1714-27). The volume of trade had more than tripled and London was by now the world’s largest city with a population approaching one million. Although London was wealthy, it was also experiencing the worst mortality rates since records began; disease was rife, but the real killer was gin. At its height, gin consumption was averaging two pints a week, and the burial rate exceeded the baptism rate by more than two to one. Policing the metropolis was also an increasing preoccupation for the government, who introduced capital punishment for the most minor preoccupation. Nevertheless, crime continued unabated throughout the 18 th century so the prison population swelled and transportation to the colonies began.
The 19 th century
The 19 th century witnessed the emergence of London as the capital of an empire that stretched across the globe. The city’s population grew from just over one million in 1801 to nearly seven million by 1901, bringing with it overcrowding and pollution, especially in the slums of the East End. The accession of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) coincided with a period in which the country’s international standing reached unprecedented he
eights, and the spirit of the era was perhaps best embodied by the Great Exhibition of 1851, which took place in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park. While half of London struggled to make ends meet, the other half enjoyed the fruits of the richest industrialised nation in the world.
The 20 th century
During World War I (1914-18) London experienced its first aerial attacks, but they were minor casualties in the context of a war that destroyed millions of lives. After the boom of the ‘Swinging Twenties’, the economy buckled after the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange in 1929. When World War II (1939-45) broke out, London was largely unprepared for the bombing campaign, known as the Blitz, which continued for 57 consecutive nights. After the war, many Londoners abandoned the city for good, starting a population decline that has continued. The subsequent labour shortage problem was solved as immigration increased from the former colonies, in particular the Indian subcontinent and the West Indies. During the so-called ‘Swinging Sixties’, fashion hit London in a big way, and London was proclaimed the hippest city on the planet. In 1979, Margaret Thatcher won the general election for the Conservative Party, which was to remain in power for 17 years.
The 21 st century
London has come a long way since the Thatcher years. Redevelopment has continued apace and a series of prestigious new millennium projects and commercial construction have changed the face of the city. There has also been large-scale investment in infrastructure. A significant political development for London has been the creation of the Greater London Assembly (GLA), along with an American-style Mayor of London, both elected by popular mandate.

SHOPPING IN LONDOND

With over 30,000 shops and 26 major street markets to choose from, the sheer variety on offer is hard to imagine. The city that gave the world the mini skirt, punk and Alexander McQueen continues to bubble over with excellent fashions, from in-the-know East End boutiques to the world-famous Selfridges.
Different areas have their own specialities. Jewellery lovers will find nirvana in Clerkenwell, and record collectors will discover second-hand haven in Hanway Street and Notting Hill. So get the credit card out and start spending.

Oxford Street

Oxford Street has long been a prime shopping location. The main attraction is its 300 shops and landmark stores. Each year the street attracts over nine million visitors buying the most up-to-date stock. Whether you want designer clothing or affordable fashion, Oxford Street has a store to cater for you.
Selfridges is one of street’s most famous stores, and it has recently earned a well-deserved reputation for being a good place to source contemporary designer clothes. The new Superbrands section on the women’s floor now makes Selfridges home to some of fashion’s most directional names. Dolce and Gabanna, Balenciaga, Alexander McQueen and Marni have all taken up residency. The store also has an extensive men’s section, a comprehensive food hall, nineteen quality eateries, a giant cosmetics hall and even a tattoo and piercing studio on the ground floor.

Knightsbridge

Visitors from around the world flock to Brompton Road to see the illustrious shops and department stores that inhabit the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. This is the place to head to if you are looking for prestigious brands and up-to-the-minute trends from the world’s fashion elite.
Harrods is often the first stop on any visitor’s itinerary. Although it started life as a modest grocer’s in 1849, it has since grown into a store stocking every possible item and remains a magnet for shoppers with its vast range of departments.

Regent Street
Regent Street is impressive. John Nash conceived this elegantly constructed shopping street in the 1820s and it has remained a strong shopping destination ever since. Today it has a good range of mid-priced stores to choose from including some of the city’s oldest and most famous shops.

Markets
London has dozens of markets throughout the week. If you are looking to buy something unusual then make them your first port of call. Stylists, antique dealers, students, collectors and tourists are all to be found checking out the offerings.
One of the better known markets in London is found in Camden from Thursday to Sunday. It is formed of five connecting markets selling a combination of clothes, food, artwork, antiques and music. It has earned a reputation for being a good place to source unusual items, particularly quirky clothing ideal for clubbing. You’re guaranteed to pick up a bargain whether it is some enticing international food or some new funky jewellery. The nearest tube station is Camden Town.
Another famous market has got to be Portobello Road. Its location is in the heart of fashionable Notting Hill and the content and quality of the stalls reflects this. Expect to see quality antiques, vintage clothing, directional accessories and organic foods. Every Friday to Sunday the area is packed with people keen to search the racks of clothes and the market is popular with everyone from cool-hunters to tourists. Head to Ladbroke Grove, Notting Hill or Westbourne Park underground stations to see what you can find.
Heading east will lead to the discovery of lots of markets. Petticoat Lane market has been operating since 1750 and remains popular to this day. Over a thousand stalls sell mainly cheap clothes, toys and electronic goods. In fact you can get some pretty good bargains, especially in clothing with some high street names available at reduced prices. The market is open every Sunday from 0900 to 1400 and the nearest tube station is Liverpool Street.

MUSEUMS

British Museum
Founded in 1753 by Act of Parliament, from the collections of Sir Hans Sloane, the British Museum is one of the great museums of the world, showing the works of man from prehistoric to modern times with collections drawn from the whole world. Famous objects include the Rosetta Stone, sculptures from the Parthenon, the Sutton Hoo and Mildenhall treasures and the Portland Vase. There is also a programme of special exhibitions and daily gallery tours, talks and guided tours.
Madam Tussaud‘s
It is an ehibition of hundreds of life-size wax models of famous people of yesterday and today.
Over two million visitors a year come to see the lifelike wax models of the famous and infamous pop stars and royalty.
The wax figures are placed in new themed areas, including ‘The Garden Party’, ‘Two Hundred Years of Madame Tussaud’s’, ‘Hollywood Legends’ and ‘The Spirit of London’.
Famous figures in wax include Princess Diana, Michael Jackson, the Beatles and many more.
You can stand next to the figures for a great photo opportunity and impress your friends back home.
The National Gallery
Stands on the north side of Trafalgar Square, it contains a collection of paintings from 13th century.

PARKS

The parks have been called the lungs of London.They give Londoniers the opportunity to walk in the green,to have picnics,to row boats,to go horse-riding,to feed and watch animals, and all this without leavingthe city.
London can really boast about its variety of parks ranging from the largest to the smallest. London parks are beautiful, spectacular and truly amazing. You would never imagine city such as London to have so much green and open space till you actually land here. Every part of London has at least one park, no matter if it’s just a small pool with surrounding trees or a park like the magnificent and slightly wild in appearance Richmond Park. Considering sheer numbers of London parks we will concentrate on most popular ones.
Hyde Park – This is the most prominent and famous London park. It is the „peoples park“: it is used for every kind of public.Surrounded from north with Queensway and Bayswater (plenty of youth hotels and hostels including Whiteleys shopping centre), with Mayfair (American Embassy, Bond Street, the Intercontinental hotel) from east, Kensington on west (nice small shops on Kensington Church Street) and plenty of bigger ones in High Street and Knightsbridge on south (Exhibition Road, Royal Albert Hall, Harrods shop, Belgrave Square with Embassies), this park has the best London location from where you can reach main shopping areas.
Being 360 acres in size it can take some time to cross it over. In summer time there is option of renting a small boat and gently paddling in the lake, having refreshing drink or maybe fishing in certain allocated places. Beware; you will need a licence for fishing. Just stroll around and see a statue of Peter Pan or just enjoy the view.
If you are into roller-skating this is the place for you. In the park itself there is Speakers Corner where you can let your soul out and scream at the whole world or have normal debate with strangers about topics that interest you. Kensington Palace can be found in Kensington Gardens, part of Hyde Park. If you would like to pay tribute to late Princess Diana go there. After her death thousands upon thousand’s of people came just to lay the flowers and leave cards.
Taking a tube to Baker Street, Regent`s Park or Portland Street you will emerge in front of Regents`s Park. This park can offer you variety of fun and leisure. Inside the park is boating lake where you can again rent a boat and take pictures of birds nesting on an island found in the middle of lake. If you are avid lover of beautifully cultivated flowers you will have memorable experience.
To see roses blooming and inhale all of those smells is trip well worth taking on. With plenty of chairs and benches around, you could just sit and watch the time pass you by. There is small restaurant inside the park but we have to say that cup of coffee or tea will be expensive for you coming here as a tourist. Better suggestion and more fun is to take hamper basket with you. At least like this you will have plenty of time to relax and watch others. On the north side of the park is London Zoo.
Like almost everything in the London, entry to the Zoo is dear but worth it. Following recent renovations and installation of new cages you can see endangered species and help the animals by adopting them. It will give you sense of achievement and will really help preserve the Zoo that is always in need of financial support. You can play a game of tennis or if you have come in larger numbers there are plenty of football fields where you can test your skill.
The park is also home for Regents College with many foreign student who has come here for further education. Outside Regent`s Park is the biggest Mosque in London and beware when there is a Muslim holiday it can become crowded and busy with traffic in local streets.

The Annotation of London city

The article is meant to deepen knowledge in the field of one of the biggest and busiest cities in the world and the capital of England – London.
The focusing problems are as follows : what we should know about Londond , places to visit in London.
The content of the article implies the following matters : history of Londond , shopping in Londond , museums and London parks.
The first part familiarizes wit history of London , begining with Roman London, till our days.
The second part is intended to review shopping in Londond. It is one of the main reasons people flock to London all year round.
The following section provides a brief infotmation about the most famous London museums as The British Museums and Madam Tussaud‘s.
Special attention is focused on the parks that have been called the „lungs“ of London.

Vocabulary

Vibrant – kunkuliuojantis;
Emerge – paaiškėti,kilti;
Tribe – gentis, giminė, padermė;
Settlement – apsigyvenimas, įsikūrimas; apgyvendinimas;
Permanent – nuolatinis; pastovus; ilgalaikis; permanentinis;
Appeal – kreipimasis; atsišaukimas;
Constantly – nuolat; pastoviai;
Medieval – viduramžių, viduramžiškas;
Trace – pėdsakas;
Remarkable – nepaprastas; nuostabus, (į)žymus, puikus;
Abrupt – staigus, netikėtas, šiurkštus, atžarus, status, skardingas, nelygus ;
Zealous – uolus, stropus, atsidėjęs; aistringas, karštas;
Grip – gniaužtai;
Animosity – priešiškumas, pyktis, piktumas;
Trebling – trigubas, tris kartus (didesnis/daugiau);
Prosper – klestėti; tarpti, vešėti, puikiai gyventi;
Strife – kova; konkurencija;
Plague – maras; maro epidemija;
Struggle – kova; grumtynės;
Successor – tęsėjas, perėmėjas, paveldėtojas, įpėdinis;
Reign – karaliavimas, viešpatavimas;
Accession – pritarimas, sutikimas; prisijungimas;
Mercy – gailestingumas, gailestis,malonė; pasigailėjimas;
Trade – amatas, verslas, profesija, užsiėmimas,prekyba;
Mortality – mirštamumas;
Rife – įprastas, įprastinis; paplitęs, gausus, pilnas;
Consumption – (su)naudojimas, (su)vartojimas, džiova;
Preoccupation – nuolatinis rūpestis, susirūpinimas; susimąstymas, užėmimas/užvaldymas anksčiau (už kitą) ar iš anksto;
Unabated – nemažėjantis, nesilpnėjantis, nesilpstantis, neslūgstantis;
Emergence – pasirodymas; (iš)kilimas;
Empire – imperija,viešpatavimas;
Slum – lūšna, landynė, lindynė; lindynių kvartalas;
Embodied – įkūnyti; įgyvendinti, (iš)reikšti, apimti, jungti;
Consecutive – einantis iš eilės; nuoseklus;
Decline – smukimas, nuosmukis, nykimas, mažėjimas;
Subsequent – einantis po, paskesnis, tolesnis, vėlesnis;
Labour – darbas;
Redevelopment – perstatimas, rekonstrukcija;
Apace – greitai, sparčiai;
Skirt – sijonas;
Punk- pankas;
Cater – aprūpinti maistu ir gėrimais;
Source – ištaka, šaltinis; priežastis, pradžia;
Contemporary – šiuolaikinis, šiuometinis, dabartinis, bendraamžis, vienmetis;
Directional – kryptinis;
Extensive – platus, išplėstas; didelis;
Comprehensive – visapusis, išsamus, platus;
Flock – plaukti, plūsti, būriuotis, burtis; spiestis;
Inhabit – gyventi, apgyventi;
Brands – fabriko ženklas/etiketė,kategorija.rūšis;
Itinerary – maršrutas, kelias, vadovas;
Bargain – sandėris, susitarimas, derybos; sandėris;
Funky – naujoviškas, madingas;
Treasures – brangenybė(s); turtas, pinigai;vertinti,branginti;
Lifelike – kaip gyvas, labai panašus
Lung – plautis
Spectacular – įspūdingas, impozantiškas; efektingas;
Magnificent – didingas; nuostabus, puikus;
Slightly – lengvai; silpnai;
Prominent – įžymus, garsus; žinomas, gerai matomas, pastebimas;
Stroll – pasivaikščiojimas;
Emerge – išeiti, pasirodyti;
Avid – godus, gobšus; trokštantis;
Hamper – kliudyti, trukdyti; varžyti;

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