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VV04B grupės studentė ________
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2004/2005 m. m.

Communication is a transaction-an exchange-between two or more people. Sometimes it is felt to be the most important and meaningful part of a person’s life. Organizational communication can be internal and external, formal or informal. Several factors explain the importance of communication to the modern business organization:
 The growth of business organization
 The increased specialization of tasks
 A lack of skill among senders and receivers
 The relationships between communication an nd organizational effectiveness
 The computerization of the business organization.
Also communication is verbal and nonverbal, but the biggest part takes nonverbal communication. And in conclusion I think that communication, on all levels, is very important for people.

Human communication and communication media
Effective communication can be hard to achieve . Sometimes it seems that no matter how carefully we try to phrase the things we say, the listener either doesn’t understand us, or they misunderstand us. In verbal communication we often add emphasis through body la anguage or the intonation of our voice. We may adopt defensive or intimidating postures to reinforce the intended messages and, of course, we may raise or lower our voices. These techniques are used subconsciously, having evolved over many thousands of ye

ears of human interaction.

Our modern communication strategies are founded on ancient capabilities developed via human-to-human communication.

Modern communications technologies enable different kinds of communication. Until Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876, the written letter was the main means of long distance communication. In the intervening century people have adapted to the telephone and new means of communication evolved that are different from those used face-to-face.
If we can’t see the people we are speaking to, we can’t see their body language. This places great emphasis on the clarity of what is being said. If you observe someone you know making a ‘phone call you may see and hear them behaving differently to the way they would behave in a face-to-face co onversation.
Some channels of communication seem to influence what we say and how we say it. And sometimes we read things into the message which are not there.

Communication Methods
Experts say that communication is composed of different methods: words, voice, tone and non-verbal clues. Of these, some are more effective in delivering a message than others. According to research, in a conversation or verbal exchange:
Words are 7% effective
Tone of voice is 38% effective
Non-verbal clues are 55% effective.
Non-verbal clues include:
br /> Body language (e.g., arms crossed, standing, sitting, relaxed, tense),
 Emotion of the sender and receiver (e.g., yelling, speaking provocatively, enthusiastic)
 Other connections between the people (e.g., friends, enemies, professional similarities or differences, personal similarities or differences, age similarities or differences, philosophical similarities or differences, attitudes, expectations).
In other words, WHAT you say is not nearly as important as HOW you say it!

Communication Elements
Elements of speaking:
 Body language
 Voice quality
 Intention
 Manner: directness, sincerity
 Dress and clothing (style, color, appropriateness for situation)
 Visual aids, animation
 Eye contact
 Emotional content, energy, strength
 Self-concept
 Concept of others
 Listening, hearing the underlying message
 Speaking from the heart
 Energy
 Setting, time, place, timing
 How the messenger holds the message
 Sensitivity
 Rhythm and pacing
 Attitude and confidence
 Rapport
 Agenda
 Purpose of communication – knowing what you want to communicate
 Clarity
 Silence, centering, looking
Elements of Listening:
 Attentiveness to speaker
 Eye contact
 Intention be fully awake and aware
 Openness: to other person and your own
 Paying attention
 Listening to yourself
 Feedback
 Body language
 Change in pattern
 Expectations about person speaking, about their message , about their agenda

Several myths and realities about the nature of communication exist:
1. Myth: We only communicate when we intend to. Reality: We frequently communicate messages we

e are not aware of communicating.
2. Myth: We communicate as if words had specific meaning. Reality: Words do not have meanings; rather, meanings are based on individuals’ past experiences and perceptions .
3. Myth: We communicate primarily with words. Reality: The majority of the messages we communicate are based on the nonverbal aspects of communication.
4. Myth: Communication is one-way activity. Reality: Communication is a two-way activity in which feedback from the other party is crucial.
5. Myth: The message we communicate is identical to the message received. Reality: The message finally received by the listener is never identical to the message sent.
6. Myth: You can never give someone too much information. Reality: People can be given too much information. An information overload can be just as much of a problem as not having enough information.

Distortion in Sending and Receiving Messages
Picture 2

Notice that between the sender and the receiver the path appears to be straight. However, this is rarely the case. There are many different ways to distort the message or to filter it (both in delivering the message and in receiving the message). All of the distortions can occur for both the listener and the receiver.
Improving verbal communications requires first that we understand that communication is rarely pe

erfect or clear in and of itself. We must learn to listen better and speak more clearly. We must also check whether our message is delivered correctly and whether we have heard a message clearly.

Eye Contact
Especially important in facial communication is the role played by the eyes. Eye contact is one of the most powerful forms of nonverbal communication. Authority relationship as well as intimate relationships are frequently initiated and maintained with eye contact. Looking directly at a listener is usually thought to convey openness and honesty. You usually feel it is easier to trust someone who looks right at you. On the other hand, you tend to distrust those who don’t look directly at you, to attribute less confidence to those who avoid eye contact. In addition, prolonged eye contact can signal admiration, while brief eye contact usually means anxiety. Although more eye contact is usually better than less, note that direct eye contact of more than ten second can create some discomfort and anxiety .

What does the graphic tell you about this speaker?

A person’s general posture, even without specific gestures, communicates meaning. It frequently gives clues about a person’s self-confidence or status. For example, an interviewer may conclude that an applicant is nervous if he or she sits with arms crossed and shoulders hunched. Posture is also a way of demonstrating interest in another person you are speaking with; you demonstrate interest in that person. Sitting back, on the other hand, may communicate a lack of interest.
Classification Systems
It is difficult to assess the exact importance of gesture and posture as modes of communication. However, they are assuming more importance in organizational life. A London-based management consultant, Warren Lamb, works by holding an interview session and watching for the following body movements:
 Side-to-side movements
 Forward and backward movements
 Vertical movements.

Communicating with Space
One more type of nonverbal communication is proxemics, or how we communicate with space. How close or far we stand in relation to the other person, where we sit in e room, and how we arrange the office furniture has a real impact upon communication. One of major writers on this type of communication is an anthropologist, Edward T. Hall. He identifies three major types of space:
Feature-fixed space
 Semi-fixed feature space
 Informal space.

Dress and appearance
All of us have heard the phrase “clothes make the person”. However most of us are not aware of the impact that our clothing has on those around us. Don’t underestimate appearance. A professional appearance is comparable to values, and regardless of your personal opinion, somewhere in the hiring process; appearance may become the deciding factor. I am not talking about wearing jeans to an interview. Most candidates believe they have a professional appearance and equate ability with job experience and academic success. Based on that definition, they feel they are the best-qualified candidates. This can sometimes be a sensitive area for candidates, but don’t be naïve or in denial that appearance doesn’t count .
Appearance Matters
Many books are available about dressing for success, but I have two important points to make. First, if you want to be a professional, look like a professional. I learned this in my first year of high school from my baseball coach. On our very first day of practice, we were all eager to begin hitting and throwing the baseball. Most of us had been playing organized baseball since we were eight years old. But on our first day of high school practice, we spent the entire time learning the finer points of wearing the baseball uniform
At the time, I thought it was a waste of time, but over the years, I continue to hear the coach saying, “If you are going to be a professional, then you must look like a professional.” Our dress set the tone for who we were and we took pride in our appearance. That pride carried over to the baseball field and we consistently won championships and sent many players to college on athletic scholarships and on to professional baseball. A second point of interest was that while we did not have the latest style uniforms in the state, because of the way we wore them, they appeared to be of much higher quality.

Look like a Professional
The second point concerns how you determine what professional dress is. It’s easy, just look at successful people. Don’t be misled by a few successful mavericks who dress counter to mainstream successful businessmen and women. Recently, a friend of mine told me a story which highlights that people are not only looking at your appearance, they are aware of how successful people dress and groom themselves.
During an office visit for an EKG, my friend struck up a casual conversation with the nurse and found out she was a single mom with several children. She was particularly proud of her oldest son who was doing exceptionally well in school. She shared her hopes for him to go to college and then to become a successful businessman. This doctor’s office was in an affluent area and she had come into contact with a number of successful business people.
When she pulled my friend’s trouser leg up to attach the electrodes, she commented that he was wearing over-the-calf socks. She said she keeps telling her son he is to wear over-the-calf socks, because successful businessmen do. This was a woman who understood and passed on to her son things she noticed about successful people. You should be doing the same thing for yourself as you meet and talk with successful people.
Concluding Thought
While conducting your job search, use this time to also consider starting your own business. Take inventory of your talents and the experience you have gained over the years running your own business unit within a company. Can you replicate that as your own small business? Can you take that experience and tailor it to an existing market trend that fits well with your talents? If you have a unique specialty, employers may want to contract for your services. This could enable you to grow your consulting position into a small vendor to support your existing and other clients.

The communication involved in the choice of colour is closely related to dress because colour in clothing affects communication. There is some evidence of a relationship between specific moods and colour. This relationship in terms of colour, mood and frequency of times chosen is illustrated in Table 1.
Table 1
Mood tone Colour Frequency of times chosen
Exciting-stimulating Red 61
Secure-comfortable Blue 41
Distressed-disturbed-upset Orange 34
Tender-soothing Blue 41
Protective-defending Red 21

Brown 17

Blue 15

Black 15

Purple 14
Despondent-dejected-unhappy-melancholy Black 25

Brown 25
Calm-peaceful-serene Blue 38

Green 31
Dignified-stately Purple 45
Cheerful-jovial-joyful Yellow 40
Defiant-contrary-hostile Red 23

Orange 21

Black 18
Powerful-strong-masterful Black 48

Being early, on time, or late communicates much in our society. The setting and meeting of deadlines is also important. The employee who is habitually late for work and misses deadlines communicates very little interest in the job. Another observation about time is that individuals with high status are usually able to get appointments sooner and their meetings with superiors are usually of a longer duration. High-status people usually have more flexibility in their working hours. We even hear talk about “banker’s hours” as the working day for higher-status individuals.
Another way in which time communicates has to do with the amount of time it takes to provide or receive feedback. For example, if people respond “too quickly” to a written request, we may feel that they have not given it careful consideration. On the other hand, if a long time goes by without a response, we feel a lack of interest, even though formal communication has not taken place.

Body Language
In business you seldom get a second chance to make that all important first impression Yet research by psychologists has shown that people decide what they think of you within four minutes of a first meeting – and 75% of that is swayed by your body language rather than what you actually say.
Body language is the reason why selling face-to-face has a huge advantage over selling by phone.
Usually when we communicate with or see people, we only respond to what is being said, heard or generally seen. There is so much more involved and most of us do not pick up on it: it’s our body language and it can express a thousand words.
Our body language will give others an impression of ourselves or show our emotions. You’re probably using it right now to read this article (you will either be alert and interested, or baffled and un-interested).
Our body language is an important aspect of running a successful business as we cannot always say what we really feel. This means we have to act positive in negative situations (and vice-versa of course). You can also identify other people’s body language and know what they really mean: whatever they may be saying.
No matter how many hours you’ve labored over your presentation in order to get across the right message, if your non-verbal messages are wrong, the impact of what you say may be lost.
Mr. Gabor offers these tips for using TACTFUL conversations:
 T = Think before you speak
 A = Apologize quickly when you blunder
 C = Converse, don’t compete
 T = Time your comments
 F = Focus on behavior – not on personality
 U = Uncover hidden feelings
 L = Listen for feedback

To help you make your body mean business TSB and psychologist Dr David Lewis have teamed up to give you ten ‘do’s’ and ‘don’ts’ with your body when trying to conduct a successful business meeting:
Do give an eye-brow flash on meeting. Here the eyebrows are briefly raised and lowered – it takes around l/5th of a second. This powerful message has been found in every society and culture studied. It draws attention to our face and, although we seldom notice the subtle movement, not being “flashed” by someone we are on good terms with, creates feelings of hostility.

Do give plenty of eye contact on first meeting and at regular periods during any discussions. This displays interest and sincerity. But beware of staring – it makes you appear aggressive – or avoiding eye contact which looks dishonest.
Do rectum a handshake with the same pressure offered by the other person. Avoid both the limp handshake, which conveys a wimpiest image, and the bone-crushing grip, mostly used by males. If your palms perspire from anxiety, be sure to wipe your hand discreetly before extending it.
Do walk tall. A relaxed but confident posture conveys self-assurance and honesty. It encourages people to trust you and take you seriously in any negotiations.
Do watch for barriers and buy signs to check your message is getting through. If you see any of the following, the chances are you’ll have to work harder to win your point:
Leaning away from you
Folding of arms or crossing of legs
An arm clasp in which the upper arms are firmly gripped. This represents either high anxiety or extreme anger and conveys almost total rejection. It is the clearest possible sign that he or she is uninterested in what you’re saying.
Don’t fidget. Playing with a pencil, cigarette, keys or drumming your fingers betrays anxiety. And beware of feet fidgeting as well. Shifting from one foot to the next, kicking, scuffing or rubbing one foot against the other reveals conflict and tension.
Don’t rub your ear. Gently massaging or tugging at the ear lobe betrays a subconscious desire to block out the other person’s words. People do this if they dislike what’s said, but can’t or won’t say so directly.
Don’t scratch your neck. Those able to read body language will know that this gesture reveals that what you’re saying conflicts with your true feelings. It betrays doubt and, on occasions, deception. For some reason the neck is usually scratched exactly five trines, rarely less and seldom more.
Don’t tug your collar. A man telling lies, while wearing a shirt and tie, may gently ease the collar away from his neck. This reduces an uncomfortable tingling caused by tensions in the neck muscles due to increased stress.
Don’t smooth the back of your head. Head grooming in which the hair is smoothed downward two or three trines, is used when people are uncertain what to do for the best as they can see both good and less attractive features in a proposal.
Psychologist, Dr David Lewis comments: “Body language is important in all walks of life, but perhaps nowhere more so than in business when gaining a person’s confidence quickly is critical. If you follow these tips, you will seriously increase your chances of success.”
Famous Body Language-How those in the public eye fare with their non-verbal communication Your body language can betray a great deal about what you are truly thinking and feeling particularly if it is in conflict with what you are saying. Psychologist Dr David Lewis analyzed a number of public figures to assess who’s good and who’s bad at making their body language work for them – here are two examples:
Sir John Harvey Jones – has a magisterial bearing and build. Hands clasped behind his back, he strides across the factory or board room floor, the master of all he surveys. When listening, he uses another piece of “magistrate’s body language”, using his glasses to indicate a point or adopt a thoughtful pose. His expression, which is often lively and humorous, is somewhat at odds with his commanding posture and stance.
Richard Bryson – his body language reveals a quick energetic, thinker who loves darting from one topic to the next. When listening to anything of interest, he leans forward conveying great enthusiasm and excitement. He moves briskly and purposefully – further indications of a high energy level and a determination to get things done. But his face can prove hard to read, suggesting – as his spectacular career confirms – he is a tough man to negotiate with.

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8. http://www.mokslai.com/





Elements of speaking: 5
Elements of Listening: 6






Appearance Matters 11
Look like a Professional 12
Concluding Thought 12



Do’s 16
Don’ts 17


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