Capital – CAIRO
Area – 1001 450 km²
Populate number – 66 100 000
Language – Arabic
Basic religion – Islam 94% , Other 6%
Government – Many parties democracy
Monetary unit – Egypt pound
Literate – 50%
Life duration – 61 years
People for 1 doctor – 1320
TVs for 1000 people – 109
Longest river – Nile (this river longest in the world)
Egypt is one of the most fertile areas of Africa, and one of the most fertile of the countries around the Mediterranean Sea. Because it is so fertile, people came to live in Egypt earlier than in most places, probably around 40,000 years ago. At first there weere not very many people, but gradually Egypt became more crowded, so there was more need for a unified government. Around 3000 BC (5000 years ago), Egypt was first unified under one ruler, who was called the Pharaoh.
From that time until around 525 BC, when Egypt was conquered by the Persians, Egypt’s history is divided into six different time periods. These are called the Old Kingdom, the First Intermediate Period, the Middle Kingdom, the Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom, and the Thhird Intermediate Period.
Egypt has a very special environment, which has played a very big part in Egyptian history. Basically Egypt is really part of the Sahara Desert, which runs all across the top of Africa. But the Sahara is a
do not live in the desert (though actually the Sahara was not as dry in antiquity as it is now). But even in antiquity it hardly ever rained in Egypt. The reason people did live in Egypt, though, was that the Nile River runs through the middle of Egypt. The Nile is a big river.It starts in the rain forest south of Ethiopia, south of Egypt, near the A in Africa on this map, and it flows north into the Mediterranean Sea. (If it seems funny to you that a river flows north, so that it looks like the water is going up on the map, you’re not alone. Lots off people find this hard to remember).
Water from the Nile makes it possible to grow crops in Egypt, especially grain (wheat and barley) and beans (like lentils or chickpeas).
The way this worked in antiquity was that every year it would rain so much in the highlands of Ethiopia that the Nile river would flood. Most of Egypt flooded every year in the late summer and fall (earlier in the south and later in the north). The flood waters were full of
The rest of the year, while the crops were growing, people got water from the Nile River to their fields in canals and irrigation ditches that they dug with picks and shovels. As soon as you are too far from the Nile to get the water to the fields, it turns back into desert again (as you can see in the picture).
THE HISTORY OF EGYPT
About 5,000 years ago, a remarkable way of life, or civilization, grew up along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. It flourished for over 3,000 years, longer than most other civilizations in the world’s history. Egypt is among the most influential of Arab states. It lies between Africa and the Middle East. This ancient country holds a history of over 6,000 years and has many exciting attractions for travelers. The Pyramids, the Sphinx, the tomb of young King Tut are just a few attractions that interest and excite people of all ages.
Egyptian history begins ar
After many failed dynasties and deaths of great rulers, a time span of more than 400 years, power moved into the hands of priests and the empire declined. The dynasties became so weak, that Alexander the Great had no problem taking over Egypt. Although he did not spend much time in Egypt, his capital city of Alexandria, where he is believed to be buried, is to this day very successful. His empire was divided among his generals and this Gr
THE NILE RIVER
No other civilization in the time of the pharaohs could compete with Egypt’s magnificent buildings, its wealth, or its long centuries of peace. To a large extent, this is because other civilizations did not have Egypt’s main advantage — its great river. For tens of thousands of years the focal point of Egyptian life has been the River Nile. Egypt is correctly said to be the gift of the Nile and Egypt’s two most important areas are the Delta and the Nile Valley. The Nile Delta is the heartland of Egypt. The ancient Egyptians believed that the waters of the Nile came from a “mysterious heaven of plenty”. All of Egypt depended on the Nile for water, food, and transportation. The need to maintain irrigation channels as well as the convenient transportation that the river provided were some of the reasons Egypt was the first country in the world to have a national government. The availability of this unlimited supply of water allowed the creation of a society which produced the wonders of ancient Egypt.
Pharaoh simply means “the one who lives in the palace”. Egyptians addressed their pharaoh as though he were a god with several forms. They thought he was more than human and addressed him with the names of several gods. The pharaoh’s most godlike names were “son of Re” and “giver of life like Re”. The Egyptians believed that no single name could express the greatness of their ruler. They also believed by serving the gods, the king helped the sun to rise every morning and helped the Nile to flood at the end of each summer. They believed that in return for the offerings of food and water that only the pharaoh could make, the gods would feed the souls of the Egyptians after death. The pharaoh’s power was almighty and unquestioned. As a matter of fact, just touching the pharaoh’s crown or scepter, even accidentally, carried the death penalty. The pharaoh’s chief duty was to build and maintain temples to the gods.
The buildings of Egypt that will impress you the most are probably the pyramids. All of them were built to contain the tombs of pharaohs. So far, 46 pyramids have been found. Others may still be discovered, lying in the ruins, under the desert sands. In the 27th century BC, the first pyramid was built and pyramids became the most popular way to bury royalty. It is the pyramids themselves that make Egyptian archeology so exciting. One reason why the pyramids were so fascinating was that they were the earliest buildings ever to be made by precisely cutting and putting together great blocks of stone. In stonework, Egypt led the world for more than 2,000 years. The Egyptians believed that a dead person’s soul still needed the dead body and special objects buried with it in order to survive after death. They knew that the dry desert preserves things well, and they chose burial places there that are often well preserved today. Important Egyptians were wealthy enough to build magnificent tombs and furnish them richly with treasures, inscriptions, paintings, and statues. One of the most famous pyramids is the Great Pyramid of Khufu. It has 2,300,000 blocks and each block in the pyramid weighs 2.5 tons.
Egyptians did not paint images to show what people were really like, instead, a picture was a kind of diagram. These diagrams were thought to have magical powers. To preserve the magical power of their art, the Egyptians believed they must copy exactly the style handed down through the ages. This meant that most artists painted in the same way, and the people they painted all looked the same. Tomb pictures were closely connected with Egypt’s famous picture writing, or hieroglyphs, invented about 5,000 years ago. The Egyptians believed hieroglyphs were magical too, and they used them mostly in temples and tombs. All hieroglyphic symbols began as pictures standing for whole words. To write all the words they wanted to, however, the Egyptians needed to put some word pictures to work as signs for sounds.
WE USED: Internet, English Dictionary for Speakers of Lithuanian.
PROJECT MAKERS: Renatas Ancius